Place:Central and Eastern Europe

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Short description: Geographical subregion of Europe

European subregions according to EuroVoc:
  Central and Eastern Europe
The pre-1989 "Eastern Bloc" (orange) superimposed on current borders.

Central and Eastern Europe is a term encompassing the countries in the Baltics, Central Europe, Eastern Europe and Southeast Europe (mostly the Balkans), usually meaning former communist states from the Eastern Bloc and Warsaw Pact in Europe. Scholarly literature often uses the abbreviations CEE or CEEC for this term.[1][2][3] The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) also uses the term "Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs)" for a group comprising some of these countries.


The term CEE includes the Eastern Bloc (Warsaw Pact) countries west of the post-World War II border with the former Soviet Union; the independent states in former Yugoslavia (which were not considered part of the Eastern bloc); and the two Baltic states – Latvia, Lithuania (which chose not to join the CIS with the other 12 former republics of the USSR).

The CEE countries are further subdivided by their accession status to the European Union (EU): the eight first-wave accession countries that joined the EU on 1 May 2004 (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland , Hungary, and Slovenia), the two second-wave accession countries that joined on 1 January 2007 (Romania and Bulgaria) and the third-wave accession country that joined on 1 July 2013 (Croatia). According to the World Bank 2008 analysis, the transition to advanced market economies is over for all 10 countries that joined the EU in 2004 and 2007.[4]

The CEE countries include the former socialist states, which extend east of Austria, Germany (western part), and Italy; north of Greece and Turkey (European part); Estonia, south of Finland and Sweden; and west of Belarus , Moldova, Russia , and Ukraine :

  • Albania – member of NATO
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Bulgaria – member of the European Union and NATO[5][6]
  • Croatia – member of the European Union and NATO[5][6]
  • Czech Republic – member of the European Union and NATO[5][6]
  • Hungary – member of the European Union and NATO[5][6]
  • Kosovo[7] (partially recognized state)
  • Latvia – member of the European Union and NATO[5][6]
  • Lithuania – member of the European Union and NATO[5][6]
  • Montenegro – member of NATO
  • North Macedonia – member of NATO[5][6]
  • Poland – member of the European Union and NATO[5][6]
  • Romania – member of the European Union and NATO[5][6]
  • Serbia
  • Slovakia – member of the European Union and NATO[5][6]
  • Slovenia – member of the European Union and NATO[5][6]

According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, "Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) is an OECD term for the group of countries comprising Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia, and the three Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania."[6]

The term Central and Eastern Europe (abbreviated CEE) has displaced the alternative term East-Central Europe in the context of transition countries, mainly because the abbreviation ECE is ambiguous: it commonly stands for Economic Commission for Europe, rather than East-Central Europe.[8]

See also


  1. Inotai, András (Autumn 2009). "BUDAPEST—Ghost of Second-Class Status Haunts Central and Eastern Europe". Europe's World. 
  2. Z. Lerman, C. Csaki, and G. Feder, Agriculture in Transition: Land Policies and Evolving Farm Structures in Post-Soviet Countries, Lexington Books, Lanham, MD (2004), see, e.g., Table 1.1, p. 4.
  3. J. Swinnen, ed., Political Economy of Agrarian Reform in Central and Eastern Europe, Ashgate, Aldershot (1997).
  4. Unleashing Prosperity: Productivity Growth in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union, World Bank, Washington (2008), p. 42
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 "CEE countries". 9 August 2011. 
  6. 6.00 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 6.11 Directorate, OECD Statistics. "OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms - Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) Definition". 
  7. Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the 2013 Brussels Agreement. Kosovo is currently recognized as an independent state by 98 out of the 193 United Nations member states. In total, 112 UN member states recognized Kosovo at some point, of which 14 later withdrew their recognition.
  8. "UNECE Homepage".