|2500 – 1600 Ma|
|Proposed redefinition(s)||2420–541 Ma|
Gradstein et al., 2012
|Proposed subdivisions||Oxygenian Period, 2420–2250 Ma|
Gradstein et al., 2012
|Regional usage||Global (ICS)|
|Time scale(s) used||ICS Time Scale|
|Time span formality||Formal|
|Lower boundary definition||Defined Chronometrically|
|Lower boundary GSSP||N/A|
|Upper boundary definition||Defined Chronometrically|
|Upper boundary GSSP||N/A|
The Paleoproterozoic Era ( /-/;, also spelled Palaeoproterozoic), spanning the time period from (2.5–1.6 Ga), is the first of the three sub-divisions (eras) of the Proterozoic Eon. The Paleoproterozoic is also the longest era of the Earth's geological history. It was during this era that the continents first stabilized.
Paleontological evidence suggests that the Earth's rotational rate during this era resulted in 20-hour days ~1.8 billion years ago, implying a total of ~450 days per year.
Before the enormous increase in atmospheric oxygen, almost all existing lifeforms were anaerobic organisms, whose metabolism was based upon a form of cellular respiration that did not require oxygen. Free oxygen in large amounts is toxic to most anaerobic organisms. Consequently, the majority of the anaerobic lifeforms on Earth died when the atmospheric free-oxygen levels soared in an extinction event called the Great Oxidation Event. The only lifeforms that survived were either those resistant to the oxidizing and poisonous effects of oxygen, or those sequestered in oxygen-free environments. The sudden increase of atmospheric free oxygen and the ensuing extinction of the vulnerable lifeforms is widely considered to be one of the first and most significant mass extinctions in the history of the Earth.
Emergence of Eukarya
Many crown node eukaryotes (from which the modern-day eukaryotic lineages would have arisen) have been approximately dated to around the time of the Paleoproterozoic era. While there is some debate as to the exact time at which eukaryotes evolved, current understanding places it somewhere in this era.
During this era, the earliest global-scale continent-continent collision belts developed. The associated continent and mountain building events are represented by the 2.1–2.0 Ga Trans-Amazonian and Eburnean orogens in South America and West Africa; the ~2.0 Ga Limpopo Belt in southern Africa; the 1.9–1.8 Ga Trans-Hudson, Penokean, Taltson–Thelon, Wopmay, Ungava and Torngat orogens in North America, the 1.9–1.8 Ga Nagssugtoqidian Orogen in Greenland; the 1.9–1.8 Ga Kola–Karelia, Svecofennian, Volhyn-Central Russian, and Pachelma orogens in Baltica (Eastern Europe); the 1.9–1.8 Ga Akitkan Orogen in Siberia; the ~1.95 Ga Khondalite Belt and ~1.85 Ga Trans-North China Orogen in North China.
These continental collision belts are interpreted as having resulted from one or more 2.0–1.8 Ga global-scale collision events that then led to the assembly of a Proterozoic supercontinent named Columbia or Nuna.
- Boring Billion
- Suavjärvi crater – 2.4 billion years old
- Francevillian biota - 2.1-billion-year-old macroscopic organisms
- Vredefort crater – 2.0 billion years old
- Sudbury Basin – 1.849 billion years old
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- Margulis, Lynn; Sagan, Dorion (1997-05-29) (in en). Microcosmos: Four Billion Years of Microbial Evolution. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520210646. https://books.google.com/books?id=eo_sMMRxgAUC&q=oxygen+holocaust&pg=PA99.
- Hedges, S Blair; Chen, Hsiong; Kumar, Sudhir; Wang, Daniel YC; Thompson, Amanda S; Watanabe, Hidemi (2001-09-12). "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes". BMC Evolutionary Biology 1: 4. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4. ISSN 1471-2148. PMID 11580860.
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- Ayala, Francisco José; Rzhetsky, Andrey; Ayala, Francisco J. (1998-01-20). "Origin of the metazoan phyla: Molecular clocks confirm paleontological estimates". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95 (2): 606–611. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.2.606. ISSN 0027-8424. PMID 9435239. Bibcode: 1998PNAS...95..606J.
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- Zhao, Guochun; Cawood, Peter A; Wilde, Simon A; Sun, Min (2002). "Review of global 2.1–1.8 Ga orogens: implications for a pre-Rodinia supercontinent". Earth-Science Reviews 59 (1–4): 125–162. doi:10.1016/S0012-8252(02)00073-9. Bibcode: 2002ESRv...59..125Z.
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- Schilling, Manuel Enrique; Carlson, Richard Walter; Tassara, Andrés; Conceição, Rommulo Viveira; Berotto, Gustavo Walter; Vásquez, Manuel; Muñoz, Daniel; Jalowitzki, Tiago et al. (2017). "The origin of Patagonia revealed by Re-Os systematics of mantle xenoliths". Precambrian Research 294: 15–32. doi:10.1016/j.precamres.2017.03.008. Bibcode: 2017PreR..294...15S.
- EssayWeb Paleoproterozoic Era
- First breath: Earth's billion-year struggle for oxygen New Scientist, #2746, 5 February 2010 by Nick Lane. Posits an earlier much longer snowball period, c2.4 - c2.0 Gya, triggered by the Great Oxygenation Event.
- The information on eukaryotic lineage diversification was gathered from a New York Times opinion blog by Olivia Judson. See the text here: .
- Paleoproterozoic (chronostratigraphy scale)
Original source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Paleoproterozoic. Read more