# Organization:Argonne National Laboratory

Short description: Science and engineering research national laboratory in Lemont, IL, United States

## Directors

Over the course of its history, 13 individuals have served as Argonne Director:

## Initiatives

Argonne's IBM Blue Gene/Q supercomputer.
• Hard X-ray Sciences: Argonne is home to one of the world's largest high-energy light sources: the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Each year, scientists make thousands of discoveries while using the APS to characterize both organic and inorganic materials and even processes, such as how vehicle fuel injectors spray gasoline in engines.[20]
• Leadership Computing: Argonne maintains one of the fastest computers for open science and has developed system software for these massive machines. Argonne works to drive the evolution of leadership computing from petascale to exascale, develop new codes and computing environments, and expand computational efforts to help solve scientific challenges. For example, in October 2009, the laboratory announced that it would be embarking on a joint project to explore cloud computing for scientific purposes.[21] In the 1970s Argonne translated the Numerische Mathematik numerical linear algebra programs from ALGOL to Fortran and this library was expanded into LINPACK and EISPACK, by Cleve Moler, et al.
• Materials for Energy: Argonne scientists work to predict, understand, and control where and how to place individual atoms and molecules to achieve desired material properties. Among other innovations, Argonne scientists helped develop an ice slurry to cool the organs of heart attack victims,[22] described what makes diamonds slippery at the nanoscale level,[23] and discovered a superinsulating material that resists the flow of electric current more completely than any other previous material.[24]
• Electrical Energy Storage: Argonne develops batteries for electric transportation technology and grid storage for intermittent energy sources like wind or solar, as well as the manufacturing processes needed for these materials-intensive systems. The laboratory has been working on advanced battery materials research and development for over 50 years.[25] In the past 10 years, the laboratory has focused on lithium-ion batteries, and in September 2009, it announced an initiative to explore and improve their capabilities.[26] Argonne also maintains an independent battery-testing facility, which tests sample batteries from both government and private industry to see how well they perform over time and under heat and cold stresses.[27]
• Alternative Energy and Efficiency: Argonne develops both chemical and biological fuels tailored for current engines as well as improved combustion schemes for future engine technologies. The laboratory has also recommended best practices for conserving fuel; for example, a study that recommended installing auxiliary cab heaters for trucks in lieu of idling the engine.[28] Meanwhile, the solar energy research program focuses on solar-fuel and solar-electric devices and systems that are scalable and economically competitive with fossil energy sources.[29] Argonne scientists also explore best practices for a smart grid, both by modeling power flow between utilities and homes and by researching the technology for interfaces.[30]
• Nuclear Energy: Argonne generates advanced reactor and fuel cycle technologies that enable the safe, sustainable generation of nuclear power. Argonne scientists develop and validate computational models and reactor simulations of future generation nuclear reactors.[31] Another project studies how to reprocess spent nuclear fuel, so that waste is reduced up to 90%.[32]
• Biological and Environmental Systems: Understanding the local effect of climate change requires integration of the interactions between the environment and human activities. Argonne scientists study these relationships from molecule to organism to ecosystem. Programs include bioremediation using trees to pull pollutants out of groundwater;[33] biochips to detect cancers earlier;[34] a project to target cancerous cells using nanoparticles;[35] soil metagenomics; and a user facility for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurementclimate change research project.[36]
• National Security: Argonne develops security technologies that will prevent and mitigate events with potential for mass disruption or destruction. These include sensors that can detect chemical, biological, nuclear and explosive materials;[37] portable Terahertz radiation ("T-ray") machines that detect dangerous materials more easily than X-rays at airports;[38] and tracking and modeling the possible paths of chemicals released into a subway.[39]

## User facilities

Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials.

Argonne builds and maintains scientific facilities that would be too expensive for a single company or university to construct and operate. These facilities are used by scientists from Argonne, private industry, academia, other national laboratories and international scientific organizations.

• Advanced Photon Source (APS): a national synchrotron X-ray research facility which produces the brightest X-ray beams in the Western Hemisphere.[40]
• Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM): a user facility located on the APS which provides infrastructure and instruments to study nanotechnology and nanomaterials. The CNM is one of five U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science Nanoscale Science Research Centers.[41]
• Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS): ATLAS is the world's first superconducting particle accelerator for heavy ions at energies in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier. This is the energy domain suited to study the properties of the nucleus, the core of matter and the fuel of stars.[42]
• Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF): a DOE Office of Science User Facility that provides supercomputing resources to the research community to enable breakthroughs in science and engineering.

## Centers

• The Advanced Materials for Energy-Water Systems[43] (AMEWS) Center is an Energy Frontier Research Center sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. Led by Argonne National Laboratory and including the University of Chicago and Northwestern University as partners, AMEWS works to solve the challenges that exist at the interface of water and the materials that make up the systems that handle, process and treat water.
• Electron Microscopy Center (EMC): one of three DOE-supported scientific user facilities for electron beam microcharacterization. The EMC conducts in situ studies of transformations and defect processes, ion beam modification and irradiation effects, superconductors, ferroelectrics and interfaces. Its intermediate voltage electron microscope, which is coupled with an accelerator, represents the only such system in the United States.[44]
• Biology Center (SBC): The SBC is a user facility located off the Advanced Photon Source X-ray facility, which specializes in macromolecular crystallography. Users have access to an insertion-device, a bending-magnet, and a biochemistry laboratory. SBC beamlines are often used to map out the crystal structures of proteins; in the past, users have imaged proteins from anthrax, meningitis-causing bacteria, salmonella, and other pathogenic bacteria.[45]
• The Network Enabled Optimization System (NEOS) Server is the first network-enabled problem-solving environment for a wide class of applications in business, science, and engineering. Included are state-of-the-art solvers in integer programming, nonlinear optimization, linear programming, stochastic programming, and complementarity problems. Most NEOS solvers accept input in the AMPL modeling language.
• The Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR) is a consortium of several national laboratories, academic institutions, and industrial partners based at Argonne National Laboratory. The mission of JCESR is to design and build transformative materials enabling next-generation batteries that satisfy all the performance metrics for a given application.[46][47]
• The Midwest Integrated Center for Computational Materials (MICCoM) is headquartered at the laboratory. MICCoM develops and disseminates interoperable open-source software, data, and validation procedures to simulate and predict properties of functional materials for energy conversion processes.[48][49]
• The ReCell Center is a national collaboration of industry, academia and national laboratories, led by Argonne National Laboratory, working to advance recycling technologies along the entire battery life cycle. The center aims to grow a sustainable advanced battery recycling industry by developing economic and environmentally sound recycling processes that can be adopted by industry for lithium-ion and future battery chemistries.

## Educational and community outreach

A student examines Argonne's Gyro Wheel at the Open House.

Argonne welcomes all members of the public age 16 or older to take guided tours of the scientific and engineering facilities and grounds. For children under 16, Argonne offers hands-on learning activities suitable for K–12 field trips and scout outings. The laboratory also hosts educational science and engineering outreach for schools in the surrounding area.

Argonne scientists and engineers take part in the training of nearly 1,000 college graduate students and post-doctoral researchers every year as part of their research and development activities.

## In media

Significant portions of the 1996 chase film Chain Reaction were shot in the Zero Gradient Synchrotron ring room and the former Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator laboratory.[50]

## Notes

1. "Argonne: By the Numbers". Argonne National Laboratory. 2020.
2. Holl, Hewlett, and Harris, page xx (Introduction).
3. "World-class Scientific Research & Innovation". UChicago Argonne, LLC.
4. Menser, Paul. "Cleaning house and charting a future at INL". Post Register. Idaho Falls, ID.
5. "Argonne National Laboratory". U.S. Department of Energy.
6. "Argonne: History". Argonne National Laboratory.
7. "Argonne Highlights: 1950–1959". Argonne National Laboratory.
8. Stephens, Joel (2010-01-23). "New documents show longtime friendship between J. Edgar Hoover and Paul Harvey". Washington Post.
9. Holl, Hewlett, and Harris, page 126
10. "Research helps safeguard nuclear workers worldwide". Argonne National Laboratory.
11. Jacobsen, Sally (December 1971). "Getting Aboard Viking: No Room on the Mars Lander.".
12. Holl, Hewlett, and Harris, page 179.
13. Holl, Hewlett, and Harris, page 226.
14. Patel, page 23
15. "New X-ray technique may lead to better, cleaner fuel injectors for automobiles". Argonne National Laboratory. 2008-02-19.
16. "DOE to explore scientific cloud computing at Argonne, Lawrence Berkeley national laboratories". Argonne National Laboratory. 2009-10-14.
17. Gupta, Manya (2009-11-10). "Medical care on ice". Medill Reports.
18. University of Pennsylvania (25 June 2008). "Engineers reveal what makes diamonds slippery at the nanoscale".
19. "Newly discovered 'superinsulators' promise to transform materials research, electronics design". Argonne National Laboratory. 2008-04-04.
20. "Building better batteries". U.S. Department of Energy.
21. "Argonne opens new chapter in battery research: Li-Air". Argonne National Laboratory. 2009-09-15.
22. "Battery Test Facility". Argonne National Laboratory, Transportation Center.
23. Leavitt, Wendy (1998-08-01). "Not Just Idle Talk". Fleet Owner.
24. "Argonne, Northwestern seek ANSER to solar energy challenges". Argonne National Laboratory. 2007-05-08.
25. "Grid Research: Making the Grid Smarter". Argonne National Laboratory Transportation Center. 2009-08-01.
26. "Putting the new in nuclear". Argonne National Laboratory magazine. Fall 2009.
27. "Argonne Cleans Up Brownfield Sites [video"]. CleanSkies Network. 2009-11-10.
28. "Biochips can detect cancers before symptoms develop". Argonne National Laboratory. 2008-05-09.
29. Wang, Ann (2 December 2009). "Magnetic microdiscs target and initiate cell death in tumors". Johns Hopkins Newsletter.
30. "ARRA funding to help scientists better understand climate change". Argonne National Laboratory. 2009-12-08.
31. "New sensor technology detects chemical, biological, nuclear and explosive materials". Argonne National Laboratory. 2006-03-21.
32. "New T-ray source could improve airport security, cancer detection". Argonne National Laboratory. 2007-11-23.
33. Szaniszlo, Marie (2009-12-06). "MBTA preps for biological terror attack". Boston Herald.
34. "Argonne About the APS". Archived from the original on September 26, 2009.
35. "Advanced Materials for Energy-Water Systems Center". Argonne National Laboratory.

## References

• Argonne National Laboratory, 1946–96. Jack M. Holl, Richard G. Hewlett, Ruth R. Harris. University of Illinois Press, 1997. ISBN:978-0-252-02341-5.
• Nuclear physics: an introduction. S.B. Patel. New Age International Ltd., 1991. ISBN:81-224-0125-2.
• Summary of Nuclear Chemistry Work at Argonne, Martin H. Studier, Argonne National Laboratory Report, Declassified June 13, 1949.