Chemistry:Orders of magnitude (molar concentration)

From HandWiki

This page lists examples of the orders of magnitude of molar concentration. Source values are parenthesized where unit conversions were performed.

All orders

List of orders of magnitude for molar concentration
Factor (Molarity) SI prefix Value Item
10−24 yM 1.66 yM 1 elementary entity per litre[1]
8.5 yM airborne bacteria in the upper troposphere (5100/m3)[2]
10−23
10−22
10−21 zM 3.6 zM solar neutrinos on Earth (6.5×1010 /cm2⋅s)[3]
10−20 12 zM radon in ambient, outdoor air in the United States (0.4 pCi/L7000/L)[4]
10−19 120 zM indoor radon at the EPA's "action level" (4 pCi/L70000/L)[5]
686 zM cosmic microwave background photons in outer space (413/cm3)[6]
10−18 aM
10−17
10−16
10−15 fM 2 fM bacteria in surface seawater (1×109/L)[7]
10−14 20 fM virions in surface layer North Atlantic seawater (10×109/L)[8]
50–100 fM gold in seawater[9]
10−13
10−12 pM 7.51–9.80 pM normal range for erythrocytes in blood in an adult male ((4.52–5.90)×1012/L)[10][11]
10−11 10–100 pM gold in undersea hydrothermal fluids[9]
10−10 170 pM upper bound for healthy insulin when fasting[12]
10−9 nM 5 nM inhaled osmium tetroxide is immediately dangerous to life or health (1 mg Os/m3)[13]
10−8
10−7 101 nM hydronium and hydroxide ions in pure water at 25 °C (pKW = 13.99)[14]
10−6 μM
10−5
10−4 180–480 μM normal range for uric acid in blood[10]
570 μM inhaled carbon monoxide induces unconsciousness in 2–3 breaths and death in < 3 min (12800 ppm)[15]
10−3 mM 0.32–32 mM normal range of hydronium ions in stomach acid (pH 1.5–3.5)[16]
5.5 mM upper bound for healthy blood glucose when fasting[17]
7.8 mM upper bound for healthy blood glucose 2 hours after eating[17]
10−2 cM 20 mM neutrinos during a supernova, astronomical unit|AU from the core (1058 over 10 s)[18]
44.6 mM pure ideal gas at 0 °C and 101.325 kPa[19]
10−1 dM 140 mM sodium ions in blood plasma[10]
480 mM sodium ions in seawater[20]
100 M
101 daM 40 M pure solid hydrogen (86 g/L)[21]
55.5 M pure water at 3.984 °C, its maximum atmospheric value (0.9999720 g/cm3)[22]
102 hM 118.8 M pure osmium at 20 °C (22.587 g/cm3)[23]
140.5 M pure copper at 25 °C (8.93 g/cm3)
103 kM
104 24 kM helium in the solar core (150 g/cm365%)[24]
105
106 MM
107
108 122.2 MM nuclei in a white dwarf from a M progenitor star (106.349 g/cm3)[25]
109 GM
1010
1011
1012 TM
1013
1014
1015 PM
1016
1017 228 PM nucleons in atomic nuclei (2.3×1017 kg/m3 = 1.37×1044/m3)[26]
1018 EM
...
1077 3.9×1077 M the Planck concentration (2.4×10104/m3), inverse of the Planck volume


SI multiples

SI multiples of molar (M)
Submultiples Multiples
Value SI symbol Name Value SI symbol Name
10−1 M dM decimolar 101 M daM decamolar
10−2 M cM centimolar 102 M hM hectomolar
10−3 M mM millimolar 103 M kM kilomolar
10−6 M µM micromolar 106 M MM megamolar
10−9 M nM nanomolar 109 M GM gigamolar
10−12 M pM picomolar 1012 M TM teramolar
10−15 M fM femtomolar 1015 M PM petamolar
10−18 M aM attomolar 1018 M EM examolar
10−21 M zM zeptomolar 1021 M ZM zettamolar
10−24 M yM yoctomolar 1024 M YM yottamolar

See also

References

  1. 1/L ÷ NA1.66 yM
  2. DeLeon-Rodriguez, Natasha; Lathem, Terry L.; Rodriguez-R, Luis M.; Barazesh, James M.; Anderson, Bruce E.; Beyersdorf, Andreas J.; Ziemba, Luke D.; Bergin, Michael et al. (12 February 2013). "Microbiome of the upper troposphere: Species composition and prevalence, effects of tropical storms, and atmospheric implications" (in en). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110 (7): 2575–2580. doi:10.1073/pnas.1212089110. ISSN 0027-8424. PMID 23359712. Bibcode2013PNAS..110.2575D. 
  3. Bahcall, John N.; Serenelli, Aldo M.; Basu, Sarbani (1 March 2005). "New Solar Opacities, Abundances, Helioseismology, and Neutrino Fluxes". The Astrophysical Journal 621 (1): L85–L88. doi:10.1086/428929. Bibcode2005ApJ...621L..85B. 
  4. "Radon Toxicity Case Study: What are the Standards and Regulations for Environmental Radon Levels? | ATSDR - Environmental Medicine & Environmental Health Education - CSEM". CDC. https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/csem/csem.asp?csem=8&po=8. 
  5. Basic Radon Facts (Report). United States Environmental Protection Agency. July 2016. https://www.epa.gov/radon/basic-radon-facts. Retrieved 14 December 2018. 
  6. Smoot, George F. (13 May 1997). The Cosmic Microwave Background Spectrum. Bibcode1997astro.ph..5101S. 
  7. Gamfeldt, Lars; Lefcheck, Jonathan S.; Byrnes, Jarrett E. K.; Cardinale, Bradley J.; Duffy, J. Emmett; Griffin, John N. (March 2015). "Marine biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: what's known and what's next?". Oikos 124 (3): 252–265. doi:10.1111/oik.01549. https://scholarworks.wm.edu/vimsarticles/849. 
  8. Bergh, Øivind; Børsheim, Knut Yngve; Bratbak, Gunnar; Heldal, Mikal (August 1989). "High abundance of viruses found in aquatic environments" (in En). Nature 340 (6233): 467–468. doi:10.1038/340467a0. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 2755508. Bibcode1989Natur.340..467B. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 Kenison Falkner, K.; Edmond, J. M. (1 May 1990). "Gold in seawater" (in en). Earth and Planetary Science Letters 98 (2): 208–221. doi:10.1016/0012-821X(90)90060-B. ISSN 0012-821X. Bibcode1990E&PSL..98..208K. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Reference ranges for blood tests
  11. "Erythrocyte Count (RBC): Reference Range, Interpretation, Collection and Panels". 7 January 2017. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2054474-overview. 
  12. Insulin: Reference Range, Interpretation, Collection and Panels. WebMD. 22 April 2018. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2089224-overview. Retrieved 30 November 2018. 
  13. "CDC - Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH): Osmium tetroxide (as Os) - NIOSH Publications and Products" (in en-us). CDC. 2 November 2018. https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/idlh/20816120.html. 
  14. Bandura, Andrei V.; Lvov, Serguei N. (2006). "The Ionization Constant of Water over Wide Ranges of Temperature and Density". Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data 35 (1): 15–30. doi:10.1063/1.1928231. Bibcode2006JPCRD..35...15B. https://www.nist.gov/data/PDFfiles/jpcrd696.pdf. 
  15. Goldstein, Mark (December 2008). "Carbon Monoxide Poisoning". Journal of Emergency Nursing 34 (6): 538–542. doi:10.1016/j.jen.2007.11.014. PMID 19022078. http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/short/3/5716/180. 
  16. Human anatomy & physiology. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings. 2010. ISBN 978-0-8053-9591-4. 
  17. 17.0 17.1 "Type 2 diabetes - Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic" (in en). https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/type-2-diabetes/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20351199. 
  18. "nature physics portal - looking back - Neutrinos and neutrino mass from a supernova". Nature Publishing Group 2006. https://www.nature.com/physics/looking-back/bahcall/index.html. 
  19. Vm = 8.3145 × 273.15 / 101.325 = 22.414 dm3/mol
  20. 0.469 mol/kg at an average density of 1.025 kg/L
  21. Dewar, James (1899). "Sur la solidification de l'hydrogène". Annales de Chimie et de Physique 18: 145–150. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k349183/f143.table. 
  22. Franks, Felix, ed (1974). The Physics and Physical Chemistry of Water (2 ed.). New York: Plenum Press. p. 376. ISBN 9781468483345. 
  23. Arblaster, J. W. (1995). "Osmium, the Densest Metal Known". Platinum Metals Review 39 (4): 164. http://www.platinummetalsreview.com/dynamic/article/view/pmr-v39-i4-164-164. Retrieved 2018-11-30. 
  24. "Helio- and Asteroseismology". Stanford SOLAR Center. http://solar-center.stanford.edu/helio-ed-mirror/english/engmod-res.html. 
  25. Fields, C. E.; Farmer, R.; Petermann, I.; Iliadis, C.; Timmes, F. X. (20 May 2016). "Properties of Carbon-Oxygen White Dwarfs From Monte Carlo Stellar Models". The Astrophysical Journal 823 (1): 46. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/823/1/46. Bibcode2016ApJ...823...46F. 
  26. "The Atomic Nucleus". https://www.cyberphysics.co.uk/topics/atomic/nucleus.htm.