|National Capital Territory of Delhi|
From top, left to right: Humayun's Tomb; Qutub Minar; Jama Masjid; Red Fort's Lahori gate; India Gate; Digambar Jain Mandir with Gauri Shankar temple in the background; St. James' Church; Hyderabad House; Lotus Temple, a Baháʼí House of Worship
|Capital, Delhi Sultanate||1214|
|Capital, Mughal Empire||1526, intermittently with Agra|
|Capital, British India||1911|
|New Delhi, capital, Dominion of India||1947|
|New Delhi, capital, Republic of India||26 January 1950|
|National Capital Territory||1 February 1992|
|• Body||Government of Delhi|
|• Lt. Governor||Vinai Kumar Saxena|
|• Chief Minister||Arvind Kejriwal (AAP)|
|• Deputy Chief Minister||Manish Sisodia (AAP)|
|• Union territory||1,484 km2 (573 sq mi)|
|• Water||18 km2 (6.9 sq mi)|
|Elevation||200–250 m (650–820 ft)|
|• Union territory||16,787,941|
|• Density||11,312/km2 (29,298/sq mi)|
|• Urban||16,349,831 (2nd)|
|• Megacity||11,034,555 (2nd)|
|• Metro (includes part of NCR (2018)||28,514,000 (1st)|
|• Additional official|
|Time zone||UTC+5.30 (IST)|
|Sex ratio (2011)||868 ♀/1000 ♂|
Delhi[lower-alpha 1] officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a union territory of India containing New Delhi, the capital of India. Straddling the Yamuna river, primarily its western or right bank, Delhi shares borders with the state of Uttar Pradesh in the east and with the state of Haryana in the remaining directions. The NCT covers an area of 1,484 square kilometres (573 sq mi). According to the 2011 census, Delhi's city proper population was over 11 million, while the NCT's population was about 16.8 million. Delhi's urban agglomeration, which includes the satellite cities of Ghaziabad, Faridabad, Gurgaon and Noida in an area known as the National Capital Region (NCR), has an estimated population of over 28 million, making it the largest metropolitan area in India and the second-largest in the world (after Tokyo).
The topography of the medieval fort Purana Qila on the banks of the river Yamuna matches the literary description of the citadel Indraprastha in the Sanskrit epic Mahabharata; however, excavations in the area have revealed no signs of an ancient built environment. From the early 13th century until the mid-19th century, Delhi was the capital of two major empires, the Delhi sultanate and the Mughal Empire, which covered large parts of South Asia. All three UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the city, the Qutub Minar, Humayun's Tomb, and the Red Fort, belong to this period. Delhi was the early centre of Sufism and Qawwali music. The names of Nizamuddin Auliya and Amir Khusrau are prominently associated with it. The Khariboli dialect of Delhi was part of a linguistic development that gave rise to the literature of the Urdu language and then of Modern Standard Hindi. Major Urdu poets from Delhi include Mir Taqi Mir and Mirza Ghalib. Delhi was a major centre of the Indian Rebellion of 1857. In 1911, New Delhi, a southern region within Delhi, became the capital of the British Indian Empire. During the Partition of India in 1947, Delhi was transformed from a Mughal city to a Punjabi one, losing two-thirds of its Muslim residents, in part due to the pressure brought to bear by arriving Hindu refugees from western Punjab. After independence in 1947, New Delhi continued as the capital of the Dominion of India, and after 1950 of the Republic of India.
Delhi ranks fifth among the Indian states and union territories in human development index. Delhi has the second-highest GDP per capita in India (after Goa). Although a union territory, the political administration of the NCT of Delhi today more closely resembles that of a state of India, with its own legislature, high court and an executive council of ministers headed by a Chief Minister. New Delhi is jointly administered by the federal government of India and the local government of Delhi, and serves as the capital of the nation as well as the NCT of Delhi. Delhi is also the centre of the National Capital Region, which is an "interstate regional planning" area created in 1985. Delhi hosted the inaugural 1951 Asian Games, the 1982 Asian Games, the 1983 Non-Aligned Movement summit, the 2010 Men's Hockey World Cup, the 2010 Commonwealth Games, and the 2012 BRICS summit and was one of the major host cities of the 2011 Cricket World Cup.
There are a number of myths and legends associated with the origin of the name Delhi. One of them is derived from Dhillu or Dilu, a king who built a city at this location in 50 BCE and named it after himself. Another legend holds that the name of the city is based on the Hindi/Prakrit word dhili (loose) and that it was used by the Tomaras to refer to the city because the iron pillar of Delhi had a weak foundation and had to be moved. According to Panjab Notes and Queries, the name of the city at the time of King Prithviraj was dilpat, and that dilpat and dilli are probably derived from the old Hindi word dil meaning "eminence". The former director of the Archaeological Survey of India, Alexander Cunningham, mentioned that dilli later became dihli/dehli. Some suggest the coins in circulation in the region under the Tomaras were called dehliwal. According to the Bhavishya Purana, King Prithiviraja of Indraprastha built a new fort in the modern-day Purana Qila area for the convenience of all four castes in his kingdom. He ordered the construction of a gateway to the fort and later named the fort dehali. Some historians believe that Dhilli or Dhillika is the original name for the city while others believe the name could be a corruption of the Hindustani words dehleez or dehali—both terms meaning "threshold" or "gateway"—and symbolic of the city as a gateway to the Gangetic Plain.
- Abhī Dillī dūr hai (अभी दिल्ली दूर है / ابھی دلی دور ہے) or its Persian version, Hanuz Dehli dur ast (هنوز دهلی دور است), literally meaning "Delhi is still far away", which is generically said about a task or journey still far from completion.
- Ās-pās barse, Dillī pānī tarse (आस-पास बरसे, दिल्ली पानी तरसे \ آس پاس برسے، دلی پانی ترسے), literally meaning "It pours all around, while Delhi lies parched". An allusion to the sometimes semi-arid climate of Delhi, it idiomatically refers to situations of deprivation when one is surrounded by plenty.
The form Delhi, used in Latin script and strangely with an h following an l, originated under colonial rule and is a corrupt spelling based on the Urdu name of the city (دہلی, Dehli).
Ancient and Early Medieval Periods
Traditionally seven cities have been associated with the region of Delhi. The earliest, Indraprastha, is part of a literary description in the Sanskrit epic Mahabharata (composed c. 400 BCE to 200 CE but describing an earlier time) which situates a city on a knoll on the banks of the river Yamuna. According to art historian Catherine B. Asher, the topographical description of the Mahabharata matches the area of Purana Qila, a 14th-century CE fort of the Delhi sultanate, but the analogy does not go much further. Whereas the Mahabharata speaks of a beautifully decorated city with surrounding fortification, the excavations have yielded "uneven findings of painted grey pottery characteristic of the eleventh century BCE; no signs of a built environment, much fewer fortifications, have been revealed."
The earliest architectural relics date back to the Maurya period (c. 300 BCE); in 1966, an inscription of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka (273–235 BCE) was discovered near Srinivaspuri. Remains of several major cities can be found in Delhi. The first of these was in the southern part of present-day Delhi. King Anang Pal of the Tomara dynasty built Lal Kot and several temples in 1052 CE. Vigraharaj Chauhan conquered Lal Kot in the mid-12th century and renamed it Qila Rai Pithora.
Late Medieval Period
Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated in 1192 by Muhammad Ghori in the second battle of Tarain. Qutb-ud-din Aibak, was given the responsibility of governing the conquered territories of India until Ghori returned to his capital, Ghor. When Ghori died without an heir in 1206 CE, Qutb-ud-din assumed control of Ghori's Indian possessions, and laid the foundation of the Delhi Sultanate and the Mamluk dynasty. He began construction of the Qutb Minar and Quwwat-al-Islam (Might of Islam) mosque, the earliest extant mosque in India. It was his successor, Iltutmish (1211–1236), who consolidated the Turkic conquest of northern India. At 72.5 m (238 ft), the Qutb Minar, a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Delhi, was completed during the reign of Sultan Illtutmish in the 13th century. Although its style has some similarities with the Jarkurgan minaret, it is more closely related to the Ghaznavid and Ghurid minarets of Central Asia Razia, daughter of Iltutmish, became the Sultana of Delhi upon the former's death.
For the next three hundred years, Delhi was ruled by a succession of Turkic and an Afghan, Lodi dynasty. They built several forts and townships that are part of the seven cities of Delhi. Delhi was a major centre of Sufism during this period. The Mamluk Sultanate (Delhi) was overthrown in 1290 by Jalal ud din Firuz Khalji (1290–1320). Under the second Khalji ruler, Ala-ud-din Khalji, the Delhi sultanate extended its control south of the Narmada River in the Deccan. The Delhi sultanate reached its greatest extent during the reign of Muhammad bin Tughluq (1325–1351). In an attempt to bring the whole of the Deccan under control, he moved his capital to Daulatabad, Maharashtra in central India. However, by moving away from Delhi he lost control of the north and was forced to return to Delhi to restore order. The southern provinces then broke away. In the years following the reign of Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351–1388), the Delhi Sultanate rapidly began to lose its hold over its northern provinces. Delhi was captured and sacked by Timur in 1398, who massacred 100,000 captive civilian. Delhi's decline continued under the Sayyid dynasty (1414–1451), until the sultanate was reduced to Delhi and its hinterland. Under the Afghan Lodi dynasty (1451–1526), the Delhi sultanate recovered control of Punjab and the Gangetic plain to once again achieve domination over Northern India. However, the recovery was short-lived and the sultanate was destroyed in 1526 by Babur, founder of the Mughal dynasty.
Early Modern Period
In 1526, Babur a descendant of Genghis Khan and Timur, from the Fergana Valley in modern-day Uzbekistan invaded India, defeated the last Lodhi sultan in the First Battle of Panipat and founded the Mughal Empire that ruled from Delhi and Agra. The Mughal dynasty ruled Delhi for more than three centuries, with a sixteen-year hiatus during the reigns of Sher Shah Suri and Hemu from 1540 to 1556. Shah Jahan built the seventh city of Delhi that bears his name Shahjahanabad, which served as the capital of the Mughal Empire from 1638 and is today known as the Old City or Old Delhi.
After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, the Mughal Empire's influence declined rapidly as the Hindu Maratha Empire from Deccan Plateau rose to prominence. In 1737, Maratha forces led by Baji Rao I sacked Delhi following their victory against the Mughals in the First Battle of Delhi. In 1739, the Mughal Empire lost the huge Battle of Karnal in less than three hours against the numerically outnumbered but militarily superior Persian army led by Nader Shah of Persia. After his invasion, he completely sacked and looted Delhi, carrying away immense wealth including the Peacock Throne, the Daria-i-Noor, and Koh-i-Noor. The Mughals, severely further weakened, could never overcome this crushing defeat and humiliation which also left the way open for more invaders to come, including eventually the British. Nader eventually agreed to leave the city and India after forcing the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah I to beg him for mercy and granting him the keys of the city and the royal treasury. A treaty signed in 1752 made Marathas the protectors of the Mughal throne in Delhi. The city was sacked again in 1757 by the forces of Ahmad Shah Durrani, although it was not annexed by the Afghan Empire and being its vassal state under the Mughal emperor. Then the Marathas battled and won control of Delhi from the Mughals. By the end of the century, Delhi had also come under control of the Bharatpur State and the Sikh Empire.
In 1803, during the Second Anglo-Maratha War, the forces of British East India Company defeated the Maratha forces in the Battle of Delhi. During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, Delhi fell to the forces of East India Company after a bloody fight known as the Siege of Delhi. The city came under the direct control of the British Government in 1858. It was made a district province of the Punjab. In 1911, it was announced that the capital of British-held territories in India was to be transferred from Calcutta to Delhi. The name "New Delhi" was given in 1927, and the new capital was inaugurated on 13 February 1931. New Delhi was officially declared as the capital of the Union of India after the country gained independence on 15 August 1947. It has expanded since; the small part of it that was constructed during the British period has come to be informally known as Lutyens' Delhi.
Partition and post-independence
During the partition of India, around five lakh Hindu and Sikh refugees, mainly from West Punjab fled to Delhi, while around three lakh Muslim residents of the city migrated to Pakistan. Ethnic Punjabis are believed to account for at least 40% of Delhi's total population and are predominantly Hindi-speaking Punjabi Hindus. Migration to Delhi from the rest of India continues ((As of 2013)), contributing more to the rise of Delhi's population than the birth rate, which is declining.
The States Reorganisation Act, 1956 created the Union Territory of Delhi from its predecessor, the Chief Commissioner's Province of Delhi. The Constitution (Sixty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1991 declared the Union Territory of Delhi to be formally known as the National Capital Territory of Delhi. The Act gave Delhi its legislative assembly along Civil lines, though with limited powers.
Delhi was the primary site in the nationwide anti-Sikh pogroms of 1984, which resulted in the death of around 2,800 people in the city according to government figures, though independent estimates of the number of people killed tend to be higher. The riots were set off by the assassination of Indira Gandhi—the Prime Minister of India at the time—by her Sikh bodyguards.
In 2001, the Parliament of India building in New Delhi was attacked by armed militants, killing six security personnel. India suspected Pakistan-based militant groups were behind the attack, which caused a major diplomatic crisis between the two countries. There were further terrorist attacks in Delhi in 2005 and 2008, resulting in a total of 92 deaths. The 2020 Delhi riots, Delhi's worst communal violence in decades, was caused mainly by Hindu mobs attacking Muslims. Of the 53 people killed, two-thirds were Muslims, and the rest Hindus.
Delhi is located in Northern India, at Punjab and UP, and its flood plains provide fertile alluvial soil suitable for agriculture but are prone to recurrent floods. The Yamuna, a sacred river in Hinduism, is the only major river flowing through Delhi. The Hindon River separates Ghaziabad from the eastern part of Delhi. The Delhi ridge originates from the Aravalli Range in the south and encircles the west, northeast, and northwest parts of the city. It reaches a height of 318 m (1,043 ft) and is a dominant feature of the region. In addition to the wetlands formed by the Yamuna river, Delhi continues to retain over 500 ponds (wetlands < 5 ha), that in turn support considerable number of bird species. Delhi's ponds, despite experiencing ecological deterioration due to garbage dumping and concretization, supports the largest number of bird species known to be using ponds anywhere in the world. Existing policy in Delhi prevents the conversion of wetlands and, quite inadvertently, has led to the city's ponds becoming invaluable refugia for birds.. The city is bordered on its northern, western, and southern sides by the state of Haryana and to the east by that of Uttar Pradesh (UP). Two prominent features of the geography of Delhi are the Yamuna flood plains and the Delhi ridge. The Yamuna River was the historical boundary between
The National Capital Territory of Delhi covers an area of 1,483 km2 (573 sq mi), of which 783 km2 (302 sq mi) is designated rural, and 700 km2 (270 sq mi) urban therefore making it the largest city in terms of area in the country. It has a length of 51.9 km (32 mi) and a width of 48.48 km (30 mi).
Delhi features a dry-winter humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa) bordering a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen BSh). The warm season lasts from 21 March to 15 June with an average daily high temperature above 39 °C (102 °F). The hottest day of the year is 22 May, with an average high of 40 °C (104 °F) and low of 28 °C (82 °F). The cold season lasts from 26 November to 9 February with an average daily high temperature below 20 °C (68 °F). The coldest day of the year is 4 January, with an average low of 2 °C (36 °F) and high of 14 °C (57 °F). In early March, the wind direction changes from north-westerly to south-westerly. From April to October the weather is hot. The monsoon arrives at the end of June, along with an increase in humidity. The brief, mild winter starts in late November, peaks in January and heavy fog often occurs.
Temperatures in Delhi usually range from 2 to 47 °C (35.6 to 116.6 °F), with the lowest and highest temperatures ever recorded being −2.2 and 49.2 °C (28.0 and 120.6 °F), respectively. However, 49.2 °C (120.6 °F) was recorded at Mungeshpur on 15 May 2022 whereas one of the main weathering station, that is, Airport station recorded all time high of 48.4 °C (119.1 °F) on 26 May 1998. The lowest ever temperature ever recorded is −2.2 °C (28.0 °F) at airport on 11 January 1967. The annual mean temperature is 25 °C (77 °F); monthly mean temperatures range from 13 to 32 °C (55 to 90 °F). The highest temperature recorded in July was 45 °C (113 °F) in 1931. The average annual rainfall is approximately 886 mm (34.9 in), most of which falls during the monsoon in July and August. The average date of the advent of monsoon winds in Delhi is 29 June.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO) Delhi was the most polluted city in the world in 2014. In 2016 WHO downgraded Delhi to eleventh-worst in the urban air quality database. According to one estimate, air pollution causes the death of about 10,500 people in Delhi every year. Air quality index of Delhi is generally moderate (101–200) level between January to September, and then it drastically deteriorates to Very Poor (301–400), Severe (401–500) or Hazardous (500+) levels in three months between October to December, due to various factors including stubble burning, fire crackers burning during Diwali and cold weather. During 2013–14, peak levels of fine particulate matter (PM) in Delhi increased by about 44%, primarily due to high vehicular and industrial emissions, construction work and crop burning in adjoining states. It has the highest level of the airborne particulate matter, PM2.5 considered most harmful to health, with 153 micrograms.
Rising air pollution level has significantly increased lung-related ailments (especially asthma and lung cancer) among Delhi's children and women. The dense smog and haze in Delhi during winter results in major air and rail traffic disruptions every year. According to Indian meteorologists, the average maximum temperature in Delhi during winters has declined notably since 1998 due to rising air pollution.
India's Ministry of Earth Sciences published a research paper in October 2018 attributing almost 41% of PM2.5 air pollution in Delhi to vehicular emissions, 21.5% to dust/fire and 18% to industries. The director of Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) alleged that the Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers (SIAM) is lobbying "against the report" because it is "inconvenient" to the automobile industry. Environmentalists have also criticised the Delhi government for not doing enough to curb air pollution and to inform people about air quality issues. In 2014, an environmental panel appealed to India's Supreme Court to impose a 30% cess on diesel cars, but till date no action has been taken to penalise the automobile industry.
Most of Delhi's residents are unaware of alarming levels of air pollution in the city and the health risks associated with it. In 2020, annual average PM2.5 in the Delhi, stood at 107.6 µg/m³, which is almost 21.5 times the World Health Organization PM2.5 Guideline (5 µg/m³: set in September, 2021). These pollution levels are estimated to reduce the Life Expectancy of an average person living in Delhi by almost 10.1 years.
However, (As of 2015), awareness, particularly among the foreign diplomatic community and high-income Indians, was noticeably increasing. Since the mid-1990s, Delhi has undertaken some measures to curb air pollution—Delhi has the third-highest quantity of trees among Indian cities and the Delhi Transport Corporation operates the world's largest fleet of environmentally friendly compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In 1996, the CSE started a public interest litigation in the Supreme Court of India that ordered the conversion of Delhi's fleet of buses and taxis to run on CNG and banned the use of leaded petrol in 1998. In 2003, Delhi won the United States Department of Energy's first 'Clean Cities International Partner of the Year' award for its "bold efforts to curb air pollution and support alternative fuel initiatives". The Delhi Metro has also been credited for significantly reducing air pollutants in the city.
However, according to several authors, most of these gains have been lost, especially due to stubble burning, a rise in the market share of diesel cars and a considerable decline in bus ridership. According to CSE and System of Air Quality Weather Forecasting and Research (SAFAR), burning of agricultural waste in nearby Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh regions results in severe intensification of smog over Delhi.
|Average Air quality index||201-300
Currently, the National Capital Territory of Delhi is made up of one division, 11 districts, 33 subdivisions, 59 census towns, and 300 villages.
The National Capital Territory of Delhi is divided into three municipalities, Delhi Municipality, New Delhi and Delhi Cantonment, each with their own governance apparatus. The Municipality of Delhi is administered by Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) which occupies an area of 1397.3 km2 and is sub-divided into 12 zones, that is, Centre, South, West, Najafgarh, Rohini, Civil Lines, Karol Bagh, SP-City, Keshavpuram, Narela, Shahdara North and Shahdara South. Municipal services in New Delhi, which occupies an area of 42.7 km2, are provided by the New Delhi Municipal Council and Delhi Cantonment is administered by a Cantonment board.
Between 2011 and 22 May 2022 Delhi Municipality was divided into three municipal corporations:
- South Delhi had jurisdiction over South and West Delhi areas including Mahipalpur, Rajouri Garden, Badarpur, Jaitpur, Janakpuri, Hari Nagar, Tilak Nagar, Dwarka, Jungpura, Greater Kailash, R K Puram, Malviya Nagar, Kalkaji, Ambedkar Nagar and Pul pehladpur.
- North Delhi had jurisdiction over areas such as Badli, Rithala, Bawana, Kirari, Mangolpuri, Tri Nagar, Model Town, Sadar Bazar, Chandni Chowk, Matia Mahal, Karol Bagh, Moti Nagar
- East Delhi had jurisdiction over areas such as Patparganj, Kondli, Laxmi Nagar, Seemapuri, Gonda, Karawal Nagar, Babarpur and Shahadra.
Delhi is home to the High Court of Delhi. The High Court of Delhi is the highest in the Delhi before Supreme Court. The High Court of Delhi just like the apex court and other High Courts in India is the Court of record. Delhi is also home to various District Court according to jurisdictions. Delhi have Currently seven District Courts namely Tis Hazari Court Complex, Karkardooma Court Complex, Patiala House Court Complex, Rohini Court Complex, Dwarka Courts Complex, Saket Court Complex, and Rouse Avenue Court Apart from the District Courts Delhi also have Consumer Courts, CBI Courts, Labour Courts, Revenue Courts, Army tribunals, electricity tribunals, Railway Tribunals, and other various tribunals situated according to appropriate jurisdictions.
Government and politics
As a first-level administrative division, the National Capital Territory of Delhi has its own Legislative Assembly, Lieutenant Governor, the council of ministers, and Chief Minister. Members of the legislative assembly are directly elected from territorial constituencies in the NCT. The legislative assembly was abolished in 1956, after which direct federal control was implemented until it was re-established in 1993. The Municipal corporation handles civic administration for the city as part of the Panchayati Raj Act. The Government of India and the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi jointly administer New Delhi, where both bodies are located. The Parliament of India, the Rashtrapati Bhavan (Presidential Palace), Cabinet Secretariat, and the Supreme Court of India are located in the municipal district of New Delhi. There are 70 assembly constituencies and seven Lok Sabha (Indian parliament's lower house) constituencies in Delhi. The Indian National Congress (Congress) formed all the governments in Delhi until the 1990s, when the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), led by Madan Lal Khurana, came to power. In 1998, the Congress returned to power under the leadership of Sheila Dikshit, who was subsequently re-elected for 3 consecutive terms. But in 2013, the Congress was ousted from power by the newly formed Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) led by Arvind Kejriwal forming the government with outside support from the Congress. However, that government was short-lived, collapsing only after 49 days. Delhi was then under President's rule until February 2015. On 10 February 2015, the Aam Aadmi Party returned to power after a landslide victory, winning 67 out of the 70 seats in the Delhi Legislative Assembly.
Delhi is the largest commercial center in northern India. (As of 2016) recent estimates of the economy of the Delhi urban area have been around $370 billion (PPP metro GDP) ranking it either the most or second-most productive metro area of India. The nominal GSDP of the NCT of Delhi for 2016–17 was estimated at ₹6,224 billion (US$87 billion), 13% higher than in 2015–16. As per the Economic survey of Delhi (2005–2006), the tertiary sector contributes 70.95% of Delhi's gross SDP followed by secondary and primary sectors with 25.20% and 3.85% contributions, respectively. Delhi's workforce constitutes 32.82% of the population, and increased by 52.52% between 1991 and 2001. Delhi's unemployment rate decreased from 12.57% in 1999–2000 to 4.63% in 2003. In December 2004, 636,000 people were registered with various employment exchange programmes in Delhi.
In 2001 the total workforce in national and state governments and the quasi-government sector was 620,000, and the private sector employed 219,000. Key service industries are information technology, telecommunications, hotels, banking, media and tourism. Construction, power, health and community services and real estate are also important to the city's economy. Delhi has one of India's largest and fastest growing retail industries. Manufacturing also grew considerably as consumer goods companies established manufacturing units and headquarters in the city. Delhi's large consumer market and the availability of skilled labour has also attracted foreign investment. In 2001, the manufacturing sector employed 1,440,000 workers and the city had 129,000 industrial units.
Delhi's municipal water supply is managed by the Delhi Jal Board (DJB). (As of June 2005), it supplied 650 million gallons per day (MGD), whereas the estimated consumption requirement is 963 MGD. The shortfall is met by private and public tube wells and hand pumps. At 240 MGD, the Bhakra storage is DJB's largest water source, followed by the Yamuna and Ganges rivers. Delhi's groundwater level is falling and its population density is increasing, so residents often encounter acute water shortage. Research on Delhi suggests that up to half of the city's water use is unofficial groundwater.
In Delhi, daily domestic solid waste production is 8000 tonnes which is dumped at three landfill locations by MCD. The daily domestic waste water production is 470 MGD and industrial waste water is 70 MGD. A large portion of the sewage flows untreated into the Yamuna river.
The city's electricity consumption is about 1,265 kWh per capita but the actual demand is higher. In Delhi power distribution is managed by TPDDL and BSES Yamuna & BSES Rajdhani since 2002. The Delhi Fire Service runs 43 fire stations that attend about 15,000 fire and rescue calls per year. The state-owned BSNL and private enterprises such as Airtel, Vi, Jio, and provide telephone and cell phone services to the city. Cellular coverage is available in GSM, CDMA, 3G, 4G and 4G+.
Indira Gandhi International Airport, situated to the south-west of Delhi, is the main gateway for the city's domestic and international civilian air traffic. In 2015–16, the airport handled more than 48 million passengers, making it the busiest airport in India and South Asia. Terminal 3, which cost ₹96.8 billion (US$1.4 billion) to construct between 2007 and 2010, handles an additional 37 million passengers annually. In 2010, IGIA was conferred the 4th best airport award in the world in the 15–25 million category, by Airports Council International. The airport was rated as the Best airport in the world in the 25–40 million passengers category in 2015, by Airports Council International. Delhi Airport was awarded The Best Airport in Central Asia and Best Airport Staff in Central Asia at the Skytrax World Airport Awards 2015. Hindon Domestic Airport in Ghaziabad was inaugurated by Prime Minister Narendra Modi as the second airport for the Delhi-NCR Region on 8 March 2019. A second international airport open for commercial flights has been suggested either by expansion of Meerut Airport or construction of a new airport in Greater Noida. The Taj International Airport project in Jewar has been approved by the Uttar Pradesh government.
The Delhi Flying Club, established in 1928 with two de Havilland Moth aircraft named Delhi and Roshanara, was based at Safdarjung Airport which started operations in 1929, when it was the Delhi's only airport and the second in India. The airport functioned until 2001; however, in January 2002 the government closed the airport for flying activities because of security concerns following the New York attacks in September 2001. Since then, the club only carries out aircraft maintenance courses and is used for helicopter rides to Indira Gandhi International Airport for VIP including the president and the prime minister.
Delhi has the highest road density of 2103 km/100 km2 in India . It is connected to other parts of India by five National Highways: NH 1, NH 2, NH 8, NH 10 and NH 24. The Delhi–Mumbai and Delhi–Kolkata prongs of the Golden Quadrilateral start from the city. The city's road network is maintained by MCD, NDMC, Delhi Cantonment Board, Public Works Department (PWD) and Delhi Development Authority.
Buses are the most popular means of road transport catering to about 60% of Delhi's total demand. Delhi has one of India's largest bus transport systems. In 1998, the Supreme Court of India ruled that all public transport vehicles in Delhi must be fuelled by compressed natural gas (CNG) to tackle increasing vehicular pollution. The state-owned Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) is a major bus service provider which operates the world's largest fleet of CNG-fuelled buses. In addition, cluster scheme buses are operated by Delhi Integrated Multi-Modal Transit System (DIMTS) with the participation of private concessionaires and DTC. In December 2017, the DTC and cluster buses carried over 4.19 million passengers per day. Kashmiri Gate ISBT, Anand Vihar ISBT and Sarai Kale Khan ISBT are the main bus terminals for outstation buses plying to neighbouring states. Delhi's rapid rate of economic development and population growth has resulted in an increasing demand for transport, creating excessive pressure on the city's transport infrastructure. To meet the transport demand, the State and Union government constructed a mass rapid transit system, including the Delhi Metro. Delhi Bus Rapid Transit System runs between Ambedkar Nagar and Delhi Gate.
Personal vehicles especially cars also form a major chunk of vehicles plying on Delhi roads. (As of 2007), private vehicles account for 30% of the total demand for transport. Delhi has the highest number of registered cars compared to any other metropolitan city in India. Taxis, auto rickshaws, and cycle rickshaws also ply on Delhi roads in large numbers. (As of 2008), the number of vehicles in the metropolitan region, Delhi NCR, was 11.2 million (11.2 million). In 2008, there were 85 cars in Delhi for every 1,000 of its residents. In 2017, the number of vehicles in Delhi city alone crossed the ten million mark with the transport department of Delhi Government putting the total number of registered vehicles at 10,567,712 until 25 May of the year.
Delhi is a major junction in the Indian railway network and is the headquarters of the Northern Railway. The main railway stations are New Delhi, Old Delhi, Hazrat Nizamuddin, Anand Vihar, Delhi Sarai Rohilla and Delhi Cantt. The Delhi Metro, a mass rapid transit system built and operated by Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC), serves many parts of Delhi and the neighbouring cities Ghaziabad, Faridabad, Gurgaon and Noida. (As of December 2021), the metro consists of ten operational lines with a total length of 348.12 km (216.31 mi) and 254 stations, and several other lines are under construction. The Phase-I was built at a cost of US$2.3 billion and the Phase-II was expected to cost an additional ₹216 billion (US$3.0 billion). Phase-II has a total length of 128 km and was completed by 2010. Delhi Metro completed 10 years of operation on 25 December 2012. It carries millions of passengers every day. In addition to the Delhi Metro, a suburban railway, the Delhi Suburban Railway exists.
The Delhi Metro is a rapid transit system serving Delhi, Ghaziabad, Faridabad, Gurgaon and Noida in the National Capital Region of India. Delhi Metro is the world's tenth-largest metro system in terms of length. Delhi Metro was India's second modern public transportation system. The network consists of 10 colour-coded lines serving 255 stations[lower-alpha 3] with a total length of 348.12 kilometres (216.31 mi).[lower-alpha 4] The system has a mix of underground, at-grade, and elevated stations using both broad-gauge and standard-gauge. All stations have escalators, lifts, and tactile tiles to guide the visually impaired from station entrances to trains. There are 18 designated parking sites at Metro stations to further encourage the use of the system. In March 2010, DMRC partnered with Google India (through Google Transit) to provide train schedule and route information to mobile devices with Google Maps. It has a combination of elevated, at-grade, and underground lines, and uses both broad gauge and standard gauge rolling stock. Four types of rolling stock are used: Mitsubishi–ROTEM Broad gauge, Bombardier MOVIA, Mitsubishi–ROTEM Standard gauge, and CAF Beasain Standard gauge. The Phase-I of Delhi Metro was built for US$2.3 billion and the Phase-II was expected to cost an additional ₹216 billion (US$3.0 billion). Phase-II has a total length of 128 km and was completed by 2010. Delhi Metro completed 10 years of operation on 25 December 2012. It carries millions of passengers every day.
Delhi Metro is being built and operated by the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited (DMRC), a state-owned company with equal equity participation from the Government of India and the Government of the National Capital Territory of Delhi. However, the organization is under the administrative control of the Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. Besides the construction and operation of the Delhi Metro, DMRC is also involved in the planning and implementation of metro rail, monorail, and high-speed rail projects in India and providing consultancy services to other metro projects in the country as well as abroad. The Delhi Metro project was spearheaded by Padma Vibhushan E. Sreedharan, the managing director of DMRC and popularly known as the "Metro Man" of India. He famously resigned from DMRC taking moral responsibility for a metro bridge collapse, which took five lives. Sreedharan was awarded the Legion of Honour by the French Government for his contribution to Delhi Metro.
According to the 2011 census of India, the population of NCT of Delhi is 16,753,235. The corresponding population density was 11,297 persons per km2 with a sex ratio of 866 women per 1000 men, and a literacy rate of 86.34%. In 2004, the birth rate, death rate and infant mortality rate per 1000 population were 20.03, 5.59 and 13.08, respectively. In 2001, the population of Delhi increased by 285,000 as a result of migration and by 215,000 as a result of natural population growth, which made Delhi one of the fastest-growing cities in the world. Dwarka Sub City, Asia's largest planned residential area, is located within the National Capital Territory of Delhi. Urban expansion has resulted in Delhi's urban area now being considered as extending beyond the NCT boundaries to incorporate the towns and cities of neighbouring states including Faridabad and Gurgaon of Haryana, and Ghaziabad and Noida of Uttar Pradesh, the total population of which is estimated by the United Nations at over 28 million. According to the UN this makes Delhi urban area the world's second-largest, after Tokyo, although Demographia declares the Jakarta urban area to be the second-largest. The 2011 census provided two figures for urban area population: 16,314,838 within the NCT boundary, and 21,753,486 for the Extended Urban Area. The 2021 regional plan released by the Government of India renamed the Extended Urban Area from Delhi Metropolitan Area (DMA) as defined by the 2001 plan to Central National Capital Region (CNCR). Around 49% of the population of Delhi lives in slums and unauthorized colonies without any civic amenities. The majority of the slums have inadequate provisions to the basic facilities and according to a DUSIB report, almost 22% of the people do open defecation.
Major social groups of Delhi include Brahmins, Gujjars, Jats, Vaishyas, Khatris, Rajputs, Ahirs, Punjabis, Purvanchalis, Bengalis, Uttarakhandis, Muslims, Sikhs, etc.
Birla Mandir, Delhi, a Hindu temple, was inaugurated by Mahatma Gandhi in 1933
The Jama Masjid was built by the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan between 1650 and 1656
Hinduism is Delhi's predominant religious faith, with 81.68% of Delhi's population, followed by Islam (12.86%), Sikhism (3.40%), Jainism (0.99%), Christianity (0.87%), and Buddhism (0.11%). Other minority religions include Zoroastrianism, Baháʼísm and Judaism.
According to the 50th report of the commissioner for linguistic minorities in India, which was submitted in 2014, Hindi is Delhi's most spoken language, with 80.94% speakers, followed by Punjabi (7.14%), Urdu (6.31%) and Bengali (1.50%). 4.11% of the Delhites speak other languages. Hindi is also the official language of Delhi while Urdu and Punjabi have been declared as additional official languages. According to the Directorate of Education, GNCTD the following languages are taught in schools in Delhi under the three-language formula:
Delhi's culture has been influenced by its lengthy history and historic association as the capital of India. Although a strong Punjabi Influence can be seen in language, Dress and Cuisine brought by the large number of refugees who came following the partition in 1947 the recent migration from other parts of India has made it a melting pot. This is exemplified by many significant monuments in the city. The Archaeological Survey of India recognises 1,200 heritage buildings and 175 monuments as national heritage sites.
In the Old City, the Mughals and the Turkic rulers constructed several architecturally significant buildings, such as the Jama Masjid—India's largest mosque built in 1656 and the Red Fort. Three World Heritage Sites—the Red Fort, Qutub Minar and Humayun's Tomb—are located in Delhi. Other monuments include the India Gate, the Jantar Mantar—an 18th-century astronomical observatory—and the Purana Qila—a 16th-century fortress. The Laxminarayan Temple, Akshardham temple, Gurudwara Bangla Sahib, the Baháʼí Faith's Lotus Temple and the ISKCON temple are examples of modern architecture. Raj Ghat and associated memorials houses memorials of Mahatma Gandhi and other notable personalities. New Delhi houses several government buildings and official residences reminiscent of British colonial architecture, including the Rashtrapati Bhavan, the Secretariat, Rajpath, the Parliament of India and Vijay Chowk. Safdarjung's Tomb is an example of the Mughal gardens style. Some regal havelis (palatial residences) are in the Old City. Lotus Temple is a Baháʼí House of Worship completed in 1986. Notable for its flowerlike shape, it serves as the Mother Temple of the Indian subcontinent and has become a prominent attraction in the city. The National Museum and National Gallery of Modern Art are some of the largest museums in the country. Other museums in Delhi include the National Museum of Natural History, National Rail Museum and National Philatelic Museum.
Chandni Chowk, a 17th-century market, is one of the most popular shopping areas in Delhi for jewellery and Zari saris. Delhi's arts and crafts include, Zardozi—an embroidery done with gold thread— and Meenakari—the art of enamelling.
Delhi's association and geographic proximity to the capital, New Delhi, has amplified the importance of national events and holidays like Republic Day, Independence Day (15 August) and Gandhi Jayanti. On Independence Day, the Prime Minister addresses the nation from the Red Fort. The Republic Day Parade is a large cultural and military parade showcasing India's cultural diversity and military strength. Over the centuries, Delhi has become known for its composite culture, and a festival that symbolises this is the Phool Walon Ki Sair, which takes place in September. Flowers and pankhe—fans embroidered with flowers—are offered to the shrine of the 13th-century Sufi saint Khwaja Bakhtiyar Kaki and the Yogmaya Temple, both situated in Mehrauli.
Religious festivals include Diwali (the festival of lights), Mahavir Jayanti, Guru Nanak's Birthday, Raksha Bandhan, Durga Puja, Holi, Lohri, Chauth, Krishna Janmastami, Maha Shivratri, Eid ul-Fitr, Moharram and Buddha Jayanti. The Qutub Festival is a cultural event during which performances of musicians and dancers from all over India are showcased at night, with the Qutub Minar as a backdrop. Other events such as Kite Flying Festival, International Mango Festival and Vasant Panchami (the Spring Festival) are held every year in Delhi. The Auto Expo, Asia's largest auto show, is held in Delhi biennially. The New Delhi World Book Fair, held biennially at the Pragati Maidan, is the second-largest exhibition of books in the world. Delhi is often regarded as the "Book Capital" of India because of high readership. India International Trade Fair (IITF), organised by ITPO is the biggest cultural and shopping fair of Delhi which takes place in November each year and is visited by more than 1.5 million people.
As India's national capital and centuries old Mughal capital, Delhi influenced the food habits of its residents and is where Mughlai cuisine originated. Along with Indian cuisine, a variety of international cuisines are popular among the residents. The dearth of food habits among the city's residents created a unique style of cooking which became popular throughout the world, with dishes such as Kebab, biryani, tandoori. The city's classic dishes include butter chicken, dal makhani, shahi paneer, aloo chaat, chaat, dahi bhalla, kachori, gol gappe, samosa, chole bhature, chole kulche, gulab jamun, jalebi and lassi.:40–50, 189–196
The fast living habits of Delhi's people has motivated the growth of street food outlets.:41 A trend of dining at local dhabas is popular among the residents. High-profile restaurants have gained popularity in recent years, among the popular restaurants are the Karim Hotel, the Punjab Grill and Bukhara. The Gali Paranthe Wali (the street of fried bread) is a street in Chandni Chowk particularly for food eateries since the 1870s. Almost the entire street is occupied by fast food stalls or street vendors. It has nearly become a tradition that almost every prime minister of India has visited the street to eat paratha at least once. Other Indian cuisines are also available in this area even though the street specialises in north Indian food.:40–50
Private schools in Delhi—which use either English or Hindi as the language of instruction—are affiliated to one of three administering bodies, the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE), the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE) or the National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS). In 2004–05, approximately 1,529,000 students were enrolled in primary schools, 822,000 in middle schools and 669,000 in secondary schools across Delhi. Female students represented 49% of the total enrolment. The same year, the Delhi government spent between 1.58% and 1.95% of its gross state domestic product on education.
Schools and higher educational institutions in Delhi are administered either by the Directorate of Education, the NCT government or private organisations. In 2006, Delhi had 165 colleges, five medical colleges and eight engineering colleges, seven major universities and nine deemed universities.
The premier management colleges of Delhi such as Faculty of Management Studies (Delhi) and Indian Institute of Foreign Trade rank the best in India. All India Institute of Medical Sciences Delhi is a premier medical school for treatment and research. National Law University, Delhi is a prominent law school and is affiliated with the Bar Council of India. The Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi situated in Hauz Khas is a premier engineering college of India and ranks as one of the top institutes in South Asia.
Delhi Technological University (formerly Delhi College of Engineering), Indira Gandhi Delhi Technical University for Women (formerly Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology), Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology, Netaji Subhas University of Technology (formerly Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology), Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University and National Law University, Delhi are the only state universities. University of Delhi, Jawaharlal Nehru University and Jamia Millia Islamia are the central universities, and Indira Gandhi National Open University is for distance education. (As of 2008), about 16% of all Delhi residents possessed at least a college graduate degree.
As the capital of India, Delhi is the focus of political reportage, including regular television broadcasts of Parliament sessions. Many national media agencies, including the state-owned Press Trust of India, Media Trust of India and Doordarshan, are based in the city. Television programming includes two free terrestrial television channels offered by Doordarshan, and several Hindi, English, and regional-language cable channels offered by multi system operators. Satellite television has yet to gain a large number of subscribers in the city.
Print journalism remains a popular news medium in Delhi. The city's Hindi newspapers include Navbharat Times, Hindustan Dainik, Punjab Kesari, Pavitra Bharat, Dainik Jagran, Dainik Bhaskar, Amar Ujala and Dainik Desbandhu. Amongst the English language newspapers, the Hindustan Times, with a daily circulation of over a million copies, is the single largest daily. Other major English newspapers include The Times of India, The Hindu, Indian Express, Business Standard, The Pioneer, The Statesman, and The Asian Age. Regional language newspapers include the Malayalam daily Malayala Manorama and the Tamil dailies Dinamalar and Dinakaran.
Radio is a less popular mass medium in Delhi, although FM radio has gained popularity since the inauguration of several new stations in 2006. A number of state-owned and private radio stations broadcast from Delhi.
Delhi hosted the first Asian Games in 1951 from 4 to 11 March. A total of 489 athletes representing 11 Asian National Olympic Committees participated in 57 events from eight sports and discipline. The Games was the successor of the Far Eastern Games and the revival of the Western Asiatic Games. On 13 February 1949, the Asian Games Federation was formally established in Delhi, with Delhi unanimously announced as the first host city of the Asian Games. National Stadium was the venue for all events. Over 40,000 spectators watched the opening ceremony of the Games in National Stadium.
Delhi hosted the ninth Asian Games for the second time in 1982 from 19 November to 4 December. This was the second time the city has hosted the Asian Games and was also the first Asian Games to be held under the aegis of the Olympic Council of Asia. A total of 3,411 athletes from 33 National Olympic Committees participated in these games, competing in 196 events in 21 sports and 23 disciplines. The Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, which has a capacity of 60,000 people, was built purposely for the event and hosted its opening ceremony.
Delhi hosted the Nineteenth Commonwealth Games in 2010, which ran from 3 to 14 October and was the largest sporting event held in India. The opening ceremony of the 2010 Commonwealth Games was held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event, in New Delhi at 7:00 pm Indian Standard Time on 3 October 2010. The ceremony featured over 8,000 performers and lasted for two and a half hours. It is estimated that ₹3.5 billion (US$49 million) were spent to produce the ceremony. Events took place at 12 competition venues. 20 training venues were used in the Games, including seven venues within Delhi University. The rugby stadium in Delhi University North Campus hosted rugby games for Commonwealth Games.
Cricket and football are the most popular sports in Delhi. There are several cricket grounds, or maidans, located across the city. The Arun Jaitley Stadium (known commonly as the Kotla) is one of the oldest cricket grounds in India and is a venue for international cricket matches. It is the home ground of the Delhi cricket team, which represents the city in the Ranji Trophy, the premier Indian domestic first-class cricket championship. The Delhi cricket team has produced several world-class international cricketers such as Virender Sehwag, Virat Kohli, Gautam Gambhir, Madan Lal, Chetan Chauhan, Shikhar Dhawan, Ishant Sharma, Manoj Prabhakar and Bishan Singh Bedi to name a few. The Railways and Services cricket teams in the Ranji Trophy also play their home matches in Delhi, in the Karnail Singh Stadium and the Harbax Singh Stadium, respectively. The city is also home to the Indian Premier League team Delhi Capitals, who play their home matches at the Kotla.
Ambedkar Stadium, a football stadium in Delhi which holds 21,000 people, was the venue for the Indian football team's World Cup qualifier against UAE on 28 July 2012. Delhi hosted the Nehru Cup in 2007 and 2009, in both of which India defeated Syria 1–0. In the Elite Football League of India, Delhi's first professional American football franchise, the Delhi Defenders played its first season in Pune. Buddh International Circuit in Greater Noida, a suburb of Delhi, formerly hosted the Formula 1 Indian Grand Prix.
- Delhi metropolitan area
- List of people from Delhi
- List of twin towns and sister cities in India
- (//; Hindi pronunciation: [ˈdɪlːiː] dillī; Punjabi pronunciation: [ˈdɪlːiː] dillī; Template:IPA-ur dêhlī),
- The elevated Delhi metro is seen above in Azadpur.
- Transfer stations are counted more than once. There are 24 transfer stations. If transfer stations are counted only once, the result will be 230 stations. Ashok Park Main station, where the two diverging branches of Green Line share tracks/platforms, is anyway counted as a single station. Stations of Noida Metro and Gurgaon Metro are not counted. If stations of Noida Metro and Gurgaon Metro are counted, the result will be 286 stations
- The total length of Delhi Metro is 348.12 kilometres (216.31 mi). The operations & maintenance of Gurgaon Metro and Noida Metro is currently undertaken by DMRC, so the total length operated by DMRC is 390.14 kilometres (242.42 mi).
- "The Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956". 1956. https://indiacode.nic.in/coiweb/amend/amend7.htm.
- "The States Reorganisation Act, 1956". 1956. https://lawmin.nic.in/ld/P-ACT/1956/A1956-37.pdf.
- "The Constitution (Sixty-Ninth Amendment) Act, 1991". Government of India. National Informatics Centre, Ministry of Communications and Information Technology, Government of India. https://indiacode.nic.in/coiweb/amend/amend69.htm.
- "Vinai Kumar Saxena appointed Delhi Lieutenant Governor after Anil Bajial's exit" (in en). Hindustan Times. 23 May 2022. https://www.hindustantimes.com/cities/delhi-news/vinai-kumar-saxena-becomes-new-lt-governor-of-delhi-101653318800386.html.
- "Delhi Info". https://unccdcop14india.gov.in/about-delhi.
- "Census of India: Provisional Population Totals Paper 1 of 2011, NCT of Delhi". 2011. https://censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov-results/prov_data_products_delhi.html.
- "Delhi (India): Union Territory, Major Agglomerations & Towns – Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". City Population. https://www.citypopulation.de/India-Delhi.html?cityid=2925.
- "The World's Cities in 2018". United Nations. https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/publications/pdf/urbanization/the_worlds_cities_in_2018_data_booklet.pdf.
- "Official Language Act 2000". Government of Delhi. 2 July 2003. https://delhi.gov.in/wps/wcm/connect/d09fd2004bd07ad9a305ab56803943f0/Delhi+Official+Languages+Act+2000.pdf?MOD=AJPERES&lmod=-344844204.
- "Census 2011 (Final Data) – Demographic details, Literate Population (Total, Rural & Urban)". Planning Commission, Government of India. https://planningcommission.gov.in/data/datatable/data_2312/DatabookDec2014%20307.pdf.
- Platts, John Thompson (1960). A dictionary of Urdu, classical Hindi, and English. London: Oxford University Press. pp. 546. ISBN 0-19-864309-8. OCLC 3201841. https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/3201841. Retrieved 12 November 2020.
- "The Constitution (Sixty-Ninth Amendment) Act, 1991". Ministry of Law and Justice, Government of India. https://indiacode.nic.in/coiweb/amend/amend69.htm.
- Habib, Irfan (1999). The agrarian system of Mughal India, 1556–1707. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-562329-1. https://books.google.com/books?id=0ymFAAAAIAAJ. Retrieved 6 November 2015. "The current Survey of India spellings are followed for place names except where they vary rather noticeably from the spellings in our sources: thus I read 'Dehli' not 'Delhi ..."
- Royal Asiatic Society (1834). Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland. Cambridge University Press. https://books.google.com/books?id=mtosAAAAIAAJ. Retrieved 6 November 2015. "also Dehli or Dilli, not Delhi ...".
- Karamchandani, L.T (1968). India, the beautiful. Sita Publication. https://books.google.com/books?id=_sHWfveQGksC. Retrieved 6 November 2015. "According to available evidence the present Delhi, spelt in Hindustani as Dehli or Dilli, derived its name from King ...".
- The National geographical journal of India, Volume 40. National Geographical Society of India. 1994. https://books.google.com/books?id=aqqAAAAAMAAJ. Retrieved 6 November 2015. "The name which remained the most popular is 'Dilli' with variation in its pronunciation as Dilli, Dehli, or Delhi".
- "This study settles the Delhi versus Mumbai debate: The Capital's economy is streets ahead". https://scroll.in/article/896594/this-study-settles-the-delhi-versus-mumbai-debate-the-capitals-economy-is-streets-ahead.
- Talbot, Ian; Singh, Gurharpal (2009), The Partition of India, Cambridge University Press, pp. 118–119, ISBN 978-0-521-85661-4, https://books.google.com/books?id=utKmPQAACAAJ&pg=PA118, retrieved 3 December 2021, "It is now almost a cliché that the Partition transformed Delhi from a Mughal to a Punjabi city. The bitter experiences of the refugees encouraged them to support right-wing Hindu parties. ... Trouble began in September (1947) after the arrival of refugees from Pakistan who were determined on revenge and driving Muslims out of properties which they could then occupy. Gandhi in his prayer meetings in Birla House denounced the 'crooked and ungentlemanly' squeezing out of Muslims. Despite these exhortations, two-thirds of the city's Muslims were to eventually abandon India's capital."
- "Sub-national HDI – Area Database" (in en). Institute for Management Research, Radboud University. https://hdi.globaldatalab.org/areadata/shdi/.
- "Gross State Domestic Product of Delhi". Planning Department, Government of Delhi. p. 16. http://delhiplanning.nic.in/sites/default/files/2.%20State%20Economy.pdf.
- "Rationale". NCR Planning Board. https://ncrpb.nic.in/rationale.php. "The National Capital Region (NCR) in India was constituted under the NCRPB Act, 1985"
- "Census 2011". National Informatics Centre. p. 3. https://ncrpb.nic.in/pdf_files/Annual%20Report%202014-15.pdf.
- "Chapter 1: Introduction". Economic Survey of Delhi, 2005–2006. Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. pp. 1–7. https://delhiplanning.nic.in/Economic%20Survey/ES%202005-06/Chpt/1.pdf.
- Bakshi, S.R. (1995). Delhi Through Ages. Whispering Eye Bangdat. p. 2. ISBN 978-81-7488-138-0.
- Smith, George (1882). The Geography of British India, Political & Physical. J. Murray. pp. 216–217. https://archive.org/details/bub_gb_C20DAAAAQAAJ. Retrieved 1 November 2008. "raja delhi BC."
- "Hobson-Jobson: A Glossary of Colloquial Anglo-Indian Words and Phrases, and of Kindred Terms, Etymological, Historical, Geographical and Discursive". https://dsalsrv04.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/app/hobsonjobson_query.py?qs=DELHI&searchhws=yes.
- "Our Pasts II, History Textbook for Class VII". NCERT. https://ncert.nic.in/textbooks/testing/Index.htm.
- Delhi City The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 11, p. 236.
- "A Dictionary of Urdu, Classical Hindi, and English". Dsal.uchicago.edu. 1884. https://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/platts/.
- Cohen, Richard J. (October–December 1989). "An Early Attestation of the Toponym Dhilli". Journal of the American Oriental Society 109 (4): 513–519. doi:10.2307/604073.
- Austin, Ian; Thhakur Nahar Singh Jasol. "Chauhans (Cahamanas, Cauhans)". The Mewar Encyclopedia. mewarindia.com. https://www.mewarindia.com/ency/chat.html. Retrieved 22 December 2006.
- "Why developers charge a premium for upper storeys in Delhi/NCR region". The Economic Times. 5 August 2011. https://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2011-08-05/news/29855331_1_floor-psf-delhiites.
- John Murray (1924). A handbook for travellers in India, Burma and Ceylon. J. Murray, 1924. https://books.google.com/books?id=0kEKAQAAIAAJ. Retrieved 6 November 2015. "'Dilli hanoz dur ast' ('Delhi is still far off') – has passed into the currency of a proverb".
- S.W. Fallon; Dihlavi Fakir Chand (1886). A dictionary of Hindustani proverbs. Printed at the Medical hall press, 1886. https://books.google.com/books?id=hh8UAAAAYAAJ. Retrieved 6 November 2015. "Abhi Dilli dur hai".
- Syed Mahdi Husain: Bahadur Shah Zafar and the War of 1857 in Dehli. Aakar Books, Delhi 2006, ISBN 81-87879-91-2, p. LV of the preface.
- Asher, Catherine (25 September 2000), "Delhi walled: Changing boundaries", in James D. Tracy, City Walls: The Urban Enceinte in Global Perspective, Cambridge University Press, pp. 247–, 250, ISBN 9780521652216, https://books.google.com/books?id=S7dUv-1Ql2oC, retrieved 12 October 2021
- "India: Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi". State of Conservation of the World Heritage Properties in the Asia-Pacific Region: : Summaries of Periodic Reports 2003 by property, Section II. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. pp. 71–72. https://whc.unesco.org/archive/periodicreporting/cycle01/section2/233-summary.pdf.
- "Under threat: The Magnificent Minaret of Jam". The New Courier No 1. UNESCO. October 2002. https://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=6643&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html.
- McClary, Richard Piran (2020), Medieval Monuments of Central Asia: Qarakhanid Architecture of the 11th and 12th Centuries, Edinburgh University Press, p. 287, "The second story of the minaret, built during the reign of Iltutmish" (r. 1211-36), features a similar form of ribbing to the shaft as is seen at the Jar Kurgan minaret, but the lower section features alternating flanges and ribs, while the third storey is entirely flanged, with a stellate plan. The Qutb Minar is more closely related to the Ghaznavid and Ghurid traditions of minaret construction, although all the surviving large minarets from Central Asia can be seen to share certain general characteristics, namely, a tall tapering shaft and bands of decoration."
- "Battuta's Travels: Delhi, capital of Muslim India". Sfusd.k12.ca.us. https://www.sfusd.k12.ca.us/schwww/sch618/Ibn_Battuta/Battuta's_Trip_Seven.html.
- Mobilereference (2007). Travel Delhi, India. History section. p. 10. ISBN 9781605010519. https://books.google.com/books?id=MsYj4ysWQ6sC&q=delhi+was+center+of+sufism&pg=PT9.
- "The Islamic World to 1600: The Mongol Invasions (The Timurid Empire)". Ucalgary.ca. https://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/islam/mongols/timurid.html.
- Genocide: a history . W.D. Rubinstein (2004). p. 28. ISBN:978-0-582-50601-5
- "Sher Shah – The Lion King". India's History: Medieval India. indhistory.com. https://www.indhistory.com/sher-shah-suri.html.
- Mobilereference (2007). Travel Delhi, India. p. 12. ISBN 9781605010519. https://books.google.com/books?id=MsYj4ysWQ6sC&pg=PT10.
- Thomas, Amelia (2008). Rajasthan, Delhi and Agra. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74104-690-8.
- Irvine, William (1971). Later Mughal. https://books.google.com/books?id=ak5oFjTys8MC&q=battle+of+karnal+less+than+three+hours&pg=RA1-PA349. Retrieved 2 October 2020.
- Boland-Crewe, Tara; Lea, David (2 September 2003). Territories and States of India. ISBN 9781135356255. https://books.google.com/books?id=M2uPAgAAQBAJ&q=nader+shah+humiliating+sack+of+delhi&pg=PA288. Retrieved 2 October 2020.
- "Iran in the Age of the Raj". Avalanchepress.com. https://www.avalanchepress.com/Soldier_Shah.php.
- Jagmohan (2005). Soul and Structure of Governance in India. ISBN 9788177648317. https://books.google.com/books?id=QsDSGn8jLPAC&q=muhammad+shah+nader+shah+beg+for+mercy&pg=PA298. Retrieved 2 October 2020.
- Gordon, Stewart (1993). The Marathas 1600–1818, Volume 2. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-26883-7.
- "Bollywood's 'Great Betrayal' of Afghanistan: "Panipat" and the cost of vilifying Ahmad Shah Durrani". 9 March 2020. https://www.afghanistan-analysts.org/en/reports/context-culture/bollywoods-great-betrayal-of-afghanistan-panipat-and-the-cost-of-vilifying-ahmad-shah-durrani/.
- Mayaram, Shail (2003). Against history, against state: counter perspective from the margins Cultures of history. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-12731-8.
- "Shifting pain". The Times of India. 11 December 2011. https://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-12-11/kolkata/30504131_1_bengalis-capital-british-empire.
- Mobilereference (1 January 2007). Travel Delhi. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-60501-051-9. https://books.google.com/books?id=MsYj4ysWQ6sC&q=delhi+was+declared+capital+of+india&pg=PT7.
- "Lutyens' Delhi in race for UN heritage status". Hindustan Times. 11 June 2012. https://www.hindustantimes.com/India-news/NewDelhi/Lutyens-Delhi-in-race-for-UN-heritage-status/Article1-869770.aspx.
- Lakhani, Somya (17 May 2019). "Khan Market's humble beginnings: Meant for refugees, 'doomed to fail'". Indian Express. https://indianexpress.com/article/delhi/khan-markets-humble-beginnings-meant-for-refugees-doomed-to-fail-5732031/. "'This market was set up for those who had been displaced; refugees who had migrated from the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) ...' said Sanjiv Mehra, president of Khan Market Traders' Association and owner of Allied Toy Store. It was aptly named after popular NWFP leader Khan Abdul Jabbar Khan or Dr Khan Sahib, the elder brother of Pashtun Independence activist Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan or Frontier Gandhi."
- Bhardwaj, Mayank (31 May 2019). "'Khan Market Gang': Modi mocks his elite adversaries". Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/india-politics-khanmarket-idINKCN1T10KM. "The Indian government named the market after Abdul Jabbar Khan, the brother of Pakistan's Abdul Ghaffar Khan, a close friend of 'Mahatma' Gandhi and known as the 'Frontier Gandhi'. Khan was honoured because of his role in ensuring safe passage for millions of Hindus fleeing sectarian violence after independence and the bloody 1947 partition of the sub-continent into India and Pakistan, said Sanjeev Mehra, president of the Khan Market Traders' Association."
- "Capital gains: How 1947 gave birth to a new identity, a new ambition, a new Delhi" . Hindustan Times. 24 April 2018.
- "How Muslim ghettos came about in Delhi". 3 March 2020. https://indianexpress.com/article/india/muslim-ghettos-of-delhi-6297633/.
- "Delhi Assembly Elections 2015: Important Facts And Major Stakeholders Mobile Site". India TV News. 6 February 2015. https://m.indiatvnews.com/politics/national/delhi-assembly-elections-2015-important-facts-and-stakeholders-25298.html.
- Jupinderjit Singh (February 2015). "Why Punjabis are central to Delhi election". tribuneindia.com/news/sunday-special/perspective/why-punjabis-are-central-to-delhi-election/36387.html. https://www.tribuneindia.com/mobi/news/sunday-special/perspective/why-punjabis-are-central-to-delhi-election/36387.html.
- Sanjay Yadav (2008). The Invasion of Delhi. Worldwide Books. ISBN 978-81-88054-00-8. https://books.google.com/books?id=CTBBL1q5C_EC&pg=PA10. Retrieved 14 September 2021.
- "Fall in Delhi birth rate fails to arrest population rise". The Hindu (Chennai). 3 January 2005. https://www.hindu.com/2005/01/03/stories/2005010311230300.htm.
- Bedi, Rahul (1 November 2009). "Indira Gandhi's death remembered". BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/8306420.stm. "The 25th anniversary of Indira Gandhi's assassination revives stark memories of some 3,000 Sikhs killed brutally in the orderly pogrom that followed her killing"
- "Terrorists attack Parliament; five intruders, six cops killed". Rediff.com. 13 December 2001. https://www.rediff.com/news/2001/dec/13parl1.htm.
- "India and Pakistan: Who will strike first?". Economist. 20 December 2001. https://www.economist.com/printedition/displayStory.cfm?Story_ID=917228.
- "Delhi blasts death toll at 62". https://www.news24.com/News24/World/News/0,,2-10-1462_1826434,00.html.
- Tripathi, Rahul (14 September 2008). "Serial blasts rock Delhi; 30 dead, 90 injured-India". The Times of India. https://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2008-09-14/india/27916717_1_serial-blasts-rock-delhi-ghaffar-market-first-blast.
- Ellis-Peterson, Hannah; Azizur Rahman, Shaikh (16 March 2020), "Delhi's Muslims despair of justice after police implicated in riots", The Guardian (Delhi), https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/mar/16/delhis-muslims-despair-justice-police-implicated-hindu-riots, retrieved 17 March 2020, "As the mob attacks came once, then twice and then a third time in this north-east Delhi neighbourhood, desperate stallholders repeatedly ran to Gokalpuri and Dayalpur police stations crying out for help. But each time they found the gates locked from the inside. For three days, no help came. ... Since the riots broke out in Delhi at the end of February, the worst religious conflict to engulf the capital in decades, questions have persisted about the role that the Delhi police played in enabling the violence, which was predominately Hindu mobs attacking Muslims. Of the 51 people who died, at least three-quarters were Muslim, and many Muslims are still missing."
- Gettleman, Jeffrey; Abi-Habib, Maria (1 March 2020), "In India, Modi's Policies Have Lit a Fuse", The New York Times, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/01/world/asia/india-modi-hindus.html, retrieved 1 March 2020, "This past week, as neighborhoods in India's capital burned and religiously driven bloodletting consumed more than 40 lives, most of them Muslim, India's government was quick to say that the violence was spontaneous ... Many Muslims are now leaving, hoisting their unburned things on their heads and trudging away from streets that still smell of smoke."
- Gettleman, Jeffrey; Yasir, Sameer; Raj, Suhasini; Kumar, Hari (12 March 2020), Photographs by Loke, Atul, "'If We Kill You, Nothing Will Happen': How Delhi's Police Turned Against Muslims", The New York Times, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/12/world/asia/india-police-muslims.html, retrieved 13 March 2020, "Two-thirds of the more than 50 people who were killed and have been identified were Muslim."
- Slater, Joanna; Masih, Niha (6 March 2020), "In Delhi's worst violence in decades, a man watched his brother burn", The Washington Post, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/asia_pacific/in-delhis-worst-violence-in-decades-a-man-watched-his-brother-burn/2020/03/05/892dbb12-5e45-11ea-ac50-18701e14e06d_story.html, retrieved 6 March 2020, "At least 53 people were killed or suffered deadly injuries in violence that persisted for two days. The majority of those killed were Muslims, many shot, hacked or burned to death. A police officer and an intelligence officer were also killed. So too were more than a dozen Hindus, most of them shot or assaulted."
- Slater, Joanna; Masih, Niha (2 March 2020), "What Delhi's worst communal violence in decades means for Modi's India", The Washington Post, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/asia_pacific/what-days-of-communal-violence-mean-for-modi-and-for-india/2020/03/01/3d649c18-5a68-11ea-8efd-0f904bdd8057_story.html, retrieved 15 March 2020, "Zaitoon, 40, who goes by one name, half-cried as she rummaged through the items. She said mobs entered her lane shouting 'Jai Shri Ram,' or 'Victory to Lord Ram,' a slogan favoured by Modi's party, and demanded to know which houses were occupied by Muslims. She said she saw a neighbour set on fire in front of her, an account repeated by other witnesses."
- Mohan, Madan (April 2002). "GIS-Based Spatial Information Integration, Modeling and Digital Mapping: A New Blend of Tool for Geospatial Environmental Health Analysis for Delhi Ridge". Spatial Information for Health Monitoring and Population Management. FIG XXII International Congress. p. 5. https://www.fig.net/resources/proceedings/fig_proceedings/fig_2002/Ts3-9/TS3_9_mohan.pdf.
- Rawal, Prakhar; Kittur, Swati; Chatakonda, Murali K.; Sundar, K.S. Gopi (2021). "Winter bird abundance, species richness and functional guild composition at Delhi's ponds: does time of day and wetland extent matter?". Journal of Urban Ecology 7 (1): Online first. doi:10.1093/jue/juab001. https://academic.oup.com/jue/article/7/1/juab001/6139341?searchresult=1. Retrieved 31 March 2021.
- Rawal, Prakhar; Kittur, Swati; Chatakonda, Murali K.; Sundar, K.S. Gopi (2021). "Capital ponds: Site-level habitat heterogeneity and management interventions at ponds regulate high landscape-scale bird diversity across a mega-city". Biological Conservation 260: 109215. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2021.109215. ISSN 0006-3207. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0006320721002676. Retrieved 23 June 2021.
- "Hazard profiles of Indian districts". National Capacity Building Project in Disaster Management. UNDP. https://www.undp.org.in/dmweb/hazardprofile.pdf.
- "Average weather for New Delhi, India". Weatherspark.com. https://weatherspark.com/averages/33934/New-Delhi-India.
- "Climate of Delhi". Delhitrip.in. https://delhitrip.in/about-delhi/climate-of-delhi.
- "Fog continues to disrupt flights, trains". The Hindu (Chennai). 7 January 2005. https://www.hindu.com/2005/01/07/stories/2005010719480300.htm.
- "Ever recorded Maximum and minimum temperatures up to 2010". India Meteorological Department. https://www.imdpune.gov.in/Temp_Extremes/histext2010.pdf.
- "Mercury touches new high for July, Met predicts rain relief". 3 July 2012. https://www.indianexpress.com/news/mercury-touches-new-high-for-july-met-predicts-rain-relief/969708/.
- "Weatherbase entry for Delhi". Canty and Associates LLC. https://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weather.php3?s=28124&refer=&units=metric.
- Kurian, Vinson (28 June 2005). "Monsoon reaches Delhi two days ahead of schedule". Business Line. https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/2005/06/28/stories/2005062800830200.htm.
- "Delhi, Blanketed in Toxic Haze, 'Has Become a Gas Chamber'". The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/11/07/world/asia/delhi-pollution-gas-chamber.html.
- "Delhi is most polluted city in world, Beijing much better: WHO study". Hindustan Times. https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/delhi-has-dirtiest-air-china-data-foggy-who/article1-1216605.aspx.
- Kumar, Rahul (July 2016). "Fancy Schemes for a Dirty Business". https://www.digital-development-debates.org/issue-18-cities--delhi--fancy-schemes-for-a-dirty-business.html.
- "Delhi's Air Has Become a Lethal Hazard and Nobody Seems to Know What to Do About It". Time (magazine). 10 February 2014. https://world.time.com/2014/02/10/smog-in-new-delhi/. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
- "India's Air Pollution Triggers Comparisons with China". Voice of America. https://www.voanews.com/content/indias-air-pollution-triggers-comparisons-with-china/1855331.html.
- "A Delhi particular". The Economist. 6 November 2012. https://www.economist.com/blogs/banyan/2012/11/air-pollution-india.
- "Pollution level in Delhi: Day after Diwali, Delhi's air turns 'hazardous'". https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/delhi/day-after-diwali-delhis-air-turns-hazardous/articleshow/66539912.cms.
- "Delhi breathed easier from January to April". https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/delhi/delhi-breathed-easier-from-january-to-april/articleshow/59011204.cms.
- "Air pollution: Delhi enjoys cleanest February in three years". 27 February 2018. https://www.hindustantimes.com/delhi-news/air-pollution-delhi-enjoys-cleanest-february-in-three-years/story-SANlmslHev8ifFgZbh3WXI.html.
- "How Crop Burning Affects Delhi's Air". The Wall Street Journal. 15 February 2014. https://blogs.wsj.com/indiarealtime/2014/02/15/how-crop-burning-affects-delhis-air-pollution/.
- Harris, Gardiner (25 January 2014). "Beijing's Bad Air Would Be Step Up for Smoggy Delhi". The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/26/world/asia/beijings-air-would-be-step-up-for-smoggy-delhi.html.
- Bearak, Max (7 February 2014). "Desperate for Clean Air, Delhi Residents Experiment with Solutions". The New York Times. https://india.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/02/07/desperate-for-clean-air-delhi-residents-experiment-with-solutions/?emc=edit_tnt_20140208&tntemail0=y.
- Madison Park (8 May 2014). "Top 20 most polluted cities in the world". CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2014/05/08/world/asia/india-pollution-who/index.html.
- "Children in Delhi have lungs of chain-smokers!". India Today. https://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/pollution-in-delhi-cng-children-in-delhi/1/344904.html. Retrieved 22 February 2014.
- "Pollution increasing lung cancer in Indian women". DNA. 3 February 2014. https://www.dnaindia.com/health/report-pollution-increasing-lung-cancer-in-indian-women-1959054.
- "Delhi blanketed in thick smog, transport disrupted". Reuters. 18 December 2013. https://in.reuters.com/article/india-delhi-winter-smog-idINDEE9BH0D420131218.
- January days getting colder, tied to rise in pollution , Times of India, 27 January 2014
- "Usual suspects: Vehicles, industrial emissions behind foul play". The Times of India. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/delhi/usual-suspects-vehicles-industrial-emissions-behind-foul-play-all-year/articleshow/66228517.cms.
- "UA vicious nexus". Down to Earth. https://www.downtoearth.org.in/blog/air/a-vicious-nexus-62475.
- Impose 30% cess on diesel cars, panel tells Supreme Court , Times of India, 11 February 2014
- "The Air Quality Life Index (AQLI)" (in en). https://aqli.epic.uchicago.edu/the-index/.
- "The Air Quality Life Index (AQLI)" (in en). https://aqli.epic.uchicago.edu/the-index/.
- Gardiner Harris (14 February 2015). "Delhi Wakes Up to an Air Pollution Problem It Cannot Ignore". The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/15/world/asia/delhi-wakes-up-to-an-air-pollution-problem-it-cannot-ignore.html.
- "Delhi 'third greenest' city". Ndtv.com. https://www.ndtv.com/news/cities/delhi_third_greenest_city.php.
- "Express India". The Indian Express. https://cities.expressindia.com/fullstory.php?newsid=85665.
- Delhi Metro helps reduce vehicular air pollution, indicates research , India Today, 28 April 2013
- R. Kumari; A.K. Attri; L. Int Panis; B.R. Gurjar (April 2013). "Emission estimates of Particulate Matter and Heavy Metals from Mobile sources in Delhi (India)". Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering 55 (2): 127–142. PMID 25464689. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/259827470.
- "What is the status of air pollution in Delhi?". CSE, India. https://cseindia.org/node/835.
- "Delhi's air quality deteriorating due to burning of agriculture waste". The Economic Times. 6 November 2014. https://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2014-11-06/news/55835957_1_pm-2-5-level-air-quality-weather-forecasting-pollution-levels.
- "Thick blanket of smog envelopes Delhi, northern India". India Today. https://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/smog-delhi-winter-low-wind-speed-emissions/1/398601.html.
- M.S.A. Rao (1970). Urbanization and Social Change: A Study of a Rural Community on a Metropolitan Fringe. Orient Longmans. https://books.google.com/books?id=tPMEAAAAMAAJ. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
- "Municipal Corporation of Delhi". https://mcdonline.nic.in/.
- "Delhi govt decides to split MCD into three parts". Press Trust of India. 30 May 2011. https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Delhi/delhi-govt-decides-to-split-mcd-into-three-parts/article2062613.ece.
- Hindustan Ties (29 May 2017). "MCD results 2017: BJP rides on Modi wave; AAP routed, Kejriwal accepts defeat". https://www.hindustantimes.com/delhi-news/mcd-election-results-2017-counting-begins-can-kejriwal-s-aap-beat-modi-wave-in-delhi/story-xpbRonawnk8ALeqLfwjJxL.html.
- "Where are Courts in Delhi Situated ?". 14 August 2021. https://www.apsinghlawyer.com/post/where-are-courts-in-delhi-situated.
- "District Courts of Delhi | Bar Council of Delhi". https://delhibarcouncil.com/resources-for-lawyers/delhi-courts/district-courts/.
- "Poile Stations". Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. https://delhigovt.nic.in/newdelhi/police.html.
- "Delhi Police". https://www.delhipolice.nic.in/history.html.
- "Delhi: Assembly Constituencies". Compare Infobase Limited. https://www.mapsofindia.com/assemblypolls/delhi.html.
- "Lok Sabha constituencies get a new profile". The Hindu (Chennai). 7 September 2006. https://www.hindu.com/2006/09/07/stories/2006090710630400.htm.
- "Politics of Delhi". INDFY. https://www.indfy.com/delhi/politics.html.
- "Arvind Kejriwal to be Delhi Chief Minister, swearing-in at Ramleela Maidan". The Economic Times. 23 December 2013. https://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2013-12-23/news/45510175_1_aap-arvind-kejriwal-aam-aadmi-party.
- Mohammad Ali; Vishal Kant; Sowmiya Ashok (14 February 2014). "Arvind Kejriwal quits over Jan Lokpal". The Hindu (Chennai). https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Delhi/arvind-kejriwal-quits-over-jan-lokpal/article5688528.ece.
- "President's rule imposed in Delhi". The Times of India. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/delhi/Presidents-rule-imposed-in-Delhi/articleshow/30558345.cms.
- Niharika Mandhana (10 February 2015). "Upstart Party Wins India State Elections – WSJ". The Wall Street Journal. https://www.wsj.com/articles/delhi-elections-aam-aadmi-party-sweeps-to-victory-1423535589.
- "Global city GDP 2014". Brookings Institution. 22 January 2015. https://www.brookings.edu/research/global-metro-monitor/.
- "Global city GDP rankings 2008–2025". PwC. https://www.ukmediacentre.pwc.com/imagelibrary/downloadMedia.ashx?MediaDetailsID=1562.
- "The Most Dynamic Cities of 2025". Foreign Policy. https://foreignpolicy.com/articles/2012/08/13/the_most_dynamic_cities_of_2025.
- "Delhi Budget Analysis 2017–18". 8 March 2017. https://www.prsindia.org/uploads/media/State%20Budget%202017-18/Delhi%20Budget%20Analysis%202017-18.pdf.
- "Mumbai is no more the financial capital of India". Business Insider India. 28 November 2016. https://www.businessinsider.in/mumbai-is-no-more-the-financial-capital-of-india/articleshow/55667112.cms.
- "Chapter 2: State Income". Economic Survey of Delhi, 2005–06. Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. pp. 8–16. https://delhiplanning.nic.in/Economic%20Survey/ES%202005-06/Chpt/2.pdf.
- "Chapter 5: Employment and Unemployment". Economic Survey of Delhi, 2005–06. Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. pp. 59–65. https://delhiplanning.nic.in/Economic%20Survey/ES%202005-06/Chpt/5.pdf.
- "Industries in Delhi". Mapsofindia.com. https://www.mapsofindia.com/delhi/industries-in-delhi.html.
- "Delhi hot favourite retail destination in India – Corporate Trends – News By Company -News". The Economic Times. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/News/News_By_Industry/Services/Hotels__Restaurants/Delhi_Indias_hot_favourite_retail_destination/rssarticleshow/2983387.cms.
- "Chapter 9: Industrial Development". Economic Survey of Delhi, 2005–06. Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. pp. 94–107. https://delhiplanning.nic.in/Economic%20Survey/ES%202005-06/Chpt/9.pdf.
- "Chapter 13: Water Supply and Sewerage". Economic Survey of Delhi, 2005–2006. Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. pp. 147–162. https://delhiplanning.nic.in/Economic%20Survey/ES%202005-06/Chpt/13.pdf.
- Birkinshaw, Matt (July 2016). "Unequal, Unreliable and Running Out". https://www.digital-development-debates.org/issue-18-cities--delhi--unequal-unreliable-and-running-out.html.
- Joshi, Sandeep (19 June 2006). "MCD developing new landfill site". The Hindu (Chennai). https://www.hindu.com/2006/06/19/stories/2006061915630400.htm.
- Gadhok, Taranjot Kaur. "Risks in Delhi: Environmental concerns". Natural Hazard Management. GISdevelopment.net. https://www.gisdevelopment.net/application/natural_hazards/overview/nho0019pf.htm.
- "Chapter 11: Energy". Economic Survey of Delhi, 2005–06. Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. pp. 117–129. https://delhiplanning.nic.in/Economic%20Survey/ES%202005-06/Chpt/11.pdf.
- "About Us". Delhi Fire Service. Govt. of NCT of Delhi. https://dfs.delhigovt.nic.in/aboutf.html.
- "Delhi Indira Gandhi International Airport (IGI)". Airport-delhi.com. 2 May 1986. https://airport-delhi.com/.
- "Traffic Statistics – Domestic & International Passengers" (jsp). Airports Authority of India. p. 3. https://www.aai.aero/traffic_news/Mar2k16annex3.pdf.
- "India begins $1.94b Delhi airport revamp". Daily Times. Pakistan. 18 February 2007. https://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2007\02\18\story_18-2-2007_pg5_24.
- "Indira Gandhi International Airport is world's best airport for second time in row" (in en). 2 March 2016. https://www.indiatoday.in/mail-today/story/indira-gandhi-international-airport-is-worlds-best-airport-for-second-time-in-row-311345-2016-03-02.
- "Airports Council International". 12 May 2012. https://www.aci.aero/cda/aci_common/display/main/aci_content07_c.jsp?zn=aci&cp=1-7-46%5E35015_666_2__.
- "PM Narendra Modi inaugurates civil enclave at Hindon airport". The Economic Times. 8 March 2019. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/industry/transportation/airlines-/-aviation/pm-narendra-modi-inaugurates-civil-enclave-at-hindon-airport/articleshow/68322539.cms.
- "Search". India News Analysis Opinions on Niti Central. https://www.niticentral.com/2012/09/08/does-delhi-need-a-second-airport-yes-it-does-but-where-7054.html.
- Shah, Pankaj (23 February 2018). "Jewar airport will now be a full-fledged aviation hub". The Times of India. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/lucknow/jewar-airport-will-now-be-a-full-fledged-aviation-hub/articleshow/63037895.cms.
- "Mecca for young aviators". Hindustan Times. 23 September 2011. https://www.hindustantimes.com/Mecca-for-young-aviators/Article1-749072.aspx.
- "Ministries in row over Safdarjung Airport land". The Times of India. 13 April 2011. https://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-04-13/delhi/29413456_1_ud-ministry-safdarjung-airport-aviation-ministry.
- "Delhi's CNG success inspiring many countries: Naik". outlookindia.com. Press Trust of India (Outlook Publishing (India) Private Limited). 11 December 2002. https://www.outlookindia.com/pti_news.asp?gid=48&id=103516.
- Pritha Chatterjee (6 April 2015). "The road that larger particles travel". The Indian Express. https://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-others/the-road-that-larger-particles-travel/.
- I.Prasada Rao; Dr. P.K. Kanchan. "GIS Based Maintenance Management System (GMMS) For Major Roads of Delhi". Map India 2006: Transportation. GISdevelopment.net. https://www.gisdevelopment.net/proceedings/mapindia/2006/transportation/mi06tran_200.htm.
- Dipak K. Dash (5 February 2017). "Delhi traffic chaos costs Rs 60,000 crore annually". The Economic Times. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/delhi-traffic-chaos-costs-rs-60000-crore-annually/articleshow/56980296.cms.
- Armin Rosencranz; Michael Jackson. "Introduction". The Delhi Pollution Case: The Supreme Court of India and the Limits of Judicial Power. indlaw.com. p. 3. https://www.cleanairnet.org/caiasia/1412/articles-69423_delhi_case.pdf.
- "Citizen Charter". Delhi Transport Corporation. https://dtc.nic.in/ccharter.htm.
- "DTC records highest single-day collection". NDTV. 12 July 2011. https://www.ndtv.com/delhi-news/dtc-records-highest-single-day-collection-461251.
- "Cluster buses to be back on road today". The Times of India. TNN (New Delhi). 18 March 2018. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/delhi/drivers-call-off-protest-buses-on-roads-today/articleshow/63349483.cms.
- "Cabinet sets ball rolling to procure 1,000 cluster buses". The Times of India. TNN (New Delhi). 10 January 2018. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/delhi/cabinet-sets-ball-rolling-to-procure-1000-cluster-buses/articleshow/62435884.cms.
- "Upswing in DTC, Cluster buses daily ridership, 41.90 passengers carried per day: Sisodia". Moneycontrol.com. 22 March 2018. https://www.moneycontrol.com/news/business/upswing-in-dtccluster-buses-daily-ridership-41-90-passengers-carried-per-day-sisodia-2534241.html.
- "Chapter 12: Transport". Economic Survey of Delhi, 2005–2006. Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. pp. 130–146. https://delhiplanning.nic.in/Economic%20Survey/ES%202005-06/Chpt/12.pdf.
- Aparajita Ray (16 June 2016). "Bengaluru retains second place after Delhi with most vehicles on roads". The Times of India. TNN (Bengaluru). https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/bengaluru/Bengaluru-retains-second-place-after-Delhi-with-most-vehicles-on-roads/articleshow/52770425.cms.
- "Traffic snarl snaps 42 Cr man-hour from Delhi, NCR workers at iGovernment". Igovernment.in. https://www.igovernment.in/site/traffic-snarl-snaps-42-cr-man-hour-from-delhi-ncr-workers/.
- "Every 12th Delhiite owns a car". The Economic Times. 2 January 2008. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/Every_12th_Delhiite_owns_a_car/articleshow/2667484.cms.
- "Vehicle numbers cross one crore mark in Delhi". The Times of India. Press Trust of India (New Delhi). 4 June 2017. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/auto/miscellaneous/vehicle-numbers-cross-one-crore-mark-in-delhi/articleshow/58983958.cms.
- "Faridabad Metro Corridor – Press Brief". Delhimetrorail.com. https://www.delhimetrorail.com/press_reldetails.aspx?id=63aQSC8zmhslld.
- Barman, Sourav Roy (10 August 2018). "Since 2013, 99% of Delhi Metro trips have been on time". The Indian Express (New Delhi). https://indianexpress.com/article/cities/delhi/since-2013-99-of-delhi-metro-trips-have-been-on-time-5299822/.
- "Bloomberg.com: Opinion". Bloomberg L.P.. https://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&refer=columnist_mukherjee&sid=afv8Sf2MUvac.
- "Get ready for revolution on wheels". The Economic Times. 6 August 2008. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/Shipping__Transport/Get_ready_for_revolution_on_wheels/articleshow/3332826.cms.
- "10 years of Delhi Metro". delhimetrorail.com. 24 January 2013. https://www.delhimetrorail.com/press_reldetails.aspx?id=c4kJd1nWTgMlld.
- "Changing Delhi map makes Ring Railway redundant". The Indian Express. 22 February 2011. https://www.indianexpress.com/news/changing-delhi-map-makes-ring-railway-redundant/752994/0.
- "Present Network". https://www.delhimetrorail.com/pages/en/present-network.
- "Route map". https://www.delhimetrorail.com/pages/en/network_map.
- "Introduction | DMRC". https://www.delhimetrorail.com/pages/en/introduction.
- "French award presented to Sreedharan". The Hindu (New Delhi). 23 November 2005. https://www.thehindu.com/2005/11/23/stories/2005112322640300.htm.
- "Census of India: Provisional Population Totals for Census 2011: NCT of Delhi". Censusindia.gov.in. https://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov-results/prov_data_products_delhi.html.
- "Chapter 3: Demographic Profile". Economic Survey of Delhi, 2005–2006. Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. pp. 17–31. https://delhiplanning.nic.in/Economic%20Survey/ES%202005-06/Chpt/3.pdf.
- Can't afford to fall ill in Dwarka , Hindustan Times, 16 July 2009
- Demographia (2016). Demographia World Urban Areas (12th ed.). https://www.demographia.com/db-worldua.pdf. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
- "Urban agglomerations/cities having population 1 million and above". Provisional population totals, census of India 2011. Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. 2011. https://censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov-results/paper2/data_files/india2/Million_Plus_UAs_Cities_2011.pdf.
- "India Stats : Million plus cities in India as per Census 2011". pibmumbai.gov.in. https://pibmumbai.gov.in/scripts/detail.asp?releaseId=E2011IS3.
- "Evaluation Study of DMA Towns in National Capital Region". Ministry of Urban Development. September 2007. https://tcpomud.gov.in/divisions/mutp/dma/final_dma_report.pdf.
- "Regional Plan 2021, Chapter 4, Demographic Profile and Settlement Pattern". NCR Planning Board. p. 28. https://ncrpb.nic.in/pdf_files/Regional%20Plan%202021%20chapter/08_CH04%20demographic%20profile%20&%20settlement%20pattern.pdf.
- Dhananjay Mahapatra (4 October 2012). "'Half of Delhi's population lives in slums'". The Times of India. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/delhi/Half-of-Delhis-population-lives-in-slums/articleshow/16664224.cms.
- Mayura Janwalkar (20 April 2015). "Delhi: Slum shame". The Indian Express. https://indianexpress.com/article/cities/delhi/delhi-slum-shame/.
- "Delhi polls: Caste to play crucial role". https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Delhi/delhi-polls-caste-to-play-crucial-role/article5374994.ece.
- "Delhi's Jats: From farmers to determined political climbers". The Pioneer. https://www.dailypioneer.com/2013/page1/delhis-jats-from-farmers-to-determined-political-climbers.html.
- "Fight for Brahmin votes intensifies". The Pioneer. https://www.dailypioneer.com/2013/india/fight-for-brahmin-votes-intensifies.html.
- Singh, Raj (6 February 2015). "Delhi Assembly elections 2015: Important facts and major stakeholders". India TV. https://www.indiatvnews.com/politics/national/delhi-assembly-elections-2015-important-facts-and-stakeholders-25298.html.
- "Delhi elections 2015: Arvind Kejriwal-led AAP breaks rules of identity politics, dents core vote bases of BJP & Congress". The Economic Times. 23 January 2015. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/delhi-elections-2015-arvind-kejriwal-led-aap-breaks-rules-of-identity-politics-dents-core-vote-bases-of-bjp-congress/articleshow/45985851.cms?from=mdr.
- "C-16 Population By Mother Tongue - Delhi". https://censusindia.gov.in/2011census/C-16/DDW-C16-STMT-MDDS-0700.XLSX.
- "Religion PCA". Government of India. https://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011census/Religion_pca/RL-0700.xlsx.
- "Data on Religion". Census of India 2001. p. 1. https://www.censusindia.net/religiondata/.
- "50th Report of the Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities in India". Ministry of Minority Affairs. p. 9. https://nclm.nic.in/shared/linkimages/NCLM50thReport.pdf.
- "52nd Report of the Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities in India". Ministry of Minority Affairs. p. 18. https://nclm.nic.in/shared/linkimages/NCLM52ndReport.pdf.
- "Promote lesser-known monuments of Delhi'-Delhi-Cities". The Times of India. Press Trust of India. 27 February 2009. https://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2009-02-27/delhi/27996908_1_monuments-heritage-buildings-kashmiri-gate.
- "Delhi Circle (NCT of Delhi)". List of Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains of National Importance. Archaeological Survey of India. https://asi.nic.in/asi_monu_alphalist_delhi.asp.
- "Jama Masjid, India's largest mosque". Terra Galleria. https://www.terragalleria.com/asia/india/delhi/picture.indi38660.html.
- "Know India". India.gov. https://www.archive.india.gov.in/knowindia/culture_heritage.php?id=46.
- "Properties inscribed on the World Heritage List: India". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. https://whc.unesco.org/en/statesparties/in.
- Jacob, Satish (July 2002). "Wither, the walled city". Seminar (Web Edition) (515). https://www.india-seminar.com/2002/515/515%20satish%20jacob.htm. Retrieved 19 January 2007.
- "Shopping in Delhi". Delhi Tours. About Palace on Wheels. https://www.aboutpalaceonwheels.com/palace-on-wheels-destinations/shopping-in-delhi.html.
- Gale, Colin; Lahori, Lajwanti; Kaur, Jasbir (1 May 2002). The Textile Book. p. 99. ISBN 978-1-85973-512-1. https://books.google.com/books?id=K1VR6wQTNAsC&q=Zardosi+work+in+delhi&pg=PA99. Retrieved 2 October 2020.
- "Ancient and modern metal craft works attract visitors". The Times of India. 12 June 2012. https://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012-06-12/allahabad/32194194_1_metal-statues-jewellery.
- "Delhi Handicrafts". Indian Handicrafts suppliars. https://www.indian-handicrafts-suppliers.com/traditional-handicrafts/delhi-handicrafts.htm.
- Kapur, Manavi (30 November 2013). "Patna in Delhi". Business Standard. https://www.business-standard.com/article/beyond-business/patna-in-delhi-113112900834_1.html.
- Tiwari, Bharat S. (12 February 2020), "At Nizamuddin Auliya's Dargah, Basant is the Colour of Harmony", The Wire, https://thewire.in/culture/nizamuddin-auliyas-dargah-basant-panchami, retrieved 14 October 2021
- Ray Choudhury, Ray Choudhury (28 January 2002). "R-Day parade, an anachronism?". Business Line. https://www.thehindubusinessline.in/2002/01/28/stories/2002012800060800.htm.
- "Fairs & Festivals of Delhi". Delhi Travel. India Tourism.org. https://www.india-tourism.org/delhi-travel/delhi-fairs-festivals.html.
- Delhi: a portrait, by Khushwant Singh, Raghu Rai, Published by Delhi Tourism Development Corp., 1983. ISBN:978-0-19-561437-4. p. 15.
- Tankha, Madhur (15 December 2005). "It's Sufi and rock at Qutub Fest". The Hindu (Chennai). https://www.hindu.com/2005/12/15/stories/2005121503090200.htm.
- "Front Page: Asia's largest auto carnival begins in Delhi tomorrow". The Hindu (Chennai). 9 January 2008. https://www.hindu.com/2008/01/09/stories/2008010953071500.htm.
- "Delhi Metro records 10% rise in commuters". The Times of India. 1 July 2008. https://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2008-07-01/delhi/27921191_1_ridership-delhi-metro-shahdara-dilshad-garden.
- Sunil Sethi / New Delhi 9 February 2008. "Sunil Sethi: Why Delhi is India's Book Capital". Business Standard. https://www.business-standard.com/india/storypage.php?autono=313090.
- "Report of IITF 2014". https://www.iitf.in/res/pdf/report-of-iitf-2014.pdf.
- DK Eyewitness Top 10 Travel Guide: Delhi. Dorling Kindersley. 2012. p. 65. ISBN 9781409387008.
- Swamy, M. R. Narayan (2006). New Delhi. Marshall Cavendish. pp. 14–17. ISBN 978-981-232-996-7. https://books.google.com/books?id=VCX1UrCinO4C. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
- Singh, Chetananand (2010). "Commonwealth games guide to Delhi". Delhi Tourism and Transportation Development Corporation Ltd. https://www.delhitourism.gov.in/delhitourism/pdf/Book1-complete.pdf.
- Duncan, Fiona (6 March 2011). "Delhi, India: hotels, restaurants and transport". The Daily Telegraph (London). https://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/citybreaks/8362383/Delhi-India-hotels-restaurants-and-transport.html.
- Brown, Lindsay; Thomas, Amelia (2008). Rajasthan, Delhi and Agra (second ed.). Footscray, Vic.: Lonely Planet. pp. 20–31. ISBN 978-1-74104-690-8. https://archive.org/details/lonelyplanetraja00brow.
- "Schools in Delhi". https://www.onlineschooladmissions.com/Delhi-schools-directory.html.
- "Chapter 15: Education". Economic Survey of Delhi, 2005–06. Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. pp. 173–187. https://delhiplanning.nic.in/Economic%20Survey/ES%202005-06/Chpt/15.pdf.
- "8 Indian universities feature in THE Asia Rankings top 100 list — and it's not just IITs". https://www.businessinsider.in/education/news/the-asia-rankings-2020-only-8-indian-universities-ranked-in-top-100/articleshow/76172447.cms.
- "QS Asia Ranking 2019: 19 Indian Institutes In Top 200; IIT Bombay, IIT Delhi, IIT Kharagpur Improve Ranking" (in en). https://www.ndtv.com/education/qs-asia-ranking-2019-19-indian-institutes-in-top-200-iit-bombay-iit-delhi-iit-kharagpur-improve-rank-1937601.
- "Home | NSIT". https://www.nsit.ac.in/.
- "List of State Universities". https://www.ugc.ac.in/stateuniversitylist.aspx?id=5&Unitype=2.
- "The Indira Gandhi National Open University Act, 198". Government of India. https://mhrd.gov.in/sites/upload_files/mhrd/files/IGNOUACT-1985.pdf.
- "outlookindia.com | wired". Outlookindia.com. https://www.outlookindia.com/pti_news.asp?id=325739.
- "What is CAS? What is DTH?". rediff news: Business. Rediff.com. 5 September 2006. https://www.rediff.com///money/2006/sep/05iycu.htm.
- "Biographical Data of Vir Sanghvi". https://www.virsanghvi.com/about-vir.aspx.
- Naqvi, Farah (14 November 2006). "Chapter4: Towards a Mass Media Campaign: Analysing the relationship between target audiences and mass media". Images and icons: Harnessing the Power of Mass Media to Promote Gender Equality and Reduce Practices of Sex Selection. BBC World Service Trust. pp. 26–36. https://downloads.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/trust/pdf/india_sex_selection/Chapter4.pdf.
- "Delhi: Radio Stations in Delhi, India". ASIAWAVES: Radio and TV Broadcasting in South and South-East Asia. Alan G. Davies. 15 November 2006. https://www.asiawaves.net/india/delhi-radio.htm.
- "All India Radio". Indian government. https://india.gov.in/knowindia/radio.php.
- "Radio Stations in Delhi, India". Asiawaves asiawaves.net. https://www.asiawaves.net/india/delhi-radio.htm.
- "OCA » New Delhi 1951". https://ocasia.org/games/107-new-delhi-1951.html.
- "President Inaugurates First Asian Games". The India Express (Madras): p. 5. https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=yANFAAAAIBAJ&pg=4573,1745099&dq=1951+asian+games&hl=en.
- "OCA » New Delhi 1982". https://ocasia.org/games/99-new-delhi-1982.html.
- Burke, Jason (3 October 2010). "'India has arrived': spectacular ceremony opens Commonwealth Games". London: The Guardian, UK. https://www.theguardian.com/sport/2010/oct/03/commonwealth-games-opening-ceremony-delhi-india.
- Hart, Simon (3 October 2010). "Commonwealth Games 2010: India opens doors to the world at opening ceremony". The Telegraph (London). https://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/othersports/commonwealthgames/8039988/Commonwealth-Games-2010-India-opens-doors-to-the-world-at-opening-ceremony.html.
- "Biggest ever Commonwealth Games begins in Delhi". The Times of India. Press Trust of India. 3 October 2010. https://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2010-10-03/delhi/28248198_1_cheers-and-jeers-commonwealth-games-federation-federation-president-mike-fennell.
- "CWG: 8,000 artists to show 5,000-year-old culture". One India News. 3 October 2010. https://news.oneindia.in/2010/10/03/cwg-8000-artists-to-show-5000-year-old-culture.html.
- "The CWG opening show reality: Rs 350 crore". The Times of India. 5 October 2010. https://blogs.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/randomaccess/entry/the-cwg-opening-show-reality-rs-350-crore.
- "Non-Competition Venues". Commonwealth Games Organising Committee. https://www.cwgdelhi2010.org/non_competition_venues.
- Camenzuli, Charles. "Cricket may be included in the 2010 Games". Interview. International Sports Press Association. https://www.aipsmedia.com/index.php?page=interview&cod=4.
- "A Brief History: The Ranji Trophy". ESPNcricinfo. 2 October 2006. https://content.cricinfo.com/india/content/story/261615.html.
- "Virat Kohli: Delhi's golden boy since 2002". The Times of India. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/sports/icc-world-t20-2016/Virat-Kohli-Delhis-golden-boy-since-2002/articleshow/51667800.cms.
- "Ambedkar stadium to host India's World Cup qualifier". The Times of India. 28 June 2011. https://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-06-28/top-stories/29712461_1_dsa-vice-president-nk-bhatia-ambedkar-stadium-football-stadium.
- "Bob Houghton's Boys made India proud with a superb victory over Syria". 17 May 2012. KolkataFootballs.com. https://www.kolkatafootballs.com/ongc_nehru_2007.html.
- "India vs Syria Nehru Cup 2009 Football Final Results, Highlights". CLbuzz. https://www.clbuzz.com/india-vs-syria-nehru-cup-2009-football-final-results-highlights/.
- Gregory, Sean (4 August 2011). "'They Need TV Product': Why American Football Is Coming To India". Time. https://newsfeed.time.com/2011/08/04/they-need-tv-product-why-american-football-is-coming-to-india/.
- "India company says on track for 2011 F1 race". Reuters. 15 April 2009. https://in.reuters.com/article/topNews/idINIndia-39048520090415?pageNumber=1&virtualBrandChannel=0&sp=true.
- Economic Survey of Delhi 2005–2006. Planning Department. Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. Retrieved 12 February 2007
- Dalrymple, W (2003). City of Djinns (1 ed.). Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-200100-4.
- Dalrymple, W (2003). Vidhya Society, (2009). Vidhya Society (NGO) is a leading charitable organization of Uttar Pradesh (India) established under society registration act 21-1860 on the special occasion of World Disable Year 2009. Director Mr. Pavan Upadhyay www.vidhyasociety.com (1 ed.). Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-200100-4.
- Prager, D (2013). Delirious Delhi (1 ed.). Arcade Publishing. ISBN 978-1-61145-832-9.
- Brown, L (2011). Lonely Planet Rajasthan, Delhi & Agra (5 ed.). Lonely Planet Publications. ISBN 978-1-74179-460-1. https://archive.org/details/isbn_9781741794601.
- Rowe, P; Coster, P (2004). Delhi (Great Cities of the World). World Almanac Library. ISBN 978-0-8368-5197-7.
- Four-part series on Delhi (2 June 2012). "Metrocity Journal: Delhi's Changing Landscape". The Wall Street Journal. https://blogs.wsj.com/indiarealtime/2012/05/30/metrocity-journal-delhis-changing-landscape/.
Original source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delhi. Read more