Engineering:Tick–tock model

From HandWiki
Short description: Production model by Intel

Tick–tock was a production model adopted in 2007 by chip manufacturer Intel. Under this model, every microarchitecture change (tock) was followed by a die shrink of the process technology (tick). It was replaced by the process–architecture–optimization model, which was announced in 2016 and is like a tick–tock cycle followed by an optimization phase. As a general engineering model, tick–tock is a model that refreshes one side of a binary system each release cycle.


Every "tick" represented a shrinking of the process technology of the previous microarchitecture (sometimes introducing new instructions, as with Broadwell, released in late 2014) and every "tock" designated a new microarchitecture.[1] These occurred roughly every year to 18 months.[2] In 2014, Intel created a "tock refresh" of a tock in the form of a smaller update to the microarchitecture[3] not considered a new generation in and of itself.

In March 2016, Intel announced in a Form 10-K report that it deprecated the tick–tock cycle in favor of a three-step process–architecture–optimization model, under which three generations of processors are produced under a single manufacturing process, with the third generation out of three focusing on optimization.[4] The first optimization of the Skylake architecture was Kaby Lake. Intel then announced a second optimization, Coffee Lake,[5] making a total of four generations at 14 nm.[6]


Pentium 4 / Core roadmap

Pentium 4 / Core roadmap
Code names
for step
Intel Microcode
Intel Microcode
8P/4P Server 4P/2P Server/WS Embedded Xeon 1P Xeon Enthusiast/WS Desktop Mobile
(new fabrica-
tion process
65 nm P6, NetBurst Yonah (P6),
Presler (NetBurst),
Cedar Mill (NetBurst)
N/A 1995-11-1 (P6),
2000-11-20 (Netburst)
N/A N/A N/A Presler (NetBurst) Cedar Mill (NetBurst) Yonah (P6)
(new micro-
Core Merom[9] 2006-07-27[10][11] Tigerton Woodcrest
Kentsfield Conroe Merom
Tick 45 nm Penryn 2007-11-11[12] Dunnington Harpertown Yorkfield Wolfdale Penryn
Tock Nehalem Nehalem 1 N/A NHM[13] N/A 2008-11-17[14] Beckton Gainestown Lynnfield Bloomfield Lynnfield Clarksfield
Tick 32 nm Westmere 1 WSM[13] 2010-01-04[15][16] Westmere-EX Westmere-EP N/A Gulftown Clarkdale Arrandale
Tock Sandy Bridge Sandy Bridge 2 1 SNB JKT (Jaketown) 2011-01-09[17] (Skipped)[18] Sandy Bridge-EP Gladden Sandy Bridge Sandy Bridge-E Sandy Bridge Sandy Bridge-M
Tick 22 nm[19] Ivy Bridge 3 2 IVB IVT (Ivytown) 2012-04-29 Ivy Bridge-EX[20] Ivy Bridge-EP[20] Gladden Ivy Bridge Ivy Bridge-E[21] Ivy Bridge Ivy Bridge-M
Tock Haswell Haswell 4 3 HSW, CRW (Crystal Well)
with Iris Pro[22][23]
HSX 2013-06-02 Haswell-EX Haswell-EP N/A Haswell-DT Haswell-E Haswell-DT[24] Haswell-MB (notebooks)
Haswell-LP (ultrabooks)[24]
Refresh Haswell Refresh,
Devil's Canyon[25]
4 N/A HSW, CRW (Crystal Well)
with Iris Pro[22][23]
N/A} 2014-05-11,
No server version released Devil's Canyon No mobile version
Tick (Process) 14 nm[19] Broadwell[26] 5 4 BDW BDX 2014-09-05 Broadwell-EX[27] Broadwell-EP[27] Broadwell-DE Broadwell-DT Broadwell-E Broadwell-DT Broadwell-H
Tock (Architecture) Skylake[26] Skylake[26] 6 5 SKL SKX 2015-08-05[28] Skylake-SP Skylake-DE Skylake-DT/H Skylake-X Skylake Skylake-H
Kaby Lake[32] 7 6 KBL N/A 2017-01-03[33] Only 1P server (Xeon E3) version released Kaby Lake-DT/H
cores: 4 (4/8)
Kaby Lake-X[34] Kaby Lake Kaby Lake-H
Kaby Lake-U
Kaby Lake-Y
Kaby Lake R[35][36] 8 N/A KBL-R 2017-08-21[36] Only mobile version released Kaby Lake R
Coffee Lake 8, 9[37] E-2xxx CFL 2017-10-05[38] Cascade Lake-SP
Cooper Lake (Q2'20)
Cascade Lake-AP Coffee Lake-DT/H
cores: 6 (12)
Skylake-X Refresh Coffee Lake-S
Coffee Lake-R
Coffee Lake-H
Coffee Lake-U
Coffee Lake-H Refresh
Whiskey Lake,
Amber Lake[39]
2018-08-28[39] Only mobile version released Whiskey Lake-U
Amber Lake-Y
Comet Lake[40] 10 CML 2019-08-21[40] No server version released Comet Lake-W Comet Lake-S Comet Lake-H
Comet Lake-U
Architecture Cypress Cove[41] Rocket Lake[41] 11 RKL 2021-03-30[42] N/A Rocket Lake-S N/A
Process 10 nm Palm Cove Cannon Lake 8 CNL 2018-05-16[43] Only mobile version released Cannon Lake-U
Architecture Sunny Cove Ice Lake[44] 10 3 ICL 2019-08-01[45] Ice Lake-SP (1H21)[46] N/A Ice Lake-U
Ice Lake-Y
Optimization[31] Willow Cove Tiger Lake[31] 11 N/A TGL 2020-09-02[47] Only mobile version released Tiger Lake-H35
Tiger Lake-UP3
Tiger Lake-UP4
Architecture Intel 7 Golden Cove Alder Lake 12 ADL 2021-11-04 No server / WS version released Alder Lake-S Alder Lake-H
Alder Lake-P
Alder Lake-U
Sapphire Rapids[48] N/A 4 N/A SPR 2023-01-10 Sapphire Rapids-SP TBA Only server / WS version released
Optimization TBA Raptor Lake 13 N/A RPL N/A 2022-10-20 No server / WS version released TBA
Emerald Rapids N/A 5 N/A EMR 2023 Emerald Rapids-SP TBA Only server / WS version released
Tick Intel 4[49] Meteor Lake[50] 14 N/A MTL N/A 2023 No server / WS version released TBA
Tick Intel 3 Granite Rapids[51] N/A 6 N/A GNR 2024 Granite Rapids-SP TBA Only server / WS version released
Tick Intel 20A Arrow Lake[52] 15 N/A ARL N/A 2024 No server / WS version released TBA
Tick Intel 18A Lunar Lake 16 N/A LNL N/A TBA No server / WS version released TBA
Code names
for step
Intel Microcode
Intel Microcode
8P/4P Server 4P/2P Server/WS Embedded Xeon 1P Xeon Enthusiast/WS Desktop Mobile

Atom roadmap

With Silvermont Intel tried to start Tick-Tock in Atom architecture but problems with the 10 nm process did not allow to do this. In the table below instead of Tick-Tock steps Process-Architecture-Optimization are used. There is no official confirmation that Intel uses Process-Architecture-Optimization for Atom but it allows us to understand what changes happened in each generation.

Atom roadmap[53]
Change Fabri­cation

Code names
for step
MID, Smartphone Tablet Netbook Nettop Embedded Server CE
Process / Architecture 45 nm Bonnell (BNL) Bonnell 2008 Silverthorne N/A Diamondville N/A N/A N/A
Optimization Bonnell 2010 Lincroft Pineview Tunnel Creek
N/A Sodaville
Process 32 nm Saltwell 2011 Medfield (Penwell & Lexington) & Clover Trail+ (Cloverview) Clover Trail (Cloverview) Cedar Trail (Cedarview) N/A Centerton & Briarwood Berryville
Process / Architecture 22 nm Silvermont (SLM) Silvermont 2013 Merrifield (Tangier)[54] & Moorefield (Anniedale)[55] & Slayton Bay Trail-T
Bay Trail-M
Bay Trail-D
Bay Trail-I
Process 14 nm[53] Airmont 2014 Binghamton & Riverton Cherry Trail-T (Cherryview)[56] Braswell[57] Denverton
Architecture Goldmont[58]
Goldmont 2016 Broxton Cancelled Broxton Cancelled
Apollo Lake
Apollo Lake Apollo Lake Unknown Denverton Unknown
Architecture Goldmont Plus
Goldmont Plus 2017 Unknown Gemini Lake Gemini Lake Gemini Lake Unknown Unknown Unknown
Optimization Goldmont Plus 2019 Unknown Gemini Lake Refresh Gemini Lake Refresh Gemini Lake Refresh Unknown Unknown Unknown
Process / Architecture 10 nm Tremont Tremont 2020 Unknown Jasper Lake Jasper Lake Jasper Lake Elkhart Lake Snow Ridge Unknown
Architecture Intel 7 Gracemont Gracemont 2021 Unknown Unknown Alder Lake (hybrid) Unknown Unknown
Process / Architecture Intel 3 Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Sierra Forest-AP Unknown

Note: There is further the Xeon Phi. It has up to now undergone four development steps with a current top model that got the code name Knights Landing (shortcut: KNL;[13] the predecessor code names all had the leading term Knights in their name) that is derived from the Silvermont architecture as used for the Intel Atom series but realized in a shrunk 14 nm (FinFET) technology.[59] In 2018, Intel announced that Knights Landing and all further Xeon Phi CPU models were discontinued.[60] However, Intel's Sierra Forest and subsequent Atom-based Xeon CPUs are likely a spiritual successor to Xeon Phi.


See also


  1. "Intel Tick–Tock Model". Intel Corporation. 
  2. "Intel tick–tock model". Intel Corporation. "A yearly product cadence moves the industry forward in a predictable fashion that can be planned in advance." 
  3. "Intel Haswell Refresh Processors Codenamed Devil's Canyon - Launching in Mid 2014 With Unlocked Design and Improved TIM". 2014-03-20. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Intel's 'Tick–Tock' Seemingly Dead, Becomes 'Process–Architecture–Optimization'". 
  5. "Intel Official News on Twitter". Twitter. 
  6. "Intel's 8th-gen 'Coffee Lake' chips reuse 14nm process as other Core CPUs ease into new tech". PC World. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 Intel Releases Linux CPU Microcodes To fix Meltdown & Spectre Bugs by Lawrence Abrams on January 11, 2018
  8. 8.0 8.1 Linux* Processor Microcode Data File Version 20180312 on 3/12/2018
  9. Crothers, Brooke (2009-02-10). "Intel moves up rollout of new chips | Nanotech - The Circuits Blog". 
  10. "Intel CEO: Latest Platforms, Processors Form New Foundations For Digital Entertainment And Wireless Computing". Intel Corporation. 
  11. "Intel Unveils World's Best Processor". (Press release). Intel Corporation.
  12. "Intel Unveils 16 Next-Generation Processors, Including First Notebook Chips Built on 45nm Technology". (Press release). Intel Corporation. January 7, 2008.
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 "X86 / Amd64 library". 25 October 2021. 
  14. "Intel Launches Fastest Processor on the Planet". (Press release). Intel Corporation. November 17, 2008.
  15. Bohr, Mark (February 10, 2009). "Intel 32nm Technology". Intel Corporation. 
  16. "Revolutionizing How We Use Technology—Today and Beyond". Logic Technology Development, Intel Corporation. 
  17. Crothers, Brooke (November 15, 2010). "Intel Sandy Bridge chip coming January 5". 
  18. Pop, Sebastian (April 9, 2012). "Intel Ivy Bridge CPU Range Complete by Next Year". 
  19. 19.0 19.1 Bohr, Mark; Mistry, Kaizad (May 2011). "Intel's Revolutionary 22 nm Transistor Technology". Intel Corporation. 
  20. 20.0 20.1 Novakovic, Nebojsa (April 9, 2012). "Ivy Bridge EP and EX coming up in a year's time – the multi-socket platform heaven". VR Zone AP Pte. Ltd.. 
  21. Knight, Shawn (March 19, 2012). "Ivy Bridge-E Delayed Until Second Half of 2013". 
  22. 22.0 22.1 Products formerly Crystal Well at Intel web page
  23. 23.0 23.1 What is Crystalwell? by Matt Egan on OCT 31, 2013 at
  24. 24.0 24.1 "Leaked specifications of Haswell GT1/GT2/GT3 IGP". 2012-05-20. 
  25. "Intel Core i7-4790K: Devils Canyon mit bis zu 4,4 GHz, ohne verlöteten Deckel" (in de). June 3, 2014. 
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 Demerjian, Charlie (March 31, 2011). "After Intel's Haswell comes Broadwell". Stone Arch Networking Services, Inc.. 
  27. 27.0 27.1 Shilov, Anton (August 21, 2015). "Intel to release 22-core Xeon E5 v4 'Broadwell-EP' late in 2015". 
  28. Carey, Gabe (July 7, 2015). "The wait for Skylake is almost over, first desktop chips likely to hit August 5". 
  29. "Intel 14nm Kaby Lake "Skylake Refresh" Platform Detailed – Launching in 2H 2016, 256 MB eDRAM H-Series and 91W K-Series Unveiled". July 2015. "The Kaby Lake platform will be similar to Skylake platform that launches this year and will act as a platform refresher" 
  30. "Intel Releasing 14nm Kaby Lake Processor in 2016 Ahead of 10nm Cannonlake". 2015-07-08. "We have long known that Intel was planning a 'Skylake Refresh' that has always been on the roadmap between Skylake and Cannonlake, but it appears that refresh might be going by the code name Kaby lake now." 
  31. 31.0 31.1 31.2 Mujtaba, Hassan (January 20, 2016). "Intel's Cannonlake CPUs To Be Succeeded By 10nm Ice Lake Family in 2018 and 10nm Tiger Lake Family in 2019". 
  32. Bright, Peter (July 15, 2015). "Intel confirms tick–tock shattering Kaby Lake processor as Moore's Law falters". "the switch to 10nm manufacturing has been delayed until the second half of 2017." 
  33. Walton, Jarred (January 4, 2017). "Intel's Kaby Lake: Everything you need to know". "Today marks the official launch date of the desktop S-series 7th Generation Core processors..." 
  34. "Intel Core X-series Processors Product Specifications". Intel ARK (Product Specs). 
  35. Products formerly Kaby Lake R
  36. 36.0 36.1 Ngo, Allen (August 21, 2017). "Intel Core i5-8250U, i5-8350U, i7-8550U, and i7-8650U Kaby Lake-R series launches today". "Intel Core i5-8250U, i5-8350U, i7-8550U, and i7-8650U Kaby Lake-R launches today (Source: Intel)" 
  37. "Products formerly Coffee Lake". 
  38. "Intel Unveils the 8th Gen Intel Core Processor Family for Desktop, Featuring Intel's Best Gaming Processor Ever | Intel Newsroom". Intel Newsroom. 
  39. 39.0 39.1 "New 8th Gen Intel Core Processors Optimize Connectivity, Great Performance, Battery Life for Laptops | Intel Newsroom". Intel Newsroom. 
  40. 40.0 40.1 "Intel Expands 10th Gen Intel Core Mobile Processor Family, Offering Double Digit Performance Gains" (in en-US). 
  41. 41.0 41.1 "Intel Previews 11th Gen Core Rocket Lake: Core i9-11900K and Z590, Coming Q1". 2021-01-11. 
  42. "11th Gen Intel Core: Unmatched Overclocking, Game Performance" (in en-US). 
  43. Tyson, Mark. "Intel Core i3-8121U 10nm processor hits ARK database". 
  44. Eassa, Ashraf (January 18, 2016). "What's the Name of Intel's Third 10-Nanometer Chip? This Fool has learned the code name of the follow-on to Intel's Icelake processor.". 
  45. "Intel Launches First 10th Gen Intel Core Processors: Redefining the Next Era of Laptop Experiences". 
  46. "Intel Confirms 10nm Ice Lake Xeon Production Has Started". 
  47. "Intel Launches World's Best Processor for Thin-and-Light Laptops: 11th Gen Intel Core". 
  48. "Intel Confirms 10nm Ice Lake Xeon Production Has Started". 
  49. Tyson, Mark (2012-05-15). "Intel currently developing 14nm, aiming towards 5nm chips". 
  50. James, Dave (2021-03-23). "Meteor Lake, Intel's first 7nm CPU, to tape in before July this year and release in 2023" (in en-US). 
  51. "Intel reveals the design of Alder Lake, Sapphire Rapids, Meteor Lake and Granite Rapids CPUs" (in en-US). 
  52. "Intel Client & Server CPU Roadmap Updates: Meteor Lake In 2023, 20A & 18A Powered Xeons & Core Chips Beyond 2024". 17 February 2022. 
  53. 53.0 53.1 Lal Shimpi, Anand (May 6, 2013). "Intel's Silvermont Architecture Revealed: Getting Serious About Mobile". 
  54. Hiroshige, Goto. "Intel Products for Tablets & SmartPhones". 
  55. "Import Data and Price of Anniedale". 
  56. Kazuaki Kasahara (November 30, 2012). "アウトオブオーダーと最新プロセスを採用する今後のAtom" (in ja). 
  57. "Products (Formerly Braswell)". Intel Corporation. 
  58. Smith, Ryan; Cutress, Ian (29 April 2016). "Intel's Changing Future: Smartphone SoCs Broxton & SoFIA Officially Canceled". 
  59. Intel veröffentlicht Xeon Phi mit bis zu 7 Teraflops
  60. "Product Change Notification 116378 - 00". 

External links

fr:Intel#Stratégies tic-tac et processus-architecture-optimisation