Chemistry:Peroxide

From HandWiki
Peroxide
Names
IUPAC name
Peroxide
Systematic IUPAC name
Dioxidanediide
Other names
Dioxide(2-)
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChemSpider
486
Properties
R−O−O−R
Molar mass 31.998 g·mol−1
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references
Types of peroxides, from top to bottom: peroxide ion, organic peroxide, organic hydroperoxide, peracid. The peroxide group is marked in blue. R, R1 and R2 mark hydrocarbon moieties.

Peroxides are a group of compounds with the structure R−O−O−R, where R = any element.[1][2] The O−O group in a peroxide is called the peroxide group or peroxo group. The nomenclature is somewhat variable.[3]

The most common peroxide is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), colloquially known simply as "peroxide". It is marketed as solutions in water at various concentrations. Many organic peroxides are known as well.

O−O bond length = 147.4 pm O−H bond length = 95.0 pm
Structure and dimensions of H2O2.

In addition to hydrogen peroxide, some other major classes of peroxides are:

References

  1. Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-08-037941-8. 
  2. Smith, Michael B.; March, Jerry (2007), Advanced Organic Chemistry: Reactions, Mechanisms, and Structure (6th ed.), New York: Wiley-Interscience, ISBN 978-0-471-72091-1, https://books.google.com/books?id=JDR-nZpojeEC&printsec=frontcover 
  3. IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version:  (2006–) "peroxides". doi:10.1351/goldbook.P04510