Chemistry:Lead(II) sulfate

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Lead(II) sulfate
sample of lead(II) sulfate
IUPAC name
lead(II) sulfate
Other names
Anglesite, fast white, milk white, plumbous sulfate
3D model (JSmol)
EC Number
  • 231-198-9
UN number 1759 1794
Molar mass 303.26 g/mol[1][2]
Appearance white solid
Density 6.29 g/cm3[3]
Melting point 1,087 °C (1,989 °F; 1,360 K) decomposes
0.0032 g/100 mL (15 °C)
0.00443 g/100 mL (20 °C)[4]
2.13 x 10−8 (20 °C)
Solubility insoluble in alcohol

soluble in ammonium acetate (≥ 6 mol/L)

soluble in ammonium tartrate in presence of ammonium chloride and ammonia

−69.7·10−6 cm3/mol
orthorhombic, barite
103 J/degree mol
149 J·mol−1·K−1[5]
−920 kJ·mol−1[5]
GHS pictograms GHS07: HarmfulGHS08: Health hazardGHS09: Environmental hazard
GHS Signal word Danger
H302, H332, H360Df, H410
P201, P202, P260, P261, P264, P270, P271, P273, P281, P301+312, P304+312, P304+340, P308+313, P312, P314, P330, P391, P405, P501
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g. waterHealth code 3: Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury. E.g. chlorine gasReactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g. liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Flash point Non-flammable
0.15 mg/m3
Related compounds
Other anions
Lead(II) chloride, Lead(II) bromide, Lead(II) iodide, Lead(II) fluoride
Other cations
Tin(II) sulfate, Sodium sulfate, Copper(II) sulfate
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references
Tracking categories (test):

Lead(II) sulfate (PbSO4) is a white solid, which appears white in microcrystalline form. It is also known as fast white, milk white, sulfuric acid lead salt or anglesite.

It is often seen in the plates/electrodes of car batteries, as it is formed when the battery is discharged (when the battery is recharged, then the lead sulfate is transformed back to metallic lead and sulfuric acid on the negative terminal or lead dioxide and sulfuric acid on the positive terminal). Lead sulfate is poorly soluble in water.


Lead(II) sulfate is prepared by treating lead oxide, hydroxide or carbonate with warm sulfuric acid or by treating a soluble lead salt with sulfuric acid.

Alternatively, it can be made by the interaction of solutions of lead nitrate and sodium sulfate.


Lead sulfate is toxic by inhalation, ingestion and skin contact. It is a cumulative poison, and repeated exposure may lead to anemia, kidney damage, eyesight damage or damage to the central nervous system (especially in children). It is also corrosive - contact with the eyes can lead to severe irritation or burns. Typical threshold limit value is 0.15 mg/m3.


The naturally occurring mineral anglesite, PbSO4, occurs as an oxidation product of primary lead sulfide ore,

Basic and hydrogen lead sulfates

A number of lead basic sulfates are known: PbSO4·PbO; PbSO4·2PbO; PbSO4·3PbO; PbSO4·4PbO. They are used in manufacturing of active paste for lead–acid batteries. A related mineral is leadhillite, 2PbCO3·PbSO4·Pb(OH)2.

At high concentration of sulfuric acid (>80%), lead hydrogensulfate, Pb(HSO4)2, forms.[6]

Chemical properties

Lead(II) sulfate can be dissolved in concentrated HNO3, HCl, H2SO4 producing acidic salts or complex compounds, and in concentrated alkali giving soluble tetrahydroxidoplumbate(II) [Pb(OH)4]2− complexes.

PbSO4(s) + H2SO4(l) ⇌ Pb(HSO4)2(aq)
PbSO4(s) + 4NaOH(aq) → Na2[Pb(OH)4](aq) + Na2SO4(aq)

Lead(II) sulfate decomposes when heated above 1000 °C:

PbSO4(s) → PbO(s) + SO3(g)

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