List of JVM languages
This list of JVM Languages comprises notable computer programming languages that are used to produce computer software that runs on the Java virtual machine (JVM). Some of these languages are interpreted by a Java program, and some are compiled to Java bytecode and just-in-time (JIT) compiled during execution as regular Java programs to improve performance.
The JVM was initially designed to support only the language Java. However, over time, ever more languages were adapted or designed to run on the Java platform.
- Java (#4, at one point at #1; #2 at PyPL), a statically-typed object-oriented language
- Groovy (#31, at one point at #10; #24 at PyPL), a dynamic programming language (also with static typing) and scripting language
- Kotlin (#33, at one point at #27; #13 at PyPL), a statically-typed language from JetBrains, the developers of IntelliJ IDEA and Google's preferred language for Android
- Scala (#35, at one point at #20; #19 at PyPL), a statically-typed object-oriented and functional programming language
JVM implementations of existing languages
|COBOL||NTT Data Enterprise COBOL|
|ColdFusion Markup Language (CFML)||Adobe ColdFusion|
|Common Lisp||Armed Bear Common Lisp|
|Haskell||Eta (programming language)|
|Mercury||Mercury (Java grade)|
|Component Pascal||Gardens Point Component Pascal|
|Simula||Open Source Simula|
|Visual Basic||Jabaco[note 1]|
New languages with JVM implementations
- Ateji PX, an extension of Java for easy parallel programming on multicore, GPU, Grid and Cloud
- Ballerina, a language for cloud applications with structural typing; network client objects, services, resource functions, and listeners; parallel concurrency with workers; image building; configuration management; and taint checking.
- BeanShell, a scripting language whose syntax is close to Java
- EPL (Event Processing Language), a domain-specific, data manipulation language for analyzing and detecting patterns in timed event streams, which extends SQL 92 with event-oriented features. It is implemented by Esper: up to version 6 EPL was mostly a language interpreted by a Java library; since version 7 it is compiled to JVM bytecode.
- Concurnas, an open source JVM language designed for building reliable, scalable, high performance concurrent, distributed and parallel systems.
- Ceylon, a Java competitor from Red Hat
- CFML, ColdFusion Markup Language, more commonly known as CFML, is a scripting language for web development that runs on the JVM, the .NET framework, and Google App Engine.
- Quark Framework (CAL), a Haskell-inspired functional language
- E-on-Java, object-oriented language for secure distributed computing
- Eta, pure, lazy, strongly typed functional language in the spirit of Haskell
- Flix, a functional, imperative, and logic language with first-class Datalog constraints and a polymorphic effect system.
- Flow Java
- Fortress, a language designed by Sun as a successor to Fortran, mainly for parallel scientific computing. Product development was taken over by Oracle when Sun was purchased. Oracle then stopped development in 2012 according to Dr. Dobb's.
- Frege, a non-strict, pure functional language in the spirit of Haskell
- Golo, a simple, dynamic, weakly-typed language for the JVM developed at Institut national des sciences appliquées de Lyon, France, now an incubating project at the Eclipse Software Foundation.
- Gosu, an extensible type-system language compiled to Java bytecode
- Haxe, a cross-platform statically typed language that targets Java and the JVM.
- Ioke, a prototype-based language somewhat reminiscent of Io, with similarities to Ruby, Lisp, and Smalltalk
- Join Java, a language that extends Java with join-calculus semantics
- Mirah, a customizable language featuring type inference and a highly Ruby-inspired syntax
- NetLogo, a multi-agent language
- Noop, a language built with testability as a major focus
- Pizza, a superset of Java with function pointers and algebraic data types
- Processing, a visualization and animation language and framework based on Java with a Java-like syntax
- Prompto, a language "designed to create business applications in the cloud". It is part of the namesake platform to design business applications directly in the cloud. The Prompto language includes three "dialects": Engly, Monty, and Objy. Engly "mimics English as much as possible", Monty "tries to follow as much as possible the syntax of the Python 3 language", and Objy "tries to follow as much as possible the syntax of OOP languages such as C++, Java or C#". All three dialects seamlessly translate to one another.
- RascalMPL, a source and target language independent (parameterized) meta language
- X10, a language designed by IBM, featuring constrained types and a focus on concurrency and distribution
- Xtend, an object-oriented, functional, and imperative programming language built by the Eclipse foundation, featuring tight Java interoperability, with a focus on extension methods and lambdas, and rich tooling
- Yeti, an ML style functional language
- Yirgacheffe, a language that aims to simplify and extend the object oriented paradigm.
- Yoix, general purpose, non-object-oriented, interpreted dynamic language
Comparison of these languages
|Language||First release||Stable release||Last release|
- Da Vinci Machine
- Java virtual machine
- List of CLI languages, following the CLI specification, Microsoft's response to JVM
- "TIOBE Index" (in en-US). https://www.tiobe.com/tiobe-index/.
- Urma, Raoul-Gabriel (2014-07-01). "Alternative Languages for the JVM. A look at eight features from eight JVM languages". Oracle. https://www.oracle.com/technetwork/articles/java/architect-languages-2266279.html.
- Wampler, Dean (15 January 2009). "Adopting New JVM Languages in the Enterprise (Updated)". objectmentor.com. http://blog.objectmentor.com/articles/2009/01/15/adopting-new-jvm-languages-in-the-enterprise.
- "NTT Data Enterprise COBOL Brochure". https://mx.nttdata.com/es/-/media/assets/brochure/apps-rehosting-migrate-your-cobol-applications-factsheet.pdf.
- "Visual COBOL Brochure". https://www.microfocus.com/media/brochure/visual_cobol_brochure.pdf.
- "isCOBOL Evolve Datasheet". http://www.veryant.com/resources/isCOBOL-Evolve-datasheet.pdf.
- Armed Bear Common Lisp
- "New on Neo4j: The Neo4j 2.3.0 Milestone 2 Release Is Here". 12 June 2015. https://neo4j.com/blog/new-on-neo4j-the-neo4j-2-3-0-milestone-2-release-is-here/.
- "Oracle Labs GraalVM: Programming Languages and Runtimes Overview". http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/oracle-labs/program-languages/overview/index.html.
- "graalvm/sulong" (in en). https://github.com/graalvm/sulong.
- "Introducing Quercus, a Java based PHP". http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/library/wa-quercus/.
- "Running PHP With Quercus in Sun Java System Web Server". http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/quercus-php-137710.html.
- "ssllab / ZipPy — Bitbucket" (in en). https://bitbucket.org/ssllab/zippy.
- "oracle/fastr" (in en). https://github.com/oracle/fastr.
- "oracle/truffleruby" (in en). http://github.com/oracle/truffleruby/.
- "Redline Smalltalk" (in en). http://www.redline.st/.
- "Jabaco entry at Mindteq.com Basics section". http://basic.mindteq.com/index.php?i=144. ]
- "Article about Jabaco at German Pro-Linux publication". http://www.pro-linux.de/news/1/13615/jabaco-basic-compiler-fuer-java.html. ]
- "Basic meet Java". http://www.jabaco.org/wiki/BASIC_meet_Java.
- "Framework". https://code.google.com/p/jabacoframework/source/browse/#svn%2Ftrunk%2FFramework.
- "Ateji PX: Java Parallel Programming Made Simple". Ateji. http://www.ateji.com/px/index.html.
- "Announcing Ballerina 1.0". https://blog.ballerina.io/posts/annoucing-1.0.0/.
- CFML, a scripting language compiled to Java, used on the ColdFusion or Railo application servers
- "The Eta Programming Language". http://eta-lang.org/.
- "Fantom Programming Language". Fantom. http://fantom.org/.
- "Frege". https://code.google.com/p/frege/.
- "Oracle.com - Golo – A Lightweight Dynamic Language for the JVM". https://blogs.oracle.com/java/entry/golo_a_lightweight_dynamic_language. ]
- "Golo nominated for JAX Awards 2014". https://jax.de/awards2014/nominees. ]
- "Golo entry at JAX Awards 2014". https://jax.de/awards2014/golo-programming-language. ]
- "The Mirah Programming Language". GitHub. https://github.com/mirah/mirah.
- "Mirah". http://www.mirah.org/.
- "The Prompto Platform". http://www.prompto.org/.
- "Yeti programming language". http://mth.github.io/yeti/.
- "Yirgacheffe". https://yirgacheffelang.com.
Original source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List of JVM languages. Read more