Medicine:Outline of medicine

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Short description: Overview of and topical guide to medicine
The Rod of Asclepius, a symbol commonly associated with medicine

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to medicine:

Medicinescience of healing. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain health by the prevention and treatment of illness.


Branches of medicine

  1. Anesthesiology – practice of medicine dedicated to the relief of pain and total care of the surgical patient before, during and after surgery.
  2. Cardiology – branch of medicine that deals with disorders of the heart and the blood vessels.
  3. Critical care medicine – focuses on life support and the intensive care of the seriously ill.
  4. Dentistry – branch of medicine that deals with treatment of diseases in the oral cavity
  5. Dermatology – branch of medicine that deals with the skin, hair, and nails.
  6. Emergency medicine – focuses on care provided in the emergency department
  7. Endocrinology – branch of medicine that deals with disorders of the endocrine system.
  8. Epidemiology – study of cause and prevalence of diseases and programs to contain them
  9. First aid – assistance given to any person experiencing a sudden illness or injury, with care provided to preserve life, prevent the condition from worsening, and/or promote recovery. It includes initial intervention in a serious condition prior to professional medical help being available, such as performing CPR while awaiting an ambulance, as well as the complete treatment of minor conditions, such as applying a plaster to a cut.
  10. Gastroenterology – branch of medicine that deals with the study and care of the digestive system.
  11. General practice (often called family medicine) is a branch of medicine that specializes in primary care.
  12. Geriatrics – branch of medicine that deals with the general health and well-being of the elderly.
  13. Gynaecology – diagnosis and treatment of the female reproductive system
  14. Hematology – branch of medicine that deals with the blood and the circulatory system.
  15. Hepatology – branch of medicine that deals with the liver, gallbladder and the biliary system.
  16. Infectious disease – branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and management of infectious disease, especially for complex cases and immunocompromised patients.
  17. Internal medicine – involved with adult diseases
  18. Neurology – branch of medicine that deals with the brain and the nervous system.
  19. Nephrology – branch of medicine which deals with the kidneys.
  20. Obstetrics – care of women during and after pregnancy
  21. Occupational medicine – branch of medicine concerned with the maintenance of health in the workplace
  22. Oncology – branch of medicine that studies the types of cancer.
  23. Ophthalmology – branch of medicine that deals with the eyes.
  24. Optometry – branch of medicine that involves examining the eyes and applicable visual systems for defects or abnormalities as well as the medical diagnosis and management of eye disease.
  25. Orthopaedics – branch of medicine that deals with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system.
  26. Otorhinolaryngology – branch of medicine that deals with the ears, nose and throat.
  27. Pathology – study of causes and pathogenesis of diseases.
  28. Pediatrics – branch of medicine that deals with the general health and well-being of children and in some countries like the U.S. young adults.
  29. Preventive medicine – measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.
  30. Psychiatry – branch of medicine that deals with the study, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders.
  31. Pulmonology – branch of medicine that deals with the respiratory system.
  32. Radiology – branch of medicine that employs medical imaging to diagnose and treat disease.
  33. Sports medicine – branch of medicine that deals with physical fitness and the treatment and prevention of injuries related to sports and exercise.
  34. Rheumatology – branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of rheumatic diseases.
  35. Surgery – branch of medicine that uses operative techniques to investigate or treat both disease and injury, or to help improve bodily function or appearance.
  36. Urology – branch of medicine that deals with the urinary system of both sexes and the male reproductive system

Medical biology

Medical biology

Fields of medical biology

Illness (diseases and disorders)

Medical practice

Practice of medicine



Medical equipment

Medical equipment

  • MRI
  • Computed axial tomography

Medical labs

Medical facilities

  • Clinic
  • Hospice
    • List of hospice programs
  • Hospital
    • List of hospitals in the United States
      • List of burn centers in the United States
      • List of Veterans Affairs medical facilities

Medical education

Medical education – education related to the practice of being a medical practitioner; either the initial training to become a physician, additional training thereafter, and fellowship.

  • Medical school
    • List of medical schools
  • Internship
  • Residency
  • Fellowship

Medical research

Medical research

Medical jargon

Medical terminology

Medical abbreviations and acronyms

Medical glossaries

Medical organizations

Government agencies

Medical publications

Persons influential in medicine

Medical scholars

An Arabic manuscript, dated 1200 CE, titled Anatomy of the Eye, authored by al-Mutadibih
  • The earliest known physician, Hesyre.
  • The first recorded female physician, Peseshet.
  • Borsippa, a Babylonian who wrote the Diagnostic Handbook.
  • The Iranian chemist, Rhazes.
  • Avicenna, the philosopher and physician.
  • Greco-Roman medical scholars:
    • Hippocrates, commonly considered the father of modern medicine.
    • Galen, known for his ambitious surgeries.
    • Andreas Vesalius
    • Oribasius, a Byzantine who compiled medical knowledge.
  • Abu al-Qasim, an Islamic physician known as the father of modern surgery.
  • Medieval European medical scholars:
    • Theodoric Borgognoni, one of the most significant surgeons of the medieval period, responsible for introducing and promoting important surgical advances including basic antiseptic practice and the use of anaesthetics.
    • Guy de Chauliac, considered to be one of the earliest fathers of modern surgery, after the great Islamic surgeon, Abu al-Qasim.
    • Realdo Colombo, anatomist and surgeon who contributed to understanding of lesser circulation.
    • Michael Servetus, considered to be the first European to discover the pulmonary circulation of the blood.
    • Ambroise Paré suggested using ligatures instead of cauterisation and tested the bezoar stone.
    • William Harvey describes blood circulation.
    • John Hunter, surgeon.
    • Amato Lusitano described venous valves and guessed their function.
    • Garcia de Orta first to describe Cholera and other tropical diseases and herbal treatments
    • Percivall Pott, surgeon.
    • Sir Thomas Browne physician and medical neologist.
    • Thomas Sydenham physician and so-called "English Hippocrates."
  • Kuan Huang, who studied abroad and brought his techniques back to homeland china.
  • Ignaz Semmelweis, who studied and decreased the incidence of childbed fever.
  • Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch founded bacteriology.
  • Alexander Fleming, whose accidental discovery of penicillin advanced the field of antibiotics.

Pioneers in medicine

  • Wilhelm Röntgen discovered x-rays, earning the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901, "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays (or x-rays)," and invented radiography.
  • Christiaan Barnard performed the first heart transplant
  • Ian Donald pioneered the use of the ultrasound scan, which led to its use as a diagnostic tool.
  • Sir Godfrey Hounsfield invented the computed tomography (CT) scanner, sharing the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Allan M. Cormack, "for the development of computer assisted tomography."
  • Sir Peter Mansfield invented the MRI scanner, sharing the 2003 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Paul Lauterbur for their "discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging."
  • Robert Jarvik, inventor of the artificial heart.
  • Anthony Atala, creator of the first lab-grown organ, an artificial urinary bladder.

General concepts in medicine

See also

  • Health
    • Outline of health
      • Outline of health sciences

External links