Medicine:Timeline of cardiovascular disease

From HandWiki
Short description: Chronological list of scientific developments in cardiology

This is a timeline of cardiovascular disease (CVD), focusing on scientific development and major worldwide organizations and events concerning CVD.

Summarized timeline

Year/period Key developments
Prior to 1400s Descriptions of heart failure exist from Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece , and India . The Romans are known to have used the foxglove as medicine.[1]
1400s–1700s Early examples of cardiovascular disease start to be discovered. Among the most important findings in the field are those of English physician William Harvey and German physician/chemist Friedrich Hoffmann.[2]
1700s–1800s Angina is described and studied extensively in the 18th and 19th centuries, the most outstanding work being that of Canadian cardiologist William Osler.[2]
1900s A period of increased interest, study, and understanding of heart disease. Catheters start to be used to explore coronary arteries.[2]
1940s–1950s The International Society of Cardiology is formed, and the World Congress of Cardiology starts being held under the patronage of the society. The link between heart disease and diet is discovered.[2]
1960s–present Bypass surgery, angioplasty, and stents are developed. As a result of these treatment advances, a diagnosis of heart disease today is no longer necessarily a death sentence. Nevertheless, cardiovascular diseases remain by far the main cause of death worldwide.[2][3]

Full timeline

Year/period Type of event Event Location
1628 Development English physician William Harvey describes in detail the systemic circulation and properties of blood being pumped to the brain and body by the heart.[1] Frankfurt, Germany
1658 Development Swiss physician Jakob Wepfer describes for the first time carotid thrombosis (extracranially and intracranially), in a patient with a fully occluded and calcified right internal carotid artery.[4] Switzerland
1681–1742 Discovery German physician Friedrich Hoffmann notes that coronary artery disease starts with the "reduced passage of the blood within the coronary arteries."[2] MLU, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany
1733 Development English clergyman and scientist Stephen Hales measures blood pressure.[5] Teddington, England
1768 Development English physician William Heberden describes angina pectoris for the first time.[6] Royal College of Physicians, London
1785 Development English physician William Withering publishes an account of the medical use of digitalis, which are used for the treatment of heart conditions.[1] Birmingham General Hospital, England
1803 Achievement British surgeon David Fleming performs the first successful ligation of a carotid artery.[4]
1819 Development French physician René Laennec invents the stethoscope, an acoustic device for listening to the internal sounds of an animal or human body.[1] Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital, Paris
1831 Discovery English physician Richard Bright describes high blood pressure and heart disease in association with kidney disease (Bright's disease).[7] Guy's Hospital, London
1872–1919 Development Canadian physician William Osler works extensively on angina, and is one of the first to indicate that this is a syndrome rather than a disease in itself.[2]
1895 Discovery German physicist Wilhelm Röntgen discovers X-rays, which are used to diagnose heart disease.[1] University of Würzburg, Germany
1901 Development Dutch physiologist Willem Einthoven invents the string galvanometer, which becomes the first practical electrocardiograph.[1] Leiden, Netherlands
1920 Development Organomercurial diuretics are first used for the treatment of heart failure.[1]
1924 Organization The Association for the Prevention and Relief of Heart Disease is established.[8] New York City
1926 Organisation The Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute is founded.[9] Melbourne, Australia
1930–1939 Development German physicist Werner Forssmann is the first to develop a technique for cardiac catheterization, later winning the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for this achievement.[10] Eberswalde, Germany
1932 Development American cardiac surgeon Michael E. DeBakey develops the roller pump, which later becomes an essential component of the heart–lung machine.[11] Tulane University, New Orleans
1938 Achievement American surgeon Robert Gross applies systematically the first modern cardiovascular surgery when he successfully closes a patent ductus arteriosus.[12] Boston Children's Hospital, Massachusetts
1941 Development French physician André Cournand and American physician Dickinson Richards, use the cardiac catheter as a diagnostic tool for the first time, applying catheterization techniques to measure right-heart pressures and cardiac output. Both physicians are awarded the Nobel Prize in 1956.[12][13] Bellevue Hospital, New York City
1948 Study The Framingham Heart Study is initiated under the direction of the National Heart Institute to better understand atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease; 1,980 male and 2,421 female volunteers are recruited. The study identifies several risk factors for atherosclerosis: among them, high levels of cholesterol. Over 1000 medical papers have since been published related to the Framingham Heart Study.[14][15] Framingham, Massachusetts
1949–1958 Development Scottish epidemiologist Jerry Morris performs studies on cardiovascular health, later establishing the importance of physical activity in preventing cardiovascular disease.[16] United Kingdom
1950 Organization The first World Congress of Cardiology (WCC) is held.[17] Paris, France
1950 Discovery A team led by American scientist John Gofman demonstrates the role of lipoproteins in the causation of heart disease.[14][18] University of California, Berkeley
1950–1958 Development Scientists Karl H. Beyer, James M. Sprague, John E. Baer, and Frederick C. Novello of Merck and Co develop thiazides for the treatment of hypertension and heart failure.
1950–1959 Development Scottish pharmacologist James Black develops propranolol, a beta blocker used for the treatment of heart disease. In 1988, Black is awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for this work.[12] Imperial Chemical Industries, London
1950–1959 Discovery American scientist Ancel Keys discovers that heart disease is rare in some Mediterranean populations where the diet is low in saturated fat.[2] Southern Europe
1952 Development Swedish cardiologist Inge Edler and German physicist Carl Hellmuth Hertz launch the field of echocardiography, by adapting for human use a sonar device (that was used for detecting submarines in World War II) and using it to record echoes from the walls of a human heart.[12]
1952 Development American cardiologist Paul Zoll develops the first external cardiac pacemaker.[12] Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts
1953 Achievement American surgeon John Gibbon performs the first open-heart operation using cardiopulmonary bypass.[12] Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia
1958 Development Thiazide diuretics are introduced for treating hypertension.[1]
1959 Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) establishes the Cardiovascular Disease program.[19]
1960 Study The Framingham Heart Study finds that cigarette smoking increases the risk of heart disease.[20] United States
1960 Achievement The first successful coronary artery bypass operation (anastomosis) is performed by German surgeon Robert H. Goetz.[21] Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York City
1961 Discovery Cholesterol level, blood pressure, and electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities are found to increase the risk of heart disease.[20] United States
1961 Organization The British Heart Foundation (BHF) is established as a charitable organization in order to fund research into cardiovascular disease.[22] London, England
1963 Organization The Instituto do Coração da Universidade de São Paulo is founded as a center specializing in cardiology, cardiovascular medicine and cardiovascular surgery.[23] São Paulo, Brazil
1964 Achievement Russian cardiac surgeon Vasiliy Kolesov performs the first successful coronary bypass using a standard suture technique.[21] First Leningrad Medical Institute, Soviet Union
1964 Development American interventional radiologist Charles Dotter describes angioplasty for the first time.[24]
1967 Achievement South African cardiac surgeon Christiaan Barnard performs the first successful human-to-human heart transplant.[1] Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
1967 Achievement Argentine cardiac surgeon René Favaloro performs the first documented saphenous aortocoronary bypass.[25] Cleveland Clinic, Ohio
1967 Discovery Physical inactivity and obesity are found to increase the risk of heart disease.[19] United States
1969 Organization The International Cardiology Foundation (ICF) is established.[26] Geneva, Switzerland
1969 Achievement Argentine cardiac surgeon Domingo Liotta and American cardiac surgeon Denton Cooley perform the first clinical implantation of a total artificial heart (TAH).[27] The Texas Heart Institute, Houston
1970 Organization The sixth World Congress of Cardiology is held, during which is created the International Cardiology Federation (ICF).[17] London, England
1970 Discovery Atrial fibrillation is found to produce a fivefold increase in the risk of stroke.[20] United States
1975 Organization The Philippine Heart Center is founded.[28] Quezón City, Philippines
1976 Discovery Menopause is found to increase the risk of heart disease.[20] United States
1977 Development German radiologist Andreas Gruentzig first develops coronary angioplasty for the treatment of coronary artery disease.[29] Zurich, Switzerland
1978 Discovery Psychosocial factors are found to affect heart disease.[20] United States
1978 Organization The International Society of Cardiology and the International Cardiology Federation merge to become the International Society and Federation of Cardiology.[17]
1979 Organization The Heart Rhythm Society (HRS) is founded as an international non-profit organization in order to promote education and advocacy for cardiac arrhythmia professionals and patients.[30] Washington, D.C., U.S.
1982 Development The Jarvik 7 total artificial heart, named for its designer, Dr. Robert Jarvik, is implanted in a patient.[31] University of Utah, United States
1986 Development French physician Jacques Puel and German cardiologist Ulrich Sigwart are credited as being the first to use the coronary stent.[32] Toulouse, France
1987 Study A study conducted by the Cooperative North Scandinavian Enalapril Survival Study (CONSENSUS), shows the unequivocal survival benefit of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in severe heart failure.[1]
1988 Development Hemopump, a temporary left ventricular assist blood pump, is put to clinical use. It is designed to allow for the temporary support of a failing heart.[33] The Texas Heart Institute, Houston
1988 Achievement The first successful long-term implantation of an artificial left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is performed by Dr. William F. Bernhard.[34] Boston Children's Hospital, Massachusetts
1993 Organization The American Society of Nuclear Cardiology (ASNC) is founded.[35]
1994 Discovery An enlarged left ventricle (one of two lower chambers of the heart) is shown to increase the risk of stroke.[20] United States
1995 Development The European Society of Cardiology publishes guidelines for diagnosing heart failure.[1]
1996 Development The progression from hypertension to heart failure is described.[20] United States
1997 Development The Thoratec ventricular assist device (VAD) is put to clinical use to support patients with acute and chronic heart failure.[36] The Texas Heart Institute, Houston
1998 Study The Framingham Heart Study finds that atrial fibrillation is associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality.[20] United States
1998 Organization The International Society and Federation of Cardiology board approves the change of name to World Heart Federation (WHF).[17]
1999 Discovery The lifetime risk of developing coronary heart disease at the age of 40, is found to be one in two for men and one in three for women.[20] United States
2000 Organization The WHF launches World Heart Day as an annual event on the last Sunday in September.[17]
2000 Organization The Krishna Heart Institute is founded as a high-end medical facility, specializing in heart diseases.[37] Ahmedabad, India
2000 Organization The Blood Pressure Association is founded as a charitable organization to provide information and support to people with hypertension.[38] London, England
2001 Discovery "High normal" blood pressure (prehypertension) is found to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, emphasizing the need to determine whether the risk can be reduced by lowering prehypertension.[20] United States
2001 Development An AbioCor total artificial heart, developed by U.S. company AbioMed, is implanted in a 59-year-old man.[39] Jewish Hospital, Louisville, Kentucky
2004 Discovery Serum aldosterone levels are found to predict the future risk of hypertension in non-hypertensive individuals.[20][40] Boston Medical Center, Massachusetts
2006 Organization The Multan Institute of Cardiology is founded.[41] Multan, Pakistan
2007 Organization The Atrial Fibrillation Association is established as an international charity that provides information and support for patients with atrial fibrillation.[42] Shipston-on-Stour, England
2008 Report The total number of deaths due to cardiovascular disease reaches 17.3 million a year worldwide, according to the WHO.[43]
2008 Organization The sixteenth World Congress of Cardiology is held, and the WCC is subsequently moved from a 4-year to a 2-year cycle.[17] Buenos Aires, Argentina
2010 Discovery Sleep apnea is found to be tied to an increased risk of stroke.[20][44] National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Maryland, U.S.
2011 Development The first-in-class gene therapy drug, pCMV-vegf165, is registered in Russia for the treatment of peripheral artery disease, including the advanced stage of critical limb ischemia.[45][46] Russia
2011 Campaign The United Nations declaration on non-communicable diseases (NCD's) changes the global approach to these diseases, of which cardiovascular disease is the greatest contributor.[17]
2012 Report Ischemic heart disease and stroke are found to be the leading causes of death worldwide, with 7.4 million deaths due to ischemic heart disease and 6.7 million deaths due to stroke.[3]
2013 Campaign The board of the WHF adopts the United Nations and WHO targets for cardiovascular disease, and launches the 25 x 25 campaign to reduce premature deaths from CVD by 25% by the year 2025.[17]

See also


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