'Punjabi' written in Shahmukhi script used in Punjab, Pakistan (top) and Gurmukhi script used in Punjab, India (bottom)
|Native to||Pakistan and India|
|113 million (2011–2017)|
Official language in
|Regulated by||Punjab Institute of Language, Art & Culture, Punjab, Pakistan |
Department of Languages, Punjab, India 
Punjabi (/pʌnˈdʒɑːbi/; پنجابی (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬੀ (Gurmukhi), Punjabi: [pəɲˈdʒab̆.bi] (listen)), sometimes spelled Panjabi,[lower-alpha 2] is an Indo-Aryan language of the Punjab region of Pakistan and India. It has approximately 113 million native speakers.
Punjabi is the most widely-spoken first language in Pakistan, with 80.5 million native speakers as per the 2017 census, and the 11th most widely-spoken in India, with 31.1 million native speakers, as per the 2011 census. The language is spoken among a significant overseas diaspora, particularly in Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Canada, the United Kingdom , and the United States.
In Pakistan, Punjabi is written using the Shahmukhi alphabet, based on the Perso-Arabic script; in India, it is written using the Gurmukhi alphabet, based on the Indic scripts. Punjabi is unusual among the Indo-Aryan languages and the broader Indo-European language family in its usage of lexical tone.
The word Punjabi (sometimes spelled Panjabi) has been derived from the word Panj-āb, Persian for 'Five Waters', referring to the five major eastern tributaries of the Indus River. The name of the region was introduced by the Turko-Persian conquerors of South Asia and was a translation of the Sanskrit name for the region, Panchanada, which means 'Land of the Five Rivers'.
Panj is cognate with Sanskrit pañca (पञ्च), Greek pénte (πέντε), and Lithuanian Penki, all of which meaning 'five'; āb is cognate with Sanskrit áp (अप्) and with the Av- of Avon. The historical Punjab region, now divided between India and Pakistan, is defined physiographically by the Indus River and these five tributaries. One of the five, the Beas River, is a tributary of another, the Sutlej.
Punjabi developed from Prakrit languages and later Apabhraṃśa (Sanskrit: अपभ्रंश, 'deviated' or 'non-grammatical speech') From 600 BC, Sanskrit developed as the standard literary and administrative language and Prakrit languages evolved into many regional languages in different parts of India. All these languages are called Prakrit languages (Sanskrit: प्राकृत, prākṛta) collectively. Paishachi Prakrit was one of these Prakrit languages, which was spoken in north and north-western India and Punjabi developed from this Prakrit. Later in northern India Paishachi Prakrit gave rise to Paishachi Aparbhsha, a descendant of Prakrit. Punjabi emerged as an Apabhramsha, a degenerated form of Prakrit, in the 7th century AD and became stable by the 10th century. The earliest writings in Punjabi belong to Nath Yogi era from 9th to 14th century. The language of these compositions is morphologically closer to Shauraseni Apbhramsa, though vocabulary and rhythm is surcharged with extreme colloquialism and folklore.
Arabic and Persian influences
The Arabic and modern Persian influence in the historical Punjab region began with the late first millennium Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent. Many Persian and Arabic words were incorporated in Punjabi. So Punjabi relies heavily on Persian and Arabic words which are used with a liberal approach to language. Many important words like ਅਰਦਾਸ, ਰਹਿਰਾਸ, ਨਹਿਰ, ਜ਼ਮੀਨ, ਗਜ਼ਲ, etc. are derived from Persian and Arabic. After the fall of the Sikh empire, Urdu was made the official language of Punjab (in Pakistani Punjab, it is still the primary official language), and influenced the language as well.
In fact, the sounds of ਜ਼, ਖ਼, ਸ਼, and ਫ਼ have been borrowed from Persian. Later, it was lexically influenced by Portuguese (words like ਅਲਮਾਰੀ/الماری), Greek (words like ਦਾਮ/دام), Chagatai (words like ਕ਼ੈੰਚੀ, ਸੁਗ਼ਾਤ/قینچی،سوغات), Japanese (words like ਰਿਕਸ਼ਾ/رکشا), Chinese (words like ਚਾਹ, ਲੀਚੀ, ਲੁਕਾਠ/چاہ، لیچی، لکاٹھ) and English (words like ਜੱਜ, ਅਪੀਲ, ਮਾਸਟਰ/جج، اپیل، ماسٹر), though these influences have been minor in comparison to Persian and Arabic.
|English||Gurmukhi-based (Punjab, India)||Shahmukhi-based (Punjab, Pakistan)|
|President||ਰਾਸ਼ਟਰਪਤੀ (rāshtarpatī)||صدرمملکت (sadar-e mumlikat)|
|Article||ਲੇਖ (lēkh)||مضمون (mazmūn)|
|Prime Minister||ਪਰਧਾਨ ਮੰਤਰੀ (pardhān mantarī)*||وزیراعظم (vazīr-e aʿzam)|
|خاندان (kḥāndān) |
|Capital city||ਰਾਜਧਾਨੀ (rājdhānī)||دارالحکومت (dār-al ḥakūmat)|
|Viewer||ਦਰਸ਼ਕ (darshak)||ناظرین (nāzarīn)|
|Listener||ਸਰੋਤਾ (sarotā)||سامع (sāmaʿ)|
Note: In more formal contexts, hypercorrect Sanskritized versions of these words (ਪ੍ਰਧਾਨ pradhān for ਪਰਧਾਨ pardhān and ਪਰਿਵਾਰ parivār for ਪਰਵਾਰ parvār) may be used.
Punjabi is spoken in many dialects. The Majhi dialect has been adopted as standard Punjabi in India and Pakistan for education and mass media. The Majhi dialect originated in the Majha region of the Punjab.
In India, Punjabi is written in the Gurmukhī script in offices, schools, and media. Gurmukhi is the official standard script for Punjabi, though it is often unofficially written in the Latin scripts due to influence from English, India's two primary official languages at the Union-level.
In Pakistan, Punjabi is generally written using the Shahmukhī script, which in literary standards, is identical to the Urdu alphabet, however various attempts have been made to create certain, distinct characters from a modification of the Persian Nastaʿlīq characters to represent Punjabi phonology, not already found in the Urdu alphabet. In Pakistan, Punjabi loans technical words from Persian and Arabic languages, just like Urdu does.
Punjabi is the most widely spoken language in Pakistan, the eleventh-most widely spoken in India, and also present in the Punjabi diaspora in various countries.
Punjabi is the most widely spoken language in Pakistan, being the native language of 80.5 million people, or approximately 39% of the country's population.
|Year||Population of Pakistan||Percentage||Punjabi speakers|
Beginning with the 1981 census, speakers of Saraiki and Hindko were no longer included in the total numbers for Punjabi, which explains the apparent decrease.
Punjabi is the official language of the Indian state of Punjab, and has the status of an additional official language in Haryana and Delhi. Some of its major urban centres in northern India are Amritsar, Ludhiana, Chandigarh, Jalandhar, Ambala, Patiala, Bathinda, Hoshiarpur, Firozpur and Delhi.
In the 2011 census of India, 31.14 million reported their language as Punjabi. The census publications group this with speakers of related "mother tongues" like Bagri and Bhateali to arrive at the figure of 33.12 million.
|Year||Population of India||Punjabi speakers in India||Percentage|
Punjabi is also spoken as a minority language in several other countries where Punjabi people have emigrated in large numbers, such as the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom, and Canada.
There were 0.67 million native Punjabi speakers in Canada in 2021, 0.3 million in the United Kingdom in 2011, 0.28 million in the United States and smaller numbers in other countries.
Standard Punjabi sometimes referred to as Majhi in India or simply Punjabi, is the most widespread and largest dialect of Punjabi. It first developed in the 12th century and gained prominence when Sufi poets such as Shah Hussain, Bulleh Shah among others began to use the Lahore/Amritsar spoken dialect with infused Persian vocabulary in their works in the Shahmukhi script. Later the Gurmukhi script was developed based on Standard Punjabi by the Sikh Gurus.
In Pakistan , the Standard Punjabi dialect is not referred to as the 'Majhi dialect', which may be considered as 'Indian terminology', rather simply as 'Standard Punjabi'. This dialect is widely used in the TV and entertainment industry, which is mainly produced in Lahore.
While a vowel length distinction between short and long vowels exists, reflected in modern Gurmukhi orthographical conventions, it is secondary to the vowel quality contrast between centralised vowels /ɪ ə ʊ/ and peripheral vowels /iː eː ɛː aː ɔː oː uː/ in terms of phonetic significance.
|Close||iː ਈ اِی||uː ਊ اُو|
|Near-close||ɪ ਇ اِ||ʊ ਉ اُ|
|Close-mid||eː ਏ اے||oː ਓ او|
|Mid||ə ਅ اَ|
|Open-mid||ɛː ਐ اَے||ɔː ਔ اَو|
|Open||aː ਆ آ|
The peripheral vowels have nasal analogues.
|Nasal||m ਮ م||n ਨ ن||ɳ ਣ ݨ||(ɲ) ਞ ن||(ŋ) ਙ ن٘|
|tenuis||p ਪ پ||t̪ ਤ ت||ʈ ਟ ٹ||t͡ʃ ਚ چ||k ਕ ک|
|aspirated||pʰ ਫ پھ||tʰ ਥ تھ||ʈʰ ਠ ٹھ||t͡ʃʰ ਛ چھ||kʰ ਖ کھ|
|voiced||b ਬ ب||d̪ ਦ د||ɖ ਡ ڈ||d͡ʒ ਜ ج||ɡ ਗ گ|
|tonal||ਭ بھ||ਧ دھ||ਢ ڈھ||ਝ جھ||ਘ گھ|
|Fricative||voiceless||(f ਫ਼ ف)||s ਸ س||ʃ ਸ਼ ش||(x ਖ਼ خ)|
|voiced||(z ਜ਼ ز)||(ɣ ਗ਼ غ)||ɦ ਹ ہ|
|Rhotic||ɾ~r ਰ ر||ɽ ੜ ڑ|
|Approximant||ʋ ਵ و||l ਲ ل||ɭ ਲ਼ لؕ||j ਯ ی|
Note: for the tonal stops, refer to the next section about Tone.
The three retroflex consonants /ɳ, ɽ, ɭ/ do not occur initially, and the nasals /ŋ, ɲ/ occur only as allophones of /n/ in clusters with velars and palatals. The well-established phoneme /ʃ/ may be realised allophonically as the voiceless retroflex fricative /ʂ/ in learned clusters with retroflexes. The phonemic status of the fricatives /f, z, x, ɣ/ varies with familiarity with Hindustani norms, more so with the Gurmukhi script, with the pairs /f, pʰ/, /z, d͡ʒ/, /x, kʰ/, and /ɣ, g/ systematically distinguished in educated speech. The retroflex lateral is most commonly analysed as an approximant as opposed to a flap.
Unusually for an Indo-Aryan language, Punjabi distinguishes lexical tones. Three tones are distinguished in Punjabi (some sources have described these as tone contours, given in parentheses): low (high-falling), high (low-rising), and level (neutral or middle). The transcriptions and tone annotations in the examples below are based on those provided in Punjabi University, Patiala’s Punjabi-English Dictionary.
|ਕਰ੍ਹਾ||Template:Uninastaliq||karhā||/kə́.rɑ/||high||powdered remains of cow-dung cakes|
|ਝੜ||Template:Uninastaliq||jhaṛ||/t͡ʃə̀.ɽᵊ/||low||shade caused by clouds|
|ਚੜ੍ਹ||Template:Uninastaliq||chaṛh||/t͡ʃə́.ɽᵊ/||high||rise to fame, ascendancy|
Level tone is found in about 75% of words and is described by some as absence of tone. There are also some words which are said to have rising tone in the first syllable and falling in the second. (Some writers describe this as a fourth tone.) However, a recent acoustic study of six Punjabi speakers in the United States found no evidence of a separate falling tone following a medial consonant.
- ਮੋਢਾ / موڈھا, móḍà (rising-falling), "shoulder"
File:Punjabi specific sounds.ogg
It is considered that these tones arose when voiced aspirated consonants (gh, jh, ḍh, dh, bh) lost their aspiration. At the beginning of a word, they became voiceless unaspirated consonants (k, c, ṭ, t, p) followed by a high-falling tone; medially or finally they became voiced unaspirated consonants (g, j, ḍ, d, b), preceded by a low-rising tone. (The development of a high-falling tone apparently did not take place in every word, but only in those which historically had a long vowel.)
The presence of an [h] (although the [h] is now silent or very weakly pronounced except word-initially) word-finally (and sometimes medially) also often causes a rising tone before it, for example cá(h) "tea".
The Gurmukhi script which was developed in the 16th century has separate letters for voiced aspirated sounds, so it is thought that the change in pronunciation of the consonants and development of tones may have taken place since that time.
Some other languages in Pakistan have also been found to have tonal distinctions, including Burushaski, Gujari, Hindko, Kalami, Shina, and Torwali.
Punjabi has a canonical word order of SOV (subject–object–verb). Function words are largely postpositions marking grammatical case on a preceding nominal.
Punjabi distinguishes two genders, two numbers, and six cases of direct, oblique, vocative, ablative, and locative, and instrumental. The ablative occurs only in the singular, in free variation with oblique case plus ablative postposition, and the locative and instrumental are usually confined to set adverbial expressions.
Adjectives, when declinable, are marked for the gender, number, and case of the nouns they qualify. There is also a T-V distinction. Upon the inflectional case is built a system of particles known as postpositions, which parallel English's prepositions. It is their use with a noun or verb that is what necessitates the noun or verb taking the oblique case, and it is with them that the locus of grammatical function or "case-marking" then lies. The Punjabi verbal system is largely structured around a combination of aspect and tense/mood. Like the nominal system, the Punjabi verb takes a single inflectional suffix, and is often followed by successive layers of elements like auxiliary verbs and postpositions to the right of the lexical base.
Being an Indo-Aryan language, the core vocabulary of Punjabi consists of tadbhav words inherited from Sanskrit. It contains many loanwords from Persian and Arabic.
The Punjabi language is written in multiple scripts (a phenomenon known as synchronic digraphia). Each of the major scripts currently in use is typically associated with a particular religious group, although the association is not absolute or exclusive. In India, Punjabi Sikhs use Gurmukhi, a script of the Brahmic family, which has official status in the state of Punjab. In Pakistan, Punjabi Muslims use Shahmukhi, a variant of the Perso-Arabic script and closely related to the Urdu alphabet. The Punjabi Hindus in India had a preference for Devanagari, another Brahmic script also used for Hindi, and in the first decades since independence raised objections to the uniform adoption of Gurmukhi in the state of Punjab, but most have now switched to Gurmukhi and so the use of Devanagari is rare. Often in literature, Pakistani Punjabi (written in Shahmukhi) is referred as Western-Punjabi (or West-Punjabi) and Indian Punjabi (written in Gurmukhi) is referred as Eastern-Punjabi (or East-Punjabi), although the underlying language is the same with a very slight shift in vocabulary towards Islamic and Sikh words respectively.
Historically, various local Brahmic scripts including Laṇḍā and its descendants were also in use.
The Punjabi Braille is used by the visually impaired.
This sample text was taken from the Punjabi Wikipedia article on Lahore.
ਲਹੌਰ ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨੀ ਪੰਜਾਬ ਦੀ ਰਾਜਧਾਨੀ ਹੈ। ਲੋਕ ਗਿਣਤੀ ਦੇ ਨਾਲ ਕਰਾਚੀ ਤੋਂ ਬਾਅਦ ਲਹੌਰ ਦੂਜਾ ਸਭ ਤੋਂ ਵੱਡਾ ਸ਼ਹਿਰ ਹੈ। ਲਹੌਰ ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨ ਦਾ ਸਿਆਸੀ, ਰਹਤਲੀ ਅਤੇ ਪੜ੍ਹਾਈ ਦਾ ਗੜ੍ਹ ਹੈ ਅਤੇ ਇਸੇ ਲਈ ਇਹਨੂੰ ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨ ਦਾ ਦਿਲ ਵੀ ਕਿਹਾ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਹੈ। ਲਹੌਰ ਰਾਵੀ ਦਰਿਆ ਦੇ ਕੰਢੇ 'ਤੇ ਵਸਦਾ ਹੈ। ਇਸਦੀ ਲੋਕ ਗਿਣਤੀ ਇੱਕ ਕਰੋੜ ਦੇ ਨੇੜੇ ਹੈ।
Shahmukhi (the sample text is not word-for-word the same)
Lahaur Pākistānī Panjāb dī rājtā̀ni/dā dārul hakūmat ài. Lok giṇtī de nāḷ Karācī tõ bāad Lahaur dūjā sáb tõ vaḍḍā šáir ài. Lahaur Pākistān dā siāsī, rátalī ate paṛā̀ī dā gáṛ ài te ise laī ínū̃ Pākistān dā dil vī kihā jāndā ài. Lahaur Rāvī dariā de káṇḍè te vasdā ài. Isdī lok giṇtī ikk karoṛ de neṛe ài.
[ləɔːɾᵊ paːkɪstaːniː pənd͡ʒaːbᵊ diː ɾaːd͡ʒᵊtàːniː /daː daːɾəl hʊkuːmət ɦɛ̀ː ‖ loːkᵊ ɡɪɳᵊtiː de naːlᵊ kəɾaːt͡ʃiː tõː baːədᵊ ləɦɔːɾᵊ duːd͡ʒaː sə́bᵊ tõː ʋəɖːaː ʃəɦɪɾ ɦɛ̀ː ‖ ləɔːɾᵊ paːkɪstaːnᵊ daː sɪaːsiː | ɾə́ɦtəliː əteː pəɽàːiː daː ɡə́ɽ ɦɛ̀ː əteː ɪseː ləiː ɪ́ɦnū̃ paːkɪstaːnᵊ daː dɪlᵊ ʋiː kɪɦaː d͡ʒaːndaː ɛ̀ː ‖ ləɔːɾᵊ ɾaːʋiː dəɾɪaː deː kə́ɳɖeː teː ʋəsᵊdaː ɛ̀ː ‖ ɪsᵊdiː loːkᵊ ɡɪɳᵊtiː ɪkːᵊ kəɾoːɽᵊ deː neːɽeˑ ɛ̀ː ‖]
Lahore is the capital city of Pakistani Punjab. After Karachi, Lahore is the second largest city. Lahore is Pakistan's political, cultural, and educational hub, and so it is also said to be the heart of Pakistan . Lahore lies on the bank of the Ravi River. Its population is close to ten million people.
- Fariduddin Ganjshakar (1179–1266) is generally recognised as the first major poet of the Punjabi language. Roughly from the 12th century to the 19th century, many great Sufi saints and poets preached in the Punjabi language, the most prominent being Bulleh Shah. Punjabi Sufi poetry also developed under Shah Hussain (1538–1599), Sultan Bahu (1630–1691), Shah Sharaf (1640–1724), Ali Haider (1690–1785), Waris Shah (1722–1798), Saleh Muhammad Safoori (1747–1826), Mian Muhammad Baksh (1830–1907) and Khwaja Ghulam Farid (1845–1901).
- The Sikh religion originated in the 15th century in the Punjab region and Punjabi is the predominant language spoken by Sikhs. Most portions of the Guru Granth Sahib use the Punjabi language written in Gurmukhi, though Punjabi is not the only language used in Sikh scriptures.
The Janamsakhis, stories on the life and legend of Guru Nanak (1469–1539), are early examples of Punjabi prose literature.
- The Punjabi language is famous for its rich literature of qisse, most of which are about love, passion, betrayal, sacrifice, social values and a common man's revolt against a larger system. The qissa of Heer Ranjha by Waris Shah (1706–1798) is among the most popular of Punjabi qissas. Other popular stories include Sohni Mahiwal by Fazal Shah, Mirza Sahiban by Hafiz Barkhudar (1658–1707), Sassui Punnhun by Hashim Shah (c. 1735–c. 1843), and Qissa Puran Bhagat by Qadaryar (1802–1892).
- Heroic ballads known as Vaar enjoy a rich oral tradition in Punjabi. Famous Vaars are Chandi di Var (1666–1708), Nadir Shah Di Vaar by Najabat and the Jangnama of Shah Mohammad (1780–1862).
The Victorian novel, Elizabethan drama, free verse and Modernism entered Punjabi literature through the introduction of British education during the Raj. Nanak Singh (1897–1971), Vir Singh, Ishwar Nanda, Amrita Pritam (1919–2005), Puran Singh (1881–1931), Dhani Ram Chatrik (1876–1957), Diwan Singh (1897–1944) and Ustad Daman (1911–1984), Mohan Singh (1905–78) and Shareef Kunjahi are some legendary Punjabi writers of this period. After independence of Pakistan and India Najm Hossein Syed, Fakhar Zaman and Afzal Ahsan Randhawa, Shafqat Tanvir Mirza, Ahmad Salim, and Najm Hosain Syed, Munir Niazi, Ali Arshad Mir, Pir Hadi Abdul Mannan enriched Punjabi literature in Pakistan, whereas Jaswant Singh Kanwal (1919–2020), Amrita Pritam (1919–2005), Jaswant Singh Rahi (1930–1996), Shiv Kumar Batalvi (1936–1973), Surjit Patar (1944–) and Pash (1950–1988) are some of the more prominent poets and writers from India.
Despite Punjabi's rich literary history, it was not until 1947 that it would be recognised as an official language. Previous governments in the area of the Punjab had favoured Persian, Hindustani, or even earlier standardised versions of local registers as the language of the court or government. After the annexation of the Sikh Empire by the British East India Company following the Second Anglo-Sikh War in 1849, the British policy of establishing a uniform language for administration was expanded into the Punjab. The British Empire employed Urdu in its administration of North-Central and Northwestern India, while in the North-East of India, Bengali language was used as the language of administration. Despite its lack of official sanction, the Punjabi language continued to flourish as an instrument of cultural production, with rich literary traditions continuing until modern times. The Sikh religion, with its Gurmukhi script, played a special role in standardising and providing education in the language via Gurdwaras, while writers of all religions continued to produce poetry, prose, and literature in the language.
In India, Punjabi is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India. It is the first official language of the Indian State of Punjab. Punjabi also has second language official status in Delhi along with Urdu, and in Haryana.
In Pakistan, no regional ethnic language has been granted official status at the national level, and as such Punjabi is not an official language at the national level, even though it is the most spoken language in Pakistan. It is, however, the official provincial language of Punjab, Pakistan, the second largest and the most populous province of Pakistan as well as in Islamabad Capital Territory. The only two official languages in Pakistan are Urdu and English.
When Pakistan was created in 1947, despite Punjabi being the majority language in West Pakistan and Bengali the majority in East Pakistan and Pakistan as whole, English and Urdu were chosen as the national languages. The selection of Urdu was due to its association with South Asian Muslim nationalism and because the leaders of the new nation wanted a unifying national language instead of promoting one ethnic group's language over another. Broadcasting in Punjabi language by Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation decreased on TV and radio after 1947. Article 251 of the Constitution of Pakistan declares that these two languages would be the only official languages at the national level, while provincial governments would be allowed to make provisions for the use of other languages. However, in the 1950s the constitution was amended to include the Bengali language. Eventually, Punjabi was granted status as a provincial language in Punjab Province, while the Sindhi language was given official status in 1972 after 1972 Language violence in Sindh.
Despite gaining official recognition at the provincial level, Punjabi is not a language of instruction for primary or secondary school students in Punjab Province (unlike Sindhi and Pashto in other provinces). Pupils in secondary schools can choose the language as an elective, while Punjabi instruction or study remains rare in higher education. One notable example is the teaching of Punjabi language and literature by the University of the Punjab in Lahore which began in 1970 with the establishment of its Punjabi Department.
In the cultural sphere, there are many books, plays, and songs being written or produced in the Punjabi-language in Pakistan. Until the 1970s, there were a large number of Punjabi-language films being produced by the Lollywood film industry, however since then Urdu has become a much more dominant language in film production. Additionally, television channels in Punjab Province (centred on the Lahore area) are broadcast in Urdu. The preeminence of Urdu in both broadcasting and the Lollywood film industry is seen by critics as being detrimental to the health of the language.
The use of Urdu and English as the near exclusive languages of broadcasting, the public sector, and formal education have led some to fear that Punjabi in Pakistan is being relegated to a low-status language and that it is being denied an environment where it can flourish. Several prominent educational leaders, researchers, and social commentators have echoed the opinion that the intentional promotion of Urdu and the continued denial of any official sanction or recognition of the Punjabi language amounts to a process of "Urdu-isation" that is detrimental to the health of the Punjabi language In August 2015, the Pakistan Academy of Letters, International Writer's Council (IWC) and World Punjabi Congress (WPC) organised the Khawaja Farid Conference and demanded that a Punjabi-language university should be established in Lahore and that Punjabi language should be declared as the medium of instruction at the primary level. In September 2015, a case was filed in Supreme Court of Pakistan against Government of Punjab, Pakistan as it did not take any step to implement the Punjabi language in the province. Additionally, several thousand Punjabis gather in Lahore every year on International Mother Language Day. Thinktanks, political organisations, cultural projects, and individuals also demand authorities at the national and provincial level to promote the use of the language in the public and official spheres.
At the federal level, Punjabi has official status via the Eighth Schedule to the Indian Constitution, earned after the Punjabi Suba movement of the 1950s. At the state level, Punjabi is the sole official language of the state of Punjab, while it has secondary official status in the states of Haryana and Delhi. In 2012, it was also made additional official language of West Bengal in areas where the population exceeds 10% of a particular block, sub-division or district.
Both union and state laws specify the use of Punjabi in the field of education. The state of Punjab uses the Three Language Formula, and Punjabi is required to be either the medium of instruction, or one of the three languages learnt in all schools in Punjab. Punjabi is also a compulsory language in Haryana, and other states with a significant Punjabi speaking minority are required to offer Punjabi medium education.
There are vibrant Punjabi language movie and news industries in India, however Punjabi serials have had a much smaller presence within the last few decades in television due to market forces. Despite Punjabi having far greater official recognition in India, where the Punjabi language is officially admitted in all necessary social functions, while in Pakistan it is used only in a few radio and TV programs, attitudes of the English-educated elite towards the language are ambivalent as they are in neighbouring Pakistan.:37 There are also claims of state apathy towards the language in non-Punjabi majority areas like Haryana and Delhi.
- Punjabi University was established on 30 April 1962, and is only the second university in the world to be named after a language, after Hebrew University of Jerusalem. The Research Centre for Punjabi Language Technology, Punjabi University, Patiala is working for development of core technologies for Punjabi, Digitisation of basic materials, online Punjabi teaching, developing software for office use in Punjabi, providing common platform to Punjabi cyber community. Punjabipedia, an online encyclopaedia was also launched by Patiala university in 2014.
- The Dhahan Prize was created to award literary works produced in Punjabi around the world. The Prize encourages new writing by awarding $25,000 CDN annually to one "best book of fiction" published in either of the two Punjabi scripts, Gurmukhi or Shahmukhi. Two second prizes of $5,000 CDN are also awarded, with the provision that both scripts are represented among the three winners. The Dhahan Prize is awarded by Canada India Education Society (CIES).
Governmental academies and institutes
The Punjabi Sahit academy, Ludhiana, established in 1954 is supported by the Punjab state government and works exclusively for promotion of the Punjabi language, as does the Punjabi academy in Delhi. The Jammu and Kashmir academy of art, culture and literature in Jammu and Kashmir UT, India works for Punjabi and other regional languages like Urdu, Dogri, Gojri etc. Institutions in neighbouring states as well as in Lahore, Pakistan also advocate for the language.
- Software is available for the Punjabi language on almost all platforms. This software is mainly in the Gurmukhi script. Nowadays, nearly all Punjabi newspapers, magazines, journals, and periodicals are composed on computers via various Punjabi software programmes, the most widespread of which is InPage Desktop Publishing package. Microsoft has included Punjabi language support in all the new versions of Windows and both Windows Vista, Microsoft Office 2007, 2010 and 2013, are available in Punjabi through the Language Interface Pack support. Most Linux Desktop distributions allow the easy installation of Punjabi support and translations as well. Apple implemented the Punjabi language keyboard across Mobile devices. Google also provides many applications in Punjabi, like Google Search, Google Translate and Google Punjabi Input Tools.
A sign board in Punjabi language along with Hindi at Hanumangarh, Rajasthan, India
- Punjabi Language Movement
- Languages of Pakistan
- Languages of India
- List of Indian languages by total speakers
- List of Punjabi-language newspapers
- Punjabi cinema
- ↑ Paishachi, Saurasheni, or Gandhari Prakrits have been proposed as the ancestor Middle Indo-Aryan language to Punjabi.
- ↑ Punjabi is the British English spelling, and Pañjābī is the Romanized spelling from the native script(s).
- ↑ 80.5 million in Pakistan (2017), 31.1 in India (2011), 0.5 in Canada (2016), 0.3 in the UK (2011), 0.3 in the US (2017), 0.1 in Australia (2016). See § Geographic distribution below.
- ↑ Singh, Sikander (April 2019). "The Origin Theories of Punjabi Language: A Context of Historiography of Punjabi Language". International Journal of Sikh Studies. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/353680383.
- ↑ Haldar, Gopal (2000). Languages of India. New Delhi: National Book Trust, India. p. 149. ISBN 9788123729367. "The age of Old Punjabi: up to 1600 A.D. […] It is said that evidence of Old Punjabi can be found in the Granth Sahib."
- ↑ Bhatia, Tej K. (2013). Punjabi: A Cognitive-Descriptive Grammar (Reprint ed.). London: Routledge. p. XXV. ISBN 9781136894602. "As an independent language Punjabi has gone through the following three stages of development: Old Punjabi (10th to 16th century). Medieval Punjabi (16th to 19th century), and Modern Punjabi (19th century to Present)."
- ↑ "The Punjab Institute of Language, Art and Culture Act 2004". http://punjablaws.gov.pk/laws//474.html.
- ↑ "NCLM 52nd Report". NCLM. 15 November 2016. http://nclm.nic.in/shared/linkimages/NCLM52ndReport.pdf.
- ↑ "Punjab mandates all signage in Punjabi, in Gurmukhi script". 21 February 2020. https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/punjab-mandates-all-signage-in-punjabi-in-gurmukhi-script/article30881840.ece. 0
- ↑ "All milestones, signboards in Haryana to bear info in English, Hindi and Punjabi: Education Minister". The Indian Express. 3 March 2020. https://indianexpress.com/article/cities/chandigarh/all-milestones-signboards-in-haryana-to-bear-info-in-english-hindi-and-punjabi-education-minister-6297747/.
- ↑ "Punjabi, Urdu made official languages in Delhi". The Times of India. 25 June 2003. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/delhi/Punjabi-Urdu-made-official-languages-in-Delhi/articleshow/43388.cms.
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 "Multi-lingual Bengal". The Telegraph. 11 December 2012. https://www.telegraphindia.com/1121211/jsp/bengal/story_16301872.jsp.
- ↑ India, Tribune (19 August 2020). "Punjabi matric exam on Aug 26". https://www.tribuneindia.com/news/patiala/punjabi-matric-exam-on-aug-26-128241.
- ↑ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds (2017). "Eastern Panjabi". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. http://glottolog.org/resource/languoid/id/panj1256.
- ↑ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds (2017). "Western Panjabi". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. http://glottolog.org/resource/languoid/id/west2386.
- ↑ Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh
- ↑ , p. 88 , Wikidata Q23831241
- ↑ Canfield, Robert L. (1991). Persia in Historical Perspective. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. p. 1 ("Origins"). ISBN 978-0-521-52291-5.
- ↑ Sir, Yule, Henry (13 August 2018). "Hobson-Jobson: A glossary of Colloquial Anglo-Indian Words and Phrases, and of Kindred Terms, Etymological, Historical, Geographical and Discursive". http://dsalsrv02.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?p.1:375.hobson.
- ↑ Macdonell, Arthur Anthony (13 August 2018). "A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary with Transliteration, Accentuation, and Etymological Analysis Throughout". http://dsalsrv02.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/app/macdonell_query.py?qs=%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%9E%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%9A%E0%A4%A8%E0%A4%96&searchhws=yes.
- ↑ Singha, H. S. (2000). The Encyclopedia of Sikhism (over 1000 Entries). Hemkunt Press. p. 166. ISBN 978-81-7010-301-1. https://books.google.com/books?id=gqIbJz7vMn0C&dq=punjabi+prakrit+language&pg=PA166.
- ↑ G S Sidhu (2004). Panjab And Panjabi. http://archive.org/details/panjabandpanjabi_202003.
- ↑ 21.0 21.1 Hoiberg, Dale (2000) (in en). Students' Britannica India. Popular Prakashan. ISBN 978-0-85229-760-5. https://books.google.com/books?id=ISFBJarYX7YC&q=Punjabi+language+Nath+Saints&pg=PA214.
- ↑ Brard, G.S.S. (2007). East of Indus: My Memories of Old Punjab. Hemkunt Publishers. p. 81. ISBN 9788170103608. https://books.google.com/books?id=UUdYFH9skIkC&pg=PA81. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
- ↑ Mir, F. (2010). The Social Space of Language: Vernacular Culture in British Colonial Punjab. University of California Press. p. 35. ISBN 9780520262690. https://books.google.com/books?id=EUPc5pDWKikC&pg=PA35. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
- ↑ Schiffman, H. (2011). Language Policy and Language Conflict in Afghanistan and Its Neighbors: The Changing Politics of Language Choice. Brill. p. 314. ISBN 9789004201453. https://books.google.com/books?id=52aicl9l7rwC&pg=PA314. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
- ↑ Schiffman, Harold (9 December 2011) (in en). Language Policy and Language Conflict in Afghanistan and Its Neighbors: The Changing Politics of Language Choice. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-20145-3. https://books.google.com/books?id=52aicl9l7rwC&q=urdu+words+in+punjabi&pg=PA314.
- ↑ Menon, A.S.; Kusuman, K.K. (1990). A Panorama of Indian Culture: Professor A. Sreedhara Menon Felicitation Volume. Mittal Publications. p. 87. ISBN 9788170992141. https://books.google.com/books?id=z4JqgSUSXDsC&pg=PA87. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
- ↑ "Population Census Organization". http://www.statpak.gov.pk/depts/pco/index.html.
- ↑ "CCI defers approval of census results until elections". 21 March 2021. https://www.dawn.com/news/1410447. The figure of 80.54 million is calculated from the reported 38.78% for the speakers of Punjabi and the 207.685 million total population of Pakistan.
- ↑ "Statement 1 : Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues – 2011". https://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011Census/Language-2011/Statement-1.pdf.
- ↑ "Growth of Scheduled Languages-1971, 1981, 1991 and 2001". Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. http://www.censusindia.gov.in/Census_Data_2001/Census_Data_Online/Language/Statement7.aspx.
- ↑ "Punjabi is 4th most spoken language in Canada". The Times of India. 14 February 2008. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Punjabi_is_Canadas_2nd_most_top_language/articleshow/2782138.cms.
- ↑ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (2022-02-09). "Profile table, Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population - Canada [Country"]. https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2021/dp-pd/prof/index.cfm?Lang=E.
- ↑ 273,000 in England and Wales, and 23,000 in Scotland:
- "2011 Census: Quick Statistics for England and Wales, March 2011". https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/populationandmigration/populationestimates/bulletins/2011censusquickstatisticsforenglandandwales/2013-01-30#tab-Main-language.
- "Table AT_002_2011 – Language used at home other than English (detailed), Scotland". https://www.scotlandscensus.gov.uk/documents/additional_tables/AT_002_2011.xls.
- ↑ "US survey puts Punjabi speakers in US at 2.8 lakh". Times of India. 18 December 2017. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/chandigarh/us-survey-puts-punjabi-speakers-in-us-at-2-8-lakh/articleshow/62121520.cms.
- ↑ Lal, Mohan (1992). Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature. Sahitya Academy. p. 4208.
- ↑ Bhatt, Shankarlal (2006). Punjab. Bhargava, Gopal K.. Delhi: Kalpaz publ. pp. 141. ISBN 81-7835-378-4. OCLC 255107273.
- ↑ Shackle 2003, p. 587.
- ↑ Shackle 2003, p. 588.
- ↑ Karamat, Nayyara. Phonemic inventory of Punjabi. p. 182.
- ↑ ArLaam (similar to ArNoon) has been added to Unicode since Unicode 13.0.0, which can be found in Unicode Arabic Extended-A 08C7, PDF Pg 73 under "Arabic Letter for Punjabi” 08C7 : ࣇ ARABIC LETTER LAM WITH SMALL ARABIC LETTER TAH ABOVE
- ↑ Shackle 2003, p. 589.
- ↑ Masica 1991, p. 97.
- ↑ Arora, K. K.; Arora, S.; Singla, S. R.; Agrawal, S. S. (2007). "SAMPA for Hindi and Punjabi based on their Acoustic and Phonetic Characteristics". Proceedings Oriental COCOSDA: 4–6. https://www.academia.edu/3350695.
- ↑ Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 190–191. ISBN 978-0631198154.
- ↑ Lust, Barbara; Gair, James, eds (1999). "Lexican Anaphors and Pronouns in Punjabi". Lexical Anaphors and Pronouns in Selected South Asian Languages. Walter de Gruyter. p. 637. ISBN 978-3-11-014388-1. Other tonal Indo-Aryan languages include Hindko, Dogri, Western Pahari, Sylheti and some Dardic languages.
- ↑ 46.0 46.1 46.2 Bailey, T.Grahame (1919), English-Punjabi Dictionary, introduction.
- ↑ Singh, Sukhvindar, "Tone Rules and Tone Sandhi in Punjabi".
- ↑ 48.0 48.1 48.2 Bowden, A.L. (2012). "Punjabi Tonemics and the Gurmukhi Script: A Preliminary Study".
- ↑ , Wikidata Q113676548
- ↑ Punjabi University (2018). p. 281
- ↑ Punjabi University (2018). p. 194
- ↑ Punjabi University (2018). p. 192
- ↑ Punjabi University (2018). p. 369
- ↑ 54.0 54.1 Punjabi University (2018). p. 300
- ↑ Kanwal, J.; Ritchart, A.V (2015) "An experimental investigation of tonogenesis in Punjabi". Proceedings of the 18th International of Phonetic Sciences, 2015
- ↑ Lata, Swaran; Arora, Swati (2013) "Laryngeal Tonal characteristics of Punjabi: An Experimental Study"
- ↑ Baart, J.L.G. "Tonal features in languages of northern Pakistan"
- ↑ Gill, Harjeet Singh and Gleason Jr, Henry A. (1969). A Reference Grammar of Panjabi. Patiala: Department of Linguistics, Punjabi University
- ↑ "WALS Online – Language Panjabi". https://wals.info/languoid/lect/wals_code_pan.
- ↑ Shackle (2003:599)
- ↑ Shackle (2003:601)
- ↑ Masica (1991:257)
- ↑ 63.0 63.1 Frawley, William (2003) (in en). International Encyclopedia of Linguistics: 4-Volume Set. Oxford University Press. p. 423. ISBN 978-0-19-513977-8. "Hindus and Sikhs generally use the Gurmukhi script; but Hindus have also begun to write Punjabi in the Devanagari script, as employed for Hindi. Muslims tend to write Punjabi in the Perso-Arabic script, which is also employed for Urdu. Muslim speakers borrow a large number of words from Persian and Arabic; however, the basic Punjabi vocabulary is mainly composed of tadbhava words, i.e. those descended from Sanskrit."
- ↑ Bhatia, Tej K. (1993) (in en). Punjabi: A Conginitive-descriptive Grammar. Psychology Press. p. xxxii. ISBN 978-0-415-00320-9. "Punjabi vocabulary is mainly composed of tadbhav words, i.e., words derived from Sanskrit."
- ↑ Bhatia 2008, p. 128.
- ↑ Bhardwaj 2016, pp. 12–13.
- ↑ Jain 2003, pp. 53, 57–8.
- ↑ Nayar 1966, pp. 46 ff.
- ↑ Bhardwaj 2016, p. 12.
- ↑ 70.0 70.1 Shackle 2003, p. 594.
- ↑ "Punjabi Language – Structure, Writing & Alphabet – MustGo" (in en-US). https://www.mustgo.com/worldlanguages/punjabi/.
- ↑ Bhardwaj 2016, p. 15.
- ↑ Shiv Kumar Batalvi sikh-heritage.co.uk.
- ↑ Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World. Springer. 2005. p. 1077. ISBN 978-0-306-48321-9. https://archive.org/details/encyclopediadias00embe.
- ↑ Mir, Farina. "Representations of Piety and Community in Late-nineteenth-century Punjabi Qisse". Columbia University. http://www.unc.edu/depts/cdeisi/abstracts.html.
- ↑ The Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature (Volume One – A to Devo). Volume 1. Amaresh Datta, ed. Sahitya Akademi: 2006, 352.
- ↑ "FACTS ABOUT PAKISTAN". Government of Pakistan – Office of the Press Registrar. http://opr.gov.pk/Detail/ZmI0YjVhNTEtZTE0OS00NDcxLWE0NDEtNGI2ZDY3N2UxYzg3.
- ↑ "Chapter 4: "General." of Part XII: "Miscellaneous"". http://pakistani.org/pakistan/constitution/part12.ch4.html.
- ↑ Zaidi, Abbas. "Linguistic cleansing: the sad fate of Punjabi in Pakistan". http://www.gowanusbooks.com/punjabi.htm.
- ↑ University of the Punjab (2015), "B.A. Two-Year (Pass Course) Examinations"
- ↑ University of the Punjab (2015). "Department of Punjabi". http://pu.edu.pk/home/department/32/Department-of-Punjabi.
- ↑ Masood, Tariq (21 February 2015). "The colonisation of language". http://tribune.com.pk/story/841584/the-colonisation-of-language/.
- ↑ Warraich, Faizan; Ali, Haider (15 September 2015). "Intelligentsia urges govt to promote Punjabi language". http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/punjab/07-Feb-2015/intelligentsia-urges-govt-to-promote-punjabi-language.
- ↑ "Punjabis Without Punjabi". apnaorg.com. http://apnaorg.com/articles/ishtiaq8/.
- ↑ "Inferiority complex declining Punjabi language: Punjab University Vice-Chancellor". PPI News Agency
- ↑ "Urdu-isation of Punjab – The Express Tribune" (in en-US). The Express Tribune. 4 May 2015. http://tribune.com.pk/story/880483/urdu-isation-of-punjab/.
- ↑ "Rally for ending 150-year-old 'ban on education in Punjabi". 21 February 2011. http://nation.com.pk/lahore/21-Feb-2011/Rally-for-ending-150yearold-ban-on-education-in-Punjabi.
- ↑ "Sufi poets can guarantee unity". The Nation. 26 August 2015. http://nation.com.pk/lahore/26-Aug-2015/sufi-poets-can-guarantee-unity.
- ↑ "Supreme Court's Urdu verdict: No language can be imposed from above". 15 September 2015. http://nation.com.pk/blogs/15-Sep-2015/supreme-court-s-urdu-verdict-no-language-can-be-imposed-from-above.
- ↑ "Two-member SC bench refers Punjabi language case to CJP". 14 September 2015. http://www.brecorder.com/top-news/109-world-top-news/254518-two-member-sc-bench-refers-punjabi-language-case-to-cjp.html.
- ↑ "Mind your language—The movement for the preservation of Punjabi". The Herald. 2 September 2106.
- "Mind your language—The movement for the preservation of Punjabi – People & Society – Herald". herald.dawn.com. 4 August 2016. http://herald.dawn.com/news/1153482.
- ↑ "Punjabi in schools: Pro-Punjabi outfits in Pakistan threaten hunger strike". The Times of India. 4 October 2015.
- ↑ "Rally for Ending the 150-year-old Ban on Education in Punjabi" The Nation. 21 February 2011.
- ↑ 94.0 94.1 Khokhlova, Liudmila (January 2014). "Majority Language Death". Language Endangerment and Preservation in South Asia. https://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10125/4600/1/02Khokhlova.pdf. Retrieved 29 April 2017. "Punjabi was nonetheless included in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India and came to be recognized as one of the fifteen official languages of the country.".
- ↑ "Fifty Years of Punjab Politics (1920–70)". http://www.panjabdigilib.org/webuser/searches/displayPageContent.jsp?ID=2123&page=1&CategoryID=1&Searched=W3GX.
- ↑ Ayres, Alyssa (2008). "Language, the Nation, and Symbolic Capital: The Case of Punjab". The Journal of Asian Studies 67 (3): 917–946. doi:10.1017/S0021911808001204. https://alyssaayres.com/pdf/Ayres-JAS-Language-Nation.pdf. Retrieved 28 April 2017. "in India, Punjabi is an official language as well as the first language of the state of Punjab (with secondary status in Delhi and widespread use in Haryana).".
- ↑ Kumar, Ashutosh (2004). "Electoral Politics in Punjab: Study of Akali Dal". Economic & Political Weekly 39 (14/15): 1515–1520. "Punjabi was made the first compulsory language and medium of instruction in all the government schools whereas Hindi and English as second and third language were to be implemented from the class 4 and 6 respectively".
- ↑ 52nd Report of the Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities in India (Report). National Commission on Linguistic Minorities. 2015. p. 25. http://nclm.nic.in/shared/linkimages/NCLM52ndReport.pdf. Retrieved 28 April 2017. ""Languages taught in the State under the Three Language Formula: First Language : Hindi Second Language : Punjabi Third language : English""
- ↑ Singh, Jasmine (13 September 2015). "Serial killer". http://www.tribuneindia.com/news/spectrum/serial-killer/130865.html.
- ↑ "SGPC claims Haryana govt ignoring Punjabi language". 30 July 2015. http://www.hindustantimes.com/amritsar/sgpc-claims-haryana-govt-ignoring-punjabi-language/article1-1374818.aspx.
- ↑ Aujla, Harjap Singh (15 June 2015). "Punjabi's of Delhi couldn't get justice for Punjabi language". http://punjabnewsexpress.com/news/mainpage.aspx?name=news%5C41059-punjabi-s-of-delhi-couldn-t-get-justice-for-punjabi-language.
- ↑ Singh, Perneet (9 July 2013). "Sikh bodies oppose DU's 'anti-Punjabi' move". http://www.tribuneindia.com/2013/20130710/punjab.htm#1.
- ↑ "final". punjabiuniversity.ac.in. http://punjabiuniversity.ac.in/pbiuniweb/pages/departments/newresearchdepartment.html.
- ↑ "ACTDPL, Punjabi University, Patiala". learnpunjabi.org. http://www.learnpunjabi.org/about.aspx.
- ↑ "ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਪੀਡੀਆ". punjabipedia.org. http://punjabipedia.org/aboutus.aspx.
- ↑ "Pbi University launches Punjabipedia | punjab | Hindustan Times". Hindustan Times. 26 February 2014. http://www.hindustantimes.com/punjab/pbi-university-launches-punjabipedia/story-4nxtGZT4ajuIY02MbjwouN.html.
- ↑ "The Dhahan Prize | The Dhahan Prize for Punjabi Literature". dhahanprize.com. http://dhahanprize.com/.
- ↑ "ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਲੇਖਕਾਂ ਦਾ ਮੱਕਾ : ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਭਵਨ, ਲੁਧਿਆਣਾ". 3 May 2017. http://www.quamiekta.com/2017/05/03/36257/.
- ↑ "Sirsa again elected Punjabi Sahit Akademi president". Tribuneindia.com. 18 April 2016. http://www.tribuneindia.com/mobi/news/ludhiana/community/sirsa-again-elected-punjabi-sahit-akademi-president/223834.html.
- ↑ "Punjabi Academy". http://www.punjabiacademy.com/.
- ↑ "JK Cultural Academy". http://jkculture.nic.in/seminars.htm#.
- ↑ "पंजाबी सीखने वाले छात्रों को अगले माह बटेगा एकल प्रोत्साहन राशि". M.livehindustan.com. 24 October 2016. http://m.livehindustan.com/news/lucknow/article1-punjabi-academy-581875.amp.html.
- ↑ "Welcome to Punjab Institute of Language, Art & Culture | Punjab Institute of Language, Art & Culture". https://pilac.punjab.gov.pk/.
- ↑ "Microsoft Download Center". microsoft.com. https://www.microsoft.com/pa-in/download.
- ↑ "Punjabi Linux (punlinux) download | SourceForge.net". sourceforge.net. https://sourceforge.net/projects/punlinux/.
- ↑ "Connecting to the iTunes Store.". itunes.apple.com. https://itunes.apple.com/in/app/punjabi-keyboard/id428805745?mt=8.
- ↑ "Google". https://www.google.co.in/?gfe_rd=cr&ei=DYs1WMq5FvGK8QebkZzoBQ.
- ↑ "Google ਅਨੁਵਾਦ". https://translate.google.co.in/?hl=pa&tab=wT.
- ↑ "Cloud ਇਨਪੁਟ ਔਜ਼ਾਰ ਔਨਲਾਈਨ ਅਜਮਾਓ – Google ਇਨਪੁਟ ਔਜ਼ਾਰ". https://www.google.com/intl/pa/inputtools/try/.
- Bhardwaj, Mangat Rai (2016), Panjabi: A Comprehensive Grammar, Routledge, doi:10.4324/9781315760803, ISBN 9781138793859 .
- Bhatia, Tej K. (2008), "Major regional languages", in Braj B. Kachru; Yamuna Kachru; S.N. Sridhar, Language in South Asia, Cambridge University Press, pp. 121–131, doi:10.1017/CBO9780511619069.008, ISBN 9780511619069 .
- Jain, Dhanesh (2003), "Sociolinguistics of the Indo-Aryan Languages", in Cardona, George; Jain, Dhanesh, The Indo-Aryan Languages, Routledge, pp. 46–66, ISBN 978-0-415-77294-5 .
- Masica, Colin (1991), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-29944-2, https://books.google.com/books?id=J3RSHWePhXwC&q=indo-aryan+languages .
- Nayar, Baldev Raj (1966), Minority Politics in the Punjab, Princeton University Press, ISBN 9781400875948, https://books.google.com/books?id=WBrWCgAAQBAJ&pg=PA46 .
- Shackle, Christopher (2003), "Panjabi", in Cardona, George; Jain, Dhanesh, The Indo-Aryan Languages, Routledge, pp. 581–621, ISBN 978-0-415-77294-5, https://books.google.com/books?id=jPR2OlbTbdkC&q=indo-aryan+languages&pg=PA581 .
- Bhatia, Tej. 1993 and 2010. Punjabi : a cognitive-descriptive grammar. London: Routledge. Series: Descriptive grammars.
- Gill H.S. [Harjit Singh] and Gleason, H.A. 1969. A reference grammar of Punjabi. Revised edition. Patiala, Punjab, India: Languages Department, Punjab University.
- Chopra, R. M., Perso-Arabic Words in Punjabi, in: Indo-Iranica Vol.53 (1–4).
- Chopra, R. M.., The Legacy of The Punjab, 1997, Punjabee Bradree, Calcutta.
- Singh, Chander Shekhar (2004). Punjabi Prosody: The Old Tradition and The New Paradigm. Sri Lanka: Polgasowita: Sikuru Prakasakayo.
- Singh, Chander Shekhar (2014). Punjabi Intonation: An Experimental Study. Muenchen: LINCOM EUROPA.
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