Chemistry:Copper(I) sulfate

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Short description: Chemical compound
Copper(I) sulfate
Names
Other names
Copper(I) sulphate; Cuprous sulfate; Dicopper sulfate
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
Properties
Cu2SO4
Molar mass 223.15 g mol−1
Appearance White
Density 4.12 g cm−3[1]
Melting point 110 °C
decomposes
Structure[1]
orthorhombic
Fddd
a = 4.748(3) Å, b = 13.96(1) Å, c = 10.86(1) Å
8
Hazards
NIOSH (US health exposure limits):
PEL (Permissible)
TWA 1 mg/m3 (as Cu)[2]
REL (Recommended)
TWA 1 mg/m3 (as Cu)[2]
IDLH (Immediate danger)
TWA 100 mg/m3 (as Cu)[2]
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Copper(I) sulfate, also known as cuprous sulfate, is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula Cu2SO4. It is a white solid that has attracted little attention, in contrast to copper(II) sulfate. It is an unusual example of a copper(I) compound derived from an oxyanion, illustrated also by the non- or fleeting existence of cuprous nitrate and cuprous perchlorate.[1]

Structure

Cu2SO4 crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Fddd. Each oxygen in a sulfate anion is bridged to another sulfate by a copper atom, and the Cu-O distances are 196 pm. The structure is intermediate between silver sulfate and solid sulfuric acid.[1]

Synthesis

Cuprous sulfate is produced by the reaction of copper metal with sulfuric acid at 200 °C:[3]

[math]\ce{ 2Cu + 2 H2SO4 -> Cu2SO4 + SO2 + 2 H2O }[/math]

The small amount of water produced in this reaction is absorbed by the sulfuric acid.

Cu2SO4 can also be synthesized by the action of dimethyl sulfate on cuprous oxide:[4]

[math]\ce{ Cu2O + (CH3O)2SO2 -> Cu2SO4 + (CH3)2O }[/math]

The material is stable in dry air at room temperature but decomposes rapidly in presence of moisture or on heating. It disproportionates upon contact with water:[4]

[math]\ce{ Cu2SO4 + 4 H2O -> Cu + [Cu(H2O)4]SO4 }[/math]

It can also be produced by the reaction of copper(II) sulfate and a reducing agent such as sodium thiosulfate.

Structure

Cu2SO4 crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group. The Cu-O distances are 196 pm.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Berthold, H. J.; Born, J.; Wartchow, R. (1988). "The crystal structure of copper(I)sulfate Cu2SO4 – The first structure of a simple cuprous oxo-salt". Z. Kristallogr. Cryst. Mater. 183: 309–318. doi:10.1524/zkri.1988.183.14.309. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0150". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npgd0150.html. 
  3. O. Glemser; R. Sauer (1963). "Copper (I) Sulfate". in G. Brauer. Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd Ed.. 2pages=1020. NY,NY: Academic Press. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Vo Van, Kim; Habashi, Faith (1972). "Identification and Thermal Stability of Copper(I) Sulfate". Can. J. Chem. 50 (23): 3872–3875. doi:10.1139/v72-610.