3D model (JSmol)
|UN number||UN 3264|
|Molar mass||66.00 g/mol|
|Appearance||colorless, deliquescent crystals or oily liquid|
1.22 g/cm3 (50 wt% aq. solution)
|Melting point||26.5 °C (79.7 °F; 299.6 K)|
|Boiling point||130 °C (266 °F; 403 K) decomposes|
|Solubility||very soluble in alcohol, ether|
|Safety data sheet||JT Baker|
Related phosphorus oxoacids
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Hypophosphorous acid (HPA), or phosphinic acid, is a phosphorus oxyacid and a powerful reducing agent with molecular formula H3PO2. It is a colorless low-melting compound, which is soluble in water, dioxane and alcohols. The formula for this acid is generally written H3PO2, but a more descriptive presentation is HOP(O)H2, which highlights its monoprotic character. Salts derived from this acid are called hypophosphites.
HOP(O)H2 exists in equilibrium with the minor tautomer HP(OH)2. Sometimes the minor tautomer is called hypophosphorous acid and the major tautomer is called phosphinic acid.
Preparation and availability
- P4 + 4 OH− + 4 H2O → 4 H2PO−2 + 2 H2
Any phosphites produced in this step can be selectively precipitated out by treatment with calcium salts. The purified material is then treated with a strong, non-oxidizing acid (often sulfuric acid) to give the free hypophosphorous acid:
- H2PO−2 + H+ → H3PO2
HPA is usually supplied as a 50% aqueous solution. Anhydrous acid cannot be obtained by simple evaporation of the water, as the acid readily oxidises to phosphorous acid and phosphoric acid and also disproportionates to phosphorous acid and phosphine. Pure anhydrous hypophosphorous acid can be formed by the continuous extraction of aqueous solutions with diethyl ether.
Hypophosphorous acid can reduce chromium(III) oxide to chromium(II) oxide:
- H3PO2 + 2 Cr2O3 → 4 CrO + H3PO4
Most metal-hypophosphite complexes are unstable, owing to the tendency of hypophosphites to reduce metal cations back into the bulk metal. Some examples have been characterised, including the important nickel salt [Ni(H2O)6](H2PO2)2.
DEA List I chemical status
Because hypophosphorous acid can reduce elemental iodine to form hydroiodic acid, which is a reagent effective for reducing ephedrine or pseudoephedrine to methamphetamine, the United States Drug Enforcement Administration designated hypophosphorous acid (and its salts) as a List I precursor chemical effective November 16, 2001. Accordingly, handlers of hypophosphorous acid or its salts in the United States are subject to stringent regulatory controls including registration, recordkeeping, reporting, and import/export requirements pursuant to the Controlled Substances Act and 21 CFR §§ 1309 and 1310.
In organic chemistry, H3PO2 can be used for the reduction of arenediazonium salts, converting ArN+2 to Ar–H. When diazotized in a concentrated solution of hypophosphorous acid, an amine substituent can be removed from arenes.
Owing to its ability to function as a mild reducing agent and oxygen scavenger it is sometimes used as an additive in Fischer esterification reactions, where it prevents the formation of colored impurities.
It is used to prepare phosphinic acid derivatives.
Hypophosphorous acid (and its salts) are used to reduce metal salts back into bulk metals. It is effective for various transition metals ions (i.e. those of: Co, Cu, Ag, Mn, Pt) but is most commonly used to reduce nickel. This forms the basis of electroless nickel plating (Ni–P), which is the single largest industrial application of hypophosphites. For this application it is principally used as a salt (sodium hypophosphite).
- ChemicalLand21 Listing
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- Dulong prepared acide hypo-phosphoreux by adding barium phosphide (Ba3P2) to water, which yielded phosphine gas (PH3), barium phosphate, and barium hypophosphite. Since the phosphine gas left the solution and the barium phosphate precipitated, only the barium hypophosphite remained in solution. Hypophosphorous acid could then be obtained from the filtrate by adding sulfuric acid, which precipitated barium sulfate, leaving hypophosphorous acid in solution. See:
- Dulong (1816) "Extrait d'un mémoire sur les combinaisons du phosphore avec l'oxigène" (Extract from a memoir on the compounds of phosphorus with oxygen), Annales de Chimie et de Physique, 2 : 141–150. [in French]
- Graham, Thomas, Elements of Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd ed. (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Blanchard and Lea, 1858), p. 316.
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- Kuratieva, Natalia V.; Naumova, Marina I.; Podberezskaya, Nina V.; Naumov, Dmitry Yu. (2005-02-15). "The bivalent metal hypophosphites Sr(H 2 PO 2 ) 2 , Pb(H 2 PO 2 ) 2 and Ba(H 2 PO 2 ) 2". Acta Crystallographica Section C Crystal Structure Communications 61 (2): i14–i16. doi:10.1107/S010827010403166X. PMID 15695880.
- Naumova, Marina I.; Kuratieva, Natalia V.; Podberezskaya, Nina V.; Naumov, Dmitry Yu. (2004-05-15). "The alkali hypophosphites KH 2 PO 2 , RbH 2 PO 2 and CsH 2 PO 2". Acta Crystallographica Section C Crystal Structure Communications 60 (5): i53–i55. doi:10.1107/S0108270104002409. PMID 15131359.
- Kuratieva, Natalia V.; Naumova, Marina I.; Naumov, Dmitry Yu.; Podberezskaya, Nina V. (2003-01-15). "Hexaaquanickel(II) bis(hypophosphite)". Acta Crystallographica Section C Crystal Structure Communications 59 (1): i1–i3. doi:10.1107/S0108270102018541. PMID 12506208.
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- 66 FR 52670—52675. 17 October 2001.
- "21 CFR 1309". http://www.access.gpo.gov/nara/cfr/waisidx_06/21cfr1309_06.html.
- 21 USC, Chapter 13 (Controlled Substances Act)
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- Guyon, Carole; Métay, Estelle; Popowycz, Florence; Lemaire, Marc (2015). "Synthetic applications of hypophosphite derivatives in reduction". Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry 13 (29): 7879–7906. doi:10.1039/C5OB01032B. PMID 26083977.
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Original source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypophosphorous acid. Read more