Medicine:List of phobias
The English suffixes -phobia, -phobic, -phobe (from Greek φόβος phobos, "fear") occur in technical usage in psychiatry to construct words that describe irrational, abnormal, unwarranted, persistent, or disabling fear as a mental disorder (e.g. agoraphobia), in chemistry to describe chemical aversions (e.g. hydrophobic), in biology to describe organisms that dislike certain conditions (e.g. acidophobia), and in medicine to describe hypersensitivity to a stimulus, usually sensory (e.g. photophobia). In common usage, they also form words that describe dislike or hatred of a particular thing or subject (e.g. homophobia). The suffix is antonymic to -phil-.
For more information on the psychiatric side, including how psychiatry groups phobias such as agoraphobia, social phobia, or simple phobia, see phobia. The following lists include words ending in -phobia, and include fears that have acquired names. In some cases, the naming of phobias has become a word game, of notable example being a 1998 humorous article published by BBC News. In some cases, a word ending in -phobia may have an antonym with the suffix -phil-, e.g. Germanophobe/Germanophile.
Many -phobia lists circulate on the Internet, with words collected from indiscriminate sources, often copying each other. Also, a number of psychiatric websites exist that at the first glance cover a huge number of phobias, but in fact use a standard text to fit any phobia and reuse it for all unusual phobias by merely changing the name. Sometimes it leads to bizarre results, such as suggestions to cure "prostitute phobia". Such practice is known as content spamming and is used to attract search engines.
An article published in 1897 in American Journal of Psychology noted "the absurd tendency to give Greek names to objects feared (which, as Arndt says, would give us such terms as klopsophobia – fear of thieves, triakaidekaphobia – fear of the number 13....".
Specialists may prefer to avoid the suffix -phobia and use more descriptive terms such as personality disorders, anxiety disorders, and avoidant personality disorder. Terms should strictly have a Greek prefix although many are irregularly formed with Latin or even English prefixes. Many use inaccurate or imprecise prefixes, such as aerophobia (fear of air) for fear of flying.
Biologists use a number of -phobia/-phobic terms to describe predispositions by plants and animals against certain conditions. For antonyms, see here
Prejudices and discrimination
Racist and xenophobic sentiments
The suffix -phobia is used to coin terms that denote a particular anti-ethnic or anti-demographic sentiment, such as Americanophobia, Europhobia, Francophobia, Hispanophobia, and Indophobia. Often a synonym with the prefix "anti-" already exists (e.g. Polonophobia vs. anti-Polonism). Anti-religious sentiments are expressed in terms such as Christianophobia and Islamophobia.
Other prejudices include:
Prejudices against other categories of people
- List of paraphilias
- The A–Z of Fear, a 30 October 1998 BBC News unsigned article in the "Entertainment" section
- "Content Spammers Help You Overcome Prostitute Phobia". Webpronews.com. 25 August 2005. http://archive.webpronews.com/insidesearch/insidesearch/wpn-56-20050825ContentSpammersHelpYouOvercomeProstitutePhobia.html. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
- Hall, G. Stanley (1897). "A Study of Fears". American Journal of Psychology (University of Illinois Press) 8 (2). doi:10.2307/1410940.
- Robert Jean Campbell (2009). Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary. Oxford University Press. pp. 375–. ISBN 978-0-19-534159-1. https://books.google.com/books?id=76vPu_G2UkgC&pg=PA375.
- Gould, Dr. George Milbry (1910). The Practitioner's Medical Dictionary (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: P. Blackiston's Son & Co. p. 100. https://archive.org/details/practitionersme00goul.
- David Sue; Derald Wing Sue; Diane M. Sue; Stanley Sue (15 February 2013). Essentials of Understanding Abnormal Behavior. Cengage Learning. pp. 126–. ISBN 978-1-285-62475-4. https://books.google.com/books?id=BbgWAAAAQBAJ&pg=PT126.
- William Pitchot (11 September 2014). "Effective Treatment of Eisoptrophobia With Duloxetine: A Case Report". Prim Care Companion CNS Disord 16 (5). doi:10.4088/PCC.14l01636. PMID 25667801.
- Bullough, Vern L.; Bullough, Bonnie (2014) (in en). Human Sexuality: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 449. ISBN 9781135825096. https://books.google.com/books?id=UHymAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA449.
- Dunglison, Robert; Dunglison, Richard James (1895). Richard James Dunglison. ed. A dictionary of medical science: containing a full explanation of the various subjects and terms of anatomy, physiology, ... (21 ed.). Lea Brothers & Co.. https://books.google.com/books?id=NlAPAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA557&dq=hypnophobia#v=onepage&q=hypnophobia.
- Russell, Julia; Lintern, Fiona; Gauntlett, Lizzie (2016-09-01). Cambridge International AS and A Level Psychology Coursebook. Cambridge University Press. p. 144. ISBN 9781316605691. https://books.google.com/books?id=TRziDAAAQBAJ&pg=PT150. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
- Schmid, Markus; Wolf, Robert C; Freudenmann, Roland W; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos (2009-11-18). "Tomophobia, the phobic fear caused by an invasive medical procedure - an emerging anxiety disorder: a case report". Journal of Medical Case Reports 3: 131. doi:10.1186/1752-1947-3-131. ISSN 1752-1947. PMID 20062769.
- Basavaraj, K. H.; Navya, M. A; Rashmi, R. (2010). "Relevance of psychiatry in dermatology: Present concepts". Indian Journal of Psychiatry 52 (3): 270–275. doi:10.4103/0019-5545.70992. ISSN 0019-5545. PMID 21180416.
- Thomas, Gregory (15 October 2012). "Do holes make you queasy or even fearful". The Daily Herald (Arlington, IL). http://www.dailyherald.com/article/20121015/entlife/710159967/. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
- Jackson, Holbrook (1932). The Fear of Books. University of Illinois. ISBN 978-0-252-07040-2.
- Fischler, C. "From lipophilia to lipophobia. Changing attitudes and behaviors towards fat: a socio-historical approach", in: Dietary fats determinants of preference, selection, and consumption / edited by DJ Mela. London : New York : Elsevier Applied Science, c1992. p. 103-115.
- Askegaard, S. Ostberg, J. "Consumers' Experience of Lipophobia: A Swedish Study", Advances in Consume Research, 2003, vol. 30, p. 161
- Askegaard, Søren, Holt, Douglas B. Jensen, Anne F. "Lipophobia: A Transatlantic Concept?" Advances in Consume Research, 1999, vol. 26, issue 1 p. 331-336.
- Aldrich, C. (2 December 2002). The Aldrich Dictionary of Phobias and Other Word Families. Trafford Publishing. pp. 224–236. ISBN 1-55369-886-X.
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