Chemistry:Bixbyite

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Bixbyite
Bixbyite-160214.jpg
General
CategoryOxide minerals
Formula
(repeating unit)
(Mn,Fe)2O3
Strunz classification4.CB.10
Dana classification4.3.7.2
Crystal systemIsometric
Crystal classDiploidal (m3)
H-M symbol: (2/m 3)
Space groupIa3
Unit cella = 9.411 Å; Z = 16
Identification
Formula mass158.33 g/mol
ColorBlack
Crystal habitMassive to crystalline
TwinningOn {111}, as penetration twins
CleavageImperfect on {111}, in traces
FractureIrregular to uneven
Mohs scale hardness6 - ​6 12
|re|er}}Metallic
StreakBlack
DiaphaneityOpaque
Specific gravity5.12
Density4.95
Optical propertiesIsotropic
Refractive index2.51 - 2.56
Common impuritiesAl, Mg, Si, Ti
References[1][2][3][4]

Bixbyite is a manganese iron oxide mineral with chemical formula: (Mn,Fe)2O3. The iron/manganese ratio is quite variable and many specimens have almost no iron. It is a metallic dark black with a Mohs hardness of 6.0 - 6.5.[2] It is a somewhat rare mineral sought after by collectors as it typically forms euhedral isometric crystals exhibiting various cubes, octahedra, and dodecahedra.

It is commonly associated with beryl, quartz, spessartine, hematite, pseudobrookite, hausmannite, braunite and topaz in pneumatolytic or hydrothermal veins and cavities and in metamorphic rocks. It can also be found in lithophysal cavities in rhyolite.[2] Typical localities are Jhabua and Chhindwara districts, India and the Thomas Range in Juab County, Utah. It is also reported from San Luis Potosi, Mexico; northern Patagonia, Argentina ; Girona, Catalonia, Spain ; Sweden, Germany , Namibia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa .[2][5]

Bixbyite was named for the American mineralogist Maynard Bixby (1853–1935), responsible for its discovery in 1897.[2] It should not be confused with bixbite, a red form of beryl; to avoid confusion, this name has been deprecated from the CIBJO and the IMA.

See also

References

External links