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Short description: Superorder of wingless insects

Temporal range: 251.9–0 Ma
Triassic - Recent
Mantophasma zephyra Zompro et al 2002.jpg
Mantophasma zephyra
Scientific classification e
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Cohort: Polyneoptera
Superorder: Notoptera
Crampton, 1915
Orders & families
  • Family † Blattogryllidae
  • Family † Camptoneuritidae
  • Family † Tillyardembiidae

Order Grylloblattodea

Order Mantophasmatodea


Xenonomia Terry & Whiting, 2005

The wingless insect superorder Notoptera, a group first proposed in 1915, had been largely unrecognized since its original conception, until resurrected in 2004. As now defined, the superorder comprises five families, three of them known only from fossils, two known from both fossil and living representatives, and fewer than 60 known species in total.

History of research

The name was originally coined in 1915 for a group of fossil orthopteroids, and largely forgotten until it was resurrected and redefined ("Notoptera Crampton sensu novum") by Engel and Grimaldi in 2004 (after the discovery of living Mantophasmatidae), who recommended to give a single order that includes both the living and fossil representatives of the lineage.[1]

Terry and Whiting in 2005 independently proposed a new name, "Xenonomia", for the same lineage of insects (including the Grylloblattodea and Mantophasmatodea, treated as orders).[2]

In 2006, Cameron, Barker, and Whiting studied the mitochondrial genomics of the Mantophasmatodea,[3] and Arillo and Engel described a new (fourth) species of rock crawler.[4]

In 2008, Damgaard and colleagues examined the mitochondrial genome of 8 described and 4 undescribed austrophasmatine species, and some mantophasmatines; the major clades were confirmed.[5]

In 2012, Predel and colleagues studied the peptidomics of 71 populations of Mantophasmatodea, confirming that austrophasmatines are a monophyletic lineage, and noting that the development of the capa-neurons of the ventral nervous system implies a close relationship with the Grylloblattodea.[6]


See also

Further reading

  • Ando H. 1982. Biology of the Notoptera. Kashiyo-Insatsu Co. Ltd., Nagano, Japan.


  1. Engel, Michael S.; Grimaldi, David A. (2004). "A New Rock Crawler in Baltic Amber, with Comments on the Order(Mantophasmatodea: Mantophasmatidae)". American Museum Novitates (American Museum of Natural History (BioOne sponsored)) (3431): 1–12. doi:10.1206/0003-0082(2004)431<0001:anrcib>;2. ISSN 0003-0082. 
  2. Terry, Matthew D.; Whiting, Michael F. (2005). "Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects". Cladistics (Wiley) 21 (3): 240–257. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.2005.00062.x. ISSN 0748-3007. 
  3. Cameron, Stephen L.; Barker, Stephen C.; Whiting, Michael F. (2006). "Mitochondrial genomics and the new insect order Mantophasmatodea". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution (Elsevier) 38 (1): 274–279. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.09.020. ISSN 1055-7903. PMID 16321547. 
  4. Arillo, Antonio; Engel, Michael S. (2006). "Rock Crawlers in Baltic Amber (Notoptera: Mantophasmatodea)". American Museum Novitates (American Museum of Natural History (BioOne sponsored)) (3539): 1. doi:10.1206/0003-0082(2006)3539[1:RCIBAN2.0.CO;2]. ISSN 0003-0082. 
  5. Damgaard, Jakob; Klass, Klaus-Dieter; Picker, Mike D.; Buder, Gerda (2008). "Phylogeny of the Heelwalkers (Insecta: Mantophasmatodea) based on mtDNA sequences, with evidence for additional taxa in South Africa". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution (Elsevier) 47 (2): 443–462. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2008.01.026. ISSN 1055-7903. PMID 18396416. 
  6. Predel, Reinhard; Neupert, Susanne; Huetteroth, Wolf; Kahnt, Jörg; Waidelich, Dietmar; Roth, Steffen (2012-04-16). "Peptidomics-Based Phylogeny and Biogeography of Mantophasmatodea (Hexapoda)". Systematic Biology (Oxford University Press (OUP)) 61 (4): 609–629. doi:10.1093/sysbio/sys003. ISSN 1076-836X. PMID 22508719. 

External links

Wikidata ☰ Q1185781 entry