Medicine:Digital X-ray radiogrammetry

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Digital X-ray radiogrammetry

Digital X-ray radiogrammetry is a method for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). Digital X-ray radiogrammetry is based on the old technique of radiogrammetry. In DXR, the cortical thickness of the three middle metacarpal bones of the hand is measured in a digital X-ray image. Through a geometrical operation the thickness is converted to bone mineral density. The BMD is corrected for porosity of the bone, estimated by a texture analysis performed on the cortical part of the bone.[1][2]

Like other technologies for estimating the bone mineral density, the outputs are an areal BMD value, a T-score and a Z-score for assessing osteoporosis and the risk of bone fracture.[3]

Digital X-ray radiogrammetry is primarily used in combination with digital mammography for osteoporosis screening, where same mammography machine that is used to acquire breast X-ray images is also used to acquire a hand image for BMD measurement. Due to high precision, DXR is also used for monitoring change in bone mineral density over time.[4]

See also


  1. Jorgensen, J. T.; Andersen, P. B.; Rosholm, A.; Bjarnason, N. Hannover (September 2000). "Digital X-ray radiogrammetry: a new appendicular bone densitometric method with high precision". Clinical Physiology 20 (5): 330–335. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2281.2000.00268.x. PMID 10971543. 
  2. Böttcher, J.; Pfeil, A.; Rosholm, A.; Petrovitch, A.; Seidl, B. E.; Malich, A.; Schäfer, M. L.; Kramer, A. et al. (December 2005). "Digital x-ray radiogrammetry combined with semiautomated analysis of joint space widths as a new diagnostic approach in rheumatoid arthritis: A cross-sectional and longitudinal study". Arthritis & Rheumatism 52 (12): 3850–3859. doi:10.1002/art.21606. PMID 16320332. 
  3. Rosholm, A.; Hyldstrup, L.; Bæksgaard, L.; Grunkin, M.; Thodberg, H. H. (1 November 2001). "Estimation of Bone Mineral Density by Digital X-ray Radiogrammetry: Theoretical Background and Clinical Testing". Osteoporosis International 12 (11): 961–969. doi:10.1007/s001980170026. PMID 11804024. 
  4. Friis, M (May 2001). "Digital X-ray Radiogrammetry on Hand X-rays Obtained on Mammographic X-ray Equipment". Bone 28 (5): S101–S248. doi:10.1016/S8756-3282(01)00454-9.