Earth:Epoch (geology)

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Short description: Subdivision of geological time; shorter than a period and longer than an age

In geochronology, an epoch is a subdivision of the geologic timescale that is longer than an age but shorter than a period. The current epoch is the Holocene Epoch of the Quaternary Period. Rock layers deposited during an epoch are called a series. Series are subdivisions of the stratigraphic column that, like epochs, are subdivisions of the geologic timescale. Like other geochronological divisions, epochs are normally separated by significant changes in the rock layers to which they correspond.

Epochs are most commonly used for the younger Cenozoic Era, where a greater collection of fossils has been found and paleontologists have more detailed knowledge of the events that occurred during those times. They are less commonly referred to for the other eras and eons, since less fossil evidence exists that allows us to form a clearer view of those time periods.

List of epochs (series) in the Phanerozoic eon

Main page: Earth:Phanerozoic

List is ordered from youngest to oldest and subdivided based on era and period. Certain periods, notably those in the Mesozoic are divided into Early, Middle and Late epochs, with the corresponding stratigraphic 'series' named as Lower, Middle and Upper.

Cenozoic Era

Mesozoic Era

Paleozoic Era

(Note that there are differences in the rank traditionally accorded to divisions of the Carboniferous between Europe and North America.)

Geological hierarchy of chronological periodization

Geochronology: From largest to smallest:

  1. Supereon
  2. Eon
  3. Era
  4. Period
  5. Epoch
  6. Age
  7. Chron


  • Gradstein, F.M.; Ogg, J.G.; Smith, A.G. (2004). A geologic time scale 2004. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521786737.