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Short description: Infraclass of insects

Temporal range: Late Carboniferous–Present
Agapostemon texanus.jpg
Bees (order Hymenoptera) can fold their wings over their abdomens, like other Neopterans.
Scientific classification e
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Subclass: Pterygota
Infraclass: Neoptera
Martynov, 1923

Neoptera (Ancient Greek néos ("new") + pterón ("wing")) is a classification group that includes most orders of the winged insects, specifically those that can flex their wings over their abdomens. This is in contrast with the more basal orders of winged insects (the "Palaeoptera" assemblage), which are unable to flex their wings in this way.


The taxon Neoptera was proposed by А.М. Martynov in 1923 and 1924, in the following classification:[1][2]


The order Thysanoptera originally had uncertain systematic position, and later was attributed to Paraneoptera. Other classifications were proposed, subordinating Neoptera either directly to Pterygota (as in Martynov's classification), or to Metapterygota:


The phylogeny of Neoptera is shown in the cladogram, using the molecular phylogeny of Wipfler et al. 2019 for the Polyneoptera,[3] Johnson et al 2018 for the Paraneoptera (where Psocomorpha contains Phthiraptera),[4] and Kjer et al 2016 for the Holometabola.[5]


Zoraptera (angel insects) Zorotypus guineensis (white background).jpg

Dermaptera (earwigs) Earwig on white background.jpg

Plecoptera (stoneflies) Neoperla clymene hor.png

Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, katydids) Gryllidae usda.png

Grylloblattodea (ice crawlers) Grylloblattidae (white background).jpg

Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Mantophasma zephyra (white background).jpg

Phasmatodea (stick insects) Stick insect line diagram.png

Embioptera (webspinners) Embia major hor.png


Mantodea (mantises) Stagmomantis carolina usda hor.png

Blattodea (cockroaches and termites) Temnopteryx species Zebra Cockroach (white background).jpg


Thysanoptera (thrips) Thrips (PSF) (white background).png

Hemiptera (true bugs) Dorisiana bicolor MHNT, Montsinéry, Guyane dos vol 2.jpg

Psocodea (barklice inc. lice) Psocoptera (white background).jpg Lipeurus forficulatus f.png


Hymenoptera (sawflies, wasps) European wasp white bg.jpg


Raphidioptera (snakeflies) Raphidia icon.png

Megaloptera (alderflies and allies) Corydalus cornutus illustration (rotated).png

Neuroptera (lacewings and allies) Osmylus (white background).jpg


Coleoptera (beetles) Pseudacrossus przewalskyi (Reitter, 1887).jpg

Strepsiptera (twisted-wing parasites) Elenchus koebelei.jpg


Trichoptera (caddisflies) RHYACOPHILA DORSALIS Male Pont Forge de Sailly Watigny 02 MHNT.jpg

Lepidoptera (butterflies, moths) Arctia villica SLU.JPG


Diptera (true flies) Common house fly, Musca domestica.jpg

Mecoptera (scorpionflies) Scorpionfly (white background).jpg

Siphonaptera (fleas) Pulex irritans female ZSM (white background).jpg



  1. Martynov, A. V. (1923). "О двух основных типах крыльев насекомых и их значении для общей классификаци насекомых". Proceedings of the I All-Russian Congress of Zoologists, Anatomists and Histologists in Petrograd on 15-21 December 1922: 88-89. 
  2. Martynov, A. V. (1924). "О двух типах крыльев насекомых и их эволюции.". Russian Zoological Journal 4 (1, 2): 155-185. 
  3. Wipfler, Benjamin; Letsch, Harald; Frandsen, Paul B.; Kapli, Paschalia; Mayer, Christoph et al. (February 2019). "Evolutionary history of Polyneoptera and its implications for our understanding of early winged insects". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 116 (8): 3024–3029. doi:10.1073/pnas.1817794116. PMID 30642969. Bibcode2019PNAS..116.3024W. 
  4. Johnson, Kevin P.; Dietrich, Christopher H.; Friedrich, Frank; Beutel, Rolf G.; Wipfler, Benjamin et al. (2018-12-11). "Phylogenomics and the evolution of hemipteroid insects". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 115 (50): 12775–12780. doi:10.1073/pnas.1815820115. PMID 30478043. 
  5. Kjer, Karl M.; Simon, Chris; Yavorskaya, Margarita; Beutel, Rolf G. (2016). "Progress, pitfalls and parallel universes: a history of insect phylogenetics". Journal of the Royal Society Interface 13 (121): 121. doi:10.1098/rsif.2016.0363. PMID 27558853. 

External links

Wikidata ☰ Q23005 entry