From HandWiki
Gelatin, here in sheets for cooking, is a hydrogel.

A hydrogel is a crosslinked hydrophilic polymer that does not dissolve in water. They are highly absorbent yet maintain well defined structures. These properties underpin several applications, especially in the biomedical area. Many hydrogels are synthetic, but some are derived from nature.[1] The term 'hydrogel' was coined in 1894.[2]

Uses and applications

An adhesive bandage with a hydrogel pad, used for blisters and burns. The central gel is clear, the adhesive waterproof plastic film is clear, the backing is white and blue.

Soft contact lenses

Molecular structure of silicone hydrogel used in flexible, oxygen-permeable contact lenses.[3]

The dominant material for contact lenses are acrylate-siloxane hydrogels. They have replaced hard contact lenses. One of their most attractive properties is oxygen permeability, which is required since the cornea lacks vasculature.

Research laboratory

  • Scaffolds in tissue engineering.[4] When used as scaffolds, hydrogels may contain human cells to repair tissue. They mimic 3D microenvironment of cells.[5]
  • Hydrogel-coated wells have been used for cell culture.[6]
  • Investigating biomechanical functions in cells when combined with holotomography microscopy
Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell interacting with 3D hydrogel - imaged with label-free live cell imaging
  • Environmentally sensitive hydrogels (also known as 'Smart Gels' or 'Intelligent Gels'). These hydrogels have the ability to sense changes of pH, temperature, or the concentration of metabolite and release their load as result of such a change.[7][8]
  • Injectable hydrogels which can be used as drug carriers for treatment of diseases or as cell carriers for regenerative purposes or tissue engineering.[9][10][11]
  • Sustained-release drug delivery systems. Ionic strength, pH and temperature can be used as a triggering factor to control the release of the drug.[12]
  • Providing absorption, desloughing and debriding of necrotic and fibrotic tissue
  • Hydrogels that are responsive to specific molecules,[13] such as glucose or antigens, can be used as biosensors, as well as in DDS.[14]
  • Disposable diapers where they absorb urine, or in sanitary napkins[15]
  • Contact lenses (silicone hydrogels, polyacrylamides, polymacon)
  • EEG and ECG medical electrodes using hydrogels composed of cross-linked polymers (polyethylene oxide, polyAMPS and polyvinylpyrrolidone)
  • Water gel explosives
  • Rectal drug delivery and diagnosis
  • Encapsulation of quantum dots
  • Breast implants
  • Glue
  • Granules for holding soil moisture in arid areas
  • Dressings for healing of burn or other hard-to-heal wounds. Wound gels are excellent for helping to create or maintain a moist environment.
  • Reservoirs in topical drug delivery; particularly ionic drugs, delivered by iontophoresis (see ion-exchange resin).
  • Materials mimicking animal mucosal tissues to be used for testing mucoadhesive properties of drug delivery systems[16][17]
  • Thermodynamic electricity generation. When combined with ions allows for heat dissipation for electronic devices and batteries and converting the heat exchange to an electrical charge.[18]
  • Fibers


Hydrogels are prepared using a variety of polymeric materials, which can be divided broadly into two categories according to their origin: natural or synthetic polymers. Natural polymers for hydrogel preparation include hyaluronic acid, chitosan, heparin, alginate, and fibrin.[19] Common synthetic polymers include polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol, sodium polyacrylate, acrylate polymers and copolymers thereof.[1]

The crosslinks which bond the polymers of a hydrogel fall under two general categories: physical and chemical. Physical crosslinks consist of hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions, and chain entanglements (among others). A hydrogel generated through the use of physical crosslinks is sometimes called a 'reversible' hydrogel. Chemical crosslinks consist of covalent bonds between polymer strands. Hydrogels generated in this manner are sometimes called 'permanent' hydrogels.

One notable method of initiating a polymerization reaction involves the use of light as a stimulus. In this method, photoinitiators, compounds that cleave from the absorption of photons, are added to the precursor solution which will become the hydrogel. When the precursor solution is exposed to a concentrated source of light, the photoinitiators will cleave and form free radicals, which will begin a polymerization reaction that forms crosslinks between polymer strands. This reaction will cease if the light source is removed, allowing the amount of crosslinks formed in the hydrogel to be controlled.[20] The properties of a hydrogel are highly dependent on the type and quantity of its crosslinks, making photopolymerization a popular choice for fine-tuning hydrogels. This technique has seen considerable use in cell and tissue engineering applications due to the ability to inject or mold a precursor solution loaded with cells into a wound site, then solidify it in situ.[15][20]

Hydrogels also possess a degree of flexibility very similar to natural tissue due to their significant water content. As responsive "smart materials", hydrogels can encapsulate chemical systems which upon stimulation by external factors such as a change of pH may cause specific compounds such as glucose to be liberated to the environment, in most cases by a gel–sol transition to the liquid state. Chemomechanical polymers are mostly also hydrogels, which upon stimulation change their volume and can serve as actuators or sensors.

Mechanical properties

Hydrogels been investigated for diverse applications. By modifying the polymer concentration of a hydrogel (or conversely, the water concentration), the Young's modulus, shear modulus, and storage modulus can vary from 10 Pa to 3 MPa, a range of about five orders of magnitude.[22] A similar effect can be seen by altering the crosslinking concentration.[22] This much variability of the mechanical stiffness is why hydrogels are so appealing for biomedical applications, where it is vital for implants to match the mechanical properties of the surrounding tissues.[23] Characterizing the mechanical properties of hydrogels can be difficult especially due to the differences in mechanical behavior that hydrogels have in comparison to other traditional engineering materials. In addition to its rubber elasticity and viscoelasticity, hydrogels have an additional time dependent deformation mechanism which is dependent on fluid flow called poroelasticity. These properties are extremely important to consider while performing mechanical experiments. Some common mechanical testing experiments for hydrogels are tension, compression (confined or unconfined), indentation, shear rheometry or dynamic mechanical analysis.[22]

Hydrogels have two main regimes of mechanical properties: rubber elasticity and viscoelasticity:

Rubber elasticity

In the unswollen state, hydrogels can be modelled as highly crosslinked chemical gels, in which the system can be described as one continuous polymer network. In this case:

[math]\displaystyle{ G=N_{p}kT={\rho RT \over \overline{M}_{c}} }[/math]

where G is the shear modulus, k is the Boltzmann constant, T is temperature, Np is the number of polymer chains per unit volume, ρ is the density, R is the ideal gas constant, and [math]\displaystyle{ \overline{M}_{c} }[/math] is the (number) average molecular weight between two adjacent cross-linking points. [math]\displaystyle{ \overline{M}_{c} }[/math] can be calculated from the swell ratio, Q, which is relatively easy to test and measure.[22]

For the swollen state, a perfect gel network can be modeled as:[22]

[math]\displaystyle{ G_{\textrm{swollen}}=GQ^{-1/3} }[/math]

In a simple uniaxial extension or compression test, the true stress, [math]\displaystyle{ \sigma _{t} }[/math], and engineering stress, [math]\displaystyle{ \sigma _{e} }[/math], can be calculated as:

[math]\displaystyle{ \sigma _{t}=G_{\textrm{swollen}}\left ( \lambda ^{2}-\lambda ^{-1} \right ) }[/math]

[math]\displaystyle{ \sigma _{e}=G_{\textrm{swollen}}\left ( \lambda -\lambda ^{-2} \right ) }[/math]

where [math]\displaystyle{ \lambda =l_{\textrm{current}}/l_{\textrm{original}} }[/math] is the stretch.[22]


For hydrogels, their elasticity comes from the solid polymer matrix while the viscosity originates from the polymer network mobility and the water and other components that make up the aqueous phase.[24] Viscoelastic properties of a hydrogel is highly dependent on the nature of the applied mechanical motion. Thus, the time dependence of these applied forces is extremely important for evaluating the viscoelasticity of the material.[25]

Physical models for viscoelasticity attempt to capture the elastic and viscous material properties of a material. In an elastic material, the stress is proportional to the strain while in a viscous material, the stress is proportional to the strain rate. The Maxwell model is one developed mathematical model for linear viscoelastic response. In this model, viscoelasticity is modeled analogous to an electrical circuit with a Hookean spring, that represents the Young's modulus, and a Newtonian dashpot that represents the viscosity. A material that exhibit properties described in this model is a Maxwell material. Another physical model used is called the Kelvin-Voigt Model and a material that follow this model is called a Kelvin–Voigt material.[26] In order to describe the time-dependent creep and stress-relaxation behavior of hydrogel, a variety of physical lumped parameter models can be used.[22] These modeling methods vary greatly and are extremely complex, so the empirical Prony Series description is commonly used to describe the viscoelastic behavior in hydrogels.[22]

In order to measure the time-dependent viscoelastic behavior of polymers dynamic mechanical analysis is often performed. Typically, in these measurements the one side of the hydrogel is subjected to a sinusoidal load in shear mode while the applied stress is measured with a stress transducer and the change in sample length is measured with a strain transducer.[25] One notation used to model the sinusoidal response to the periodic stress or strain is:

[math]\displaystyle{ G = G' + iG'' }[/math]

in which G' is the real (elastic or storage) modulus, G" is the imaginary (viscous or loss) modulus.


Poroelasticity is a characteristic of materials related to the migration of solvent through a porous material and the concurrent deformation that occurs.[22] Poroelasticity in hydrated materials such as hydrogels occurs due to friction between the polymer and water as the water moves through the porous matrix upon compression. This causes a decrease in water pressure, which adds additional stress upon compression. Similar to viscoelasticity, this behavior is time dependent, thus poroelasticity is dependent on compression rate: a hydrogel shows softness upon slow compression, but fast compression makes the hydrogel stiffer. This phenomena is due to the friction between the water and the porous matrix is proportional to the flow of water, which in turn is dependent on compression rate. Thus, a common way to measure poroelasticity is to do compression tests at varying compression rates.[27] Pore size is an important factor in influencing poroelasticity. The Kozeny–Carman equation has been used to predict pore size by relating the pressure drop to the difference in stress between two compression rates.[28]

Poroelasticity is described by several coupled equations, thus there are few mechanical tests that relate directly to the poroelastic behavior of the material, thus more complicated tests such as indentation testing, numerical or computational models are utilized. Numerical or computational methods attempt to simulate the three dimensional permeability of the hydrogel network.

Environmental response

The most commonly seen environmental sensitivity in hydrogels is a response to temperature.[29] Many polymers/hydrogels exhibit a temperature dependent phase transition, which can be classified as either an upper critical solution temperature (UCST) or lower critical solution temperature (LCST). UCST polymers increase in their water-solubility at higher temperatures, which lead to UCST hydrogels transitioning from a gel (solid) to a solution (liquid) as the temperature is increased (similar to the melting point behavior of pure materials). This phenomenon also causes UCST hydrogels to expand (increase their swell ratio) as temperature increases while they are below their UCST.[29] However, polymers with LCSTs display an inverse (or negative) temperature-dependence, where their water-solubility decreases at higher temperatures. LCST hydrogels transition from a liquid solution to a solid gel as the temperature is increased, and they also shrink (decrease their swell ratio) as the temperature increases while they are above their LCST.[29]

Applications can dictate for diverse thermal responses. For example, in the biomedical field, LCST hydrogels are being investigated as drug delivery systems due to being injectable (liquid) at room temp and then solidifying into a rigid gel upon exposure to the higher temperatures of the human body.[29] There are many other stimuli that hydrogels can be responsive to, including: pH, glucose, electrical signals, light, pressure, ions, antigens, and more.[29]


The mechanical properties of hydrogels can be fine-tuned in many ways beginning with attention to their hydrophobic properties.[29][30] Another method of modifying the strength or elasticity of hydrogels is to graft or surface coat them onto a stronger/stiffer support, or by making superporous hydrogel (SPH) composites, in which a cross-linkable matrix swelling additive is added.[31] Other additives, such as nanoparticles and microparticles, have been shown to significantly modify the stiffness and gelation temperature of certain hydrogels used in biomedical applications.[32][33][34]

Processing techniques

While a hydrogel's mechanical properties can be tuned and modified through crosslink concentration and additives, these properties can also be enhanced or optimized for various applications through specific processing techniques. These techniques include electro-spinning, 3D/4D printing, self-assembly, and freeze-casting. One unique processing technique is through the formation of multi-layered hydrogels to create a spatially-varying matrix composition and by extension, mechanical properties. This can be done by polymerizing the hydrogel matrixes in a layer by layer fashion via UV polymerization. This technique can be useful in creating hydrogels that mimic articular cartilage, enabling a material with three separate zones of distinct mechanical properties.[35]

Another emerging technique to optimize hydrogel mechanical properties is by taking advantage of the Hofmeister series. Due to this phenomena, through the addition of salt solution, the polymer chains of a hydrogel aggregate and crystallize, which increases the toughness of the hydrogel. This method, called "salting out", has been applied to poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels by adding a sodium sulfate salt solution.[36] Some of these processing techniques can be used synergistically with each other to yield optimal mechanical properties. Directional freezing or freeze-casting is another method in which a directional temperature gradient is applied to the hydrogel is another way to form materials with anisotropic mechanical properties. Utilizing both the freeze-casting and salting-out processing techniques on poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels to induce hierarchical morphologies and anisotropic mechanical properties.[37] Directional freezing of the hydrogels helps to align and coalesce the polymer chains, creating anisotropic array honeycomb tube-like structures while salting out the hydrogel yielded out a nano-fibril network on the surface of these honeycomb tube-like structures. While maintaining a water content of over 70%, these hydrogels' toughness values are well above those of water-free polymers such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), Kevlar, and synthetic rubber. The values also surpass the toughness of natural tendon and spider silk.[38]


Natural hydrogel materials are being investigated for tissue engineering; these materials include agarose, methylcellulose, hyaluronan, elastin-like polypeptides, and other naturally derived polymers. Hydrogels show promise for use in agriculture, as they can release agrochemicals including pesticides and phosphate fertiliser slowly, increasing efficiency and reducing runoff, and at the same time improve the water retention of drier soils such as sandy loams.

Hydrogels have been investigated for drug delivery. Polymeric drug delivery systems have overcome challenge due to their biodegradability, biocompatibility, and anti-toxicity.[39][40] Materials such as collagen, chitosan, cellulose, and poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) have been implemented extensively for drug delivery to diverse organs in the human body such as: the eye,[41] nose, kidneys,[42] lungs,[43] intestines,[44] skin,[45] and brain. Future work is focused on better anti-toxicity of hydrogels, varying assembly techniques for hydrogels making them more biocompatible[46] and the delivery of complex systems such as using hydrogels to deliver therapeutic cells.[47]

Further reading


  1. 1.0 1.1 Cai, Wensheng; Gupta, Ram B. (2012). "Hydrogels". Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. doi:10.1002/0471238961.0825041807211620.a01.pub2. ISBN 978-0471238966. 
  2. "Der Hydrogel und das kristallinische Hydrat des Kupferoxydes". Zeitschrift für Chemie und Industrie der Kolloide 1 (7): 213–214. 1907. doi:10.1007/BF01830147. 
  3. Lai, Yu-Chin; Wilson, Alan C.; Zantos, Steve G. (2000). "Contact Lenses". in John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Kirk‐Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. doi:10.1002/0471238961. ISBN 9780471484943. 
  4. Talebian, Sepehr; Mehrali, Mehdi; Taebnia, Nayere; Pennisi, Cristian Pablo; Kadumudi, Firoz Babu; Foroughi, Javad; Hasany, Masoud; Nikkhah, Mehdi et al. (2019). "Self-Healing Hydrogels: The Next Paradigm Shift in Tissue Engineering?". Advanced Science 6 (16): 1801664. doi:10.1002/advs.201801664. ISSN 2198-3844. PMID 31453048. 
  5. Mellati, Amir; Dai, Sheng; Bi, Jingxiu; Jin, Bo; Zhang, Hu (2014). "A biodegradable thermosensitive hydrogel with tuneable properties for mimicking three-dimensional microenvironments of stem cells". RSC Adv. 4 (109): 63951–63961. doi:10.1039/C4RA12215A. ISSN 2046-2069. Bibcode2014RSCAd...463951M. 
  6. Discher, D. E.; Janmey, P.; Wang, Y.L. (2005). "Tissue Cells Feel and Respond to the Stiffness of Their Substrate". Science 310 (5751): 1139–43. doi:10.1126/science.1116995. PMID 16293750. Bibcode2005Sci...310.1139D. 
  7. Brudno, Yevgeny (2015-12-10). "On-demand drug delivery from local depots". Journal of Controlled Release 219: 8–17. doi:10.1016/j.jconrel.2015.09.011. PMID 26374941. 
  8. Blacklow, S.; Li, J.; Freedman, B; Zeidi, Mahdi; Chen, C.; Mooney, D.J. (2019). "Bioinspired mechanically active adhesive dressings to accelerate wound closure". Science Advances 5 (7): eaaw3963. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aaw3963. ISSN 2375-2548. PMID 31355332. Bibcode2019SciA....5.3963B. 
  9. Lee, Jin Hyun (December 2018). "Injectable hydrogels delivering therapeutic agents for disease treatment and tissue engineering". Biomaterials Research 22 (1): 27. doi:10.1186/s40824-018-0138-6. ISSN 2055-7124. PMID 30275970. 
  10. Liu, Mei; Zeng, Xin; Ma, Chao; Yi, Huan; Ali, Zeeshan; Mou, Xianbo; Li, Song; Deng, Yan et al. (December 2017). "Injectable hydrogels for cartilage and bone tissue engineering". Bone Research 5 (1): 17014. doi:10.1038/boneres.2017.14. ISSN 2095-6231. PMID 28584674. 
  11. Pupkaite, Justina; Rosenquist, Jenny; Hilborn, Jöns; Samanta, Ayan (2019-09-09). "Injectable Shape-Holding Collagen Hydrogel for Cell Encapsulation and Delivery Cross-linked Using Thiol-Michael Addition Click Reaction". Biomacromolecules 20 (9): 3475–3484. doi:10.1021/acs.biomac.9b00769. ISSN 1525-7797. PMID 31408340. 
  12. Malmsten, Martin; Bysell, Helena; Hansson, Per (2010-12-01). "Biomacromolecules in microgels — Opportunities and challenges for drug delivery". Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science 15 (6): 435–444. doi:10.1016/j.cocis.2010.05.016. ISSN 1359-0294. 
  13. Chemoresponsive Materials, Editor: Hans-Jörg Schneider, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge 2015,
  14. Yetisen, A. K.; Naydenova, I; Da Cruz Vasconcellos, F; Blyth, J; Lowe, C. R. (2014). "Holographic Sensors: Three-Dimensional Analyte-Sensitive Nanostructures and their Applications". Chemical Reviews 114 (20): 10654–96. doi:10.1021/cr500116a. PMID 25211200. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 Caló, Enrica; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V. (2015). "Biomedical applications of hydrogels: A review of patents and commercial products". European Polymer Journal 65: 252–267. doi:10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2014.11.024. 
  16. Cook, Michael T.; Smith, Sarah L.; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V. (2015). "Novel glycopolymer hydrogels as mucosa-mimetic materials to reduce animal testing". Chem. Commun. 51 (77): 14447–14450. doi:10.1039/C5CC02428E. PMID 26221632. 
  17. Cook, Michael T.; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V. (2015). "Mucoadhesion and mucosa-mimetic materials—A mini-review". International Journal of Pharmaceutics 495 (2): 991–8. doi:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2015.09.064. PMID 26440734. 
  18. "A new way to cool down electronic devices, recover waste heat". April 22, 2020. 
  19. Kharkar, Prathamesh M.; Kiick, Kristi L.; Kloxin, April M. (5 August 2013). "Designing degradable hydrogels for orthogonal control of cell microenvironments". Chemical Society Reviews 42 (17): 7335–7372. doi:10.1039/C3CS60040H. PMID 23609001. 
  20. 20.0 20.1 Choi, J. R.; Yong, K. W.; Choi, J. Y.; Cowie, A. C. (2019). "Recent advances in photo-crosslinkable hydrogels for biomedical applications". BioTechniques 66 (1): 40–53. doi:10.2144/btn-2018-0083. PMID 30730212. 
  21. Kwon, Gu Han; Jeong, Gi Seok; Park, Joong Yull; Moon, Jin Hee; Lee, Sang-Hoon (2011). "A low-energy-consumption electroactive valveless hydrogel micropump for long-term biomedical applications". Lab on a Chip 11 (17): 2910–5. doi:10.1039/C1LC20288J. PMID 21761057. 
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 22.4 22.5 22.6 22.7 22.8 Oyen, M. L. (January 2014). "Mechanical characterisation of hydrogel materials" (in en). International Materials Reviews 59 (1): 44–59. doi:10.1179/1743280413Y.0000000022. ISSN 0950-6608. 
  23. Los, Marek J.; Hudecki, Andrzej; Wiechec, Emilia (2018-11-07) (in en). Stem Cells and Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-812278-5. 
  24. Tirella, A.; Mattei, G.; Ahluwalia, A. (14 August 2013). "Strain rate viscoelastic analysis of soft and highly hydrated biomaterials". Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 102 (10): 3353-3360. doi:10.1002/jbm.a.34914. PMID 23946054. 
  25. 25.0 25.1 Anseth, K. S.; Bowman, C.N.; Brannon-Peppas, L. (1996). "Review: Mechanical Properties of Hydrogels and their Experimental Determination". Biomaterials 17 (17): 1647–1657. doi:10.1016/0142-9612(96)87644-7. PMID 8866026. 
  26. Roylance, D.. ""Engineering viscoelasticity"". Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 
  27. Isobe, Noriyuki; Kimura, Satoshi; Wada, Masahisa; Deguchi, Shigeru (November 2018). "Poroelasticity of cellulose hydrogel". Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers 92: 118-122. doi:10.1016/j.jtice.2018.02.017. 
  28. Isobe, Noriyuki; Kimura, Satoshi; Wada, Masahisa; Deguchi, Shigeru (November 2018). "Poroelasticity of cellulose hydrogel". Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers 92: 118-122. doi:10.1016/j.jtice.2018.02.017. 
  29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 29.3 29.4 29.5 Qiu, Yong; Park, Kinam (December 2001). "Environment-sensitive hydrogels for drug delivery" (in en). Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 53 (3): 321–339. doi:10.1016/S0169-409X(01)00203-4. PMID 11744175. 
  30. Zaragoza, J; Chang, A; Asuri, P (January 2017). "Effect of crosslinker length on the elastic and compression modulus of poly(acrylamide) nanocomposite hydrogels" (in en). Journal of Physics: Conference Series 790 (1): 012037. doi:10.1088/1742-6596/790/1/012037. ISSN 1742-6588. Bibcode2017JPhCS.790a2037Z. 
  31. Ahmed, Enas M. (March 2015). "Hydrogel: Preparation, characterization, and applications: A review" (in en). Journal of Advanced Research 6 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1016/j.jare.2013.07.006. PMID 25750745. 
  32. Cidade, M.; Ramos, D.; Santos, J.; Carrelo, H.; Calero, N.; Borges, J. (2019-04-02). "Injectable Hydrogels Based on Pluronic/Water Systems Filled with Alginate Microparticles for Biomedical Applications" (in en). Materials 12 (7): 1083. doi:10.3390/ma12071083. ISSN 1996-1944. PMID 30986948. Bibcode2019Mate...12.1083C. 
  33. Rose, Séverine; Prevoteau, Alexandre; Elzière, Paul; Hourdet, Dominique; Marcellan, Alba; Leibler, Ludwik (January 2014). "Nanoparticle solutions as adhesives for gels and biological tissues" (in en). Nature 505 (7483): 382–385. doi:10.1038/nature12806. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 24336207. Bibcode2014Natur.505..382R. 
  34. Zaragoza, Josergio; Fukuoka, Scott; Kraus, Marcus; Thomin, James; Asuri, Prashanth (November 2018). "Exploring the Role of Nanoparticles in Enhancing Mechanical Properties of Hydrogel Nanocomposites" (in en). Nanomaterials 8 (11): 882. doi:10.3390/nano8110882. PMID 30380606. 
  35. Nguyen, Lonnissa H.; Kudva, Abhijith K.; Saxena, Neha S.; Roy, Krishnendu (October 2011). "Engineering articular cartilage with spatially-varying matrix composition and mechanical properties from a single stem cell population using a multi-layered hydrogel". Biomaterials 32 (29): 6946–6952. doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2011.06.014. PMID 21723599. 
  36. Hua, Mutian; Wu, Dong; Wu, Shuwang; Ma, Yanfei; Alsaid, Yousif; He, Ximin (12 February 2021). "4D Printable Tough and Thermoresponsive Hydrogels". ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 13 (11): 12689–12697. doi:10.1021/acsami.0c17532. PMID 33263991. 
  37. Hua, Martian; Wu, Shuwang; Ma, Yanfei; Zhao, Yusen; Chen, Zilin; Frenkel, Imri; Strzalka, Joseph; Zhou, Hua et al. (24 February 2021). "Strong tough hydrogels via the synergy of freeze-casting and salting out". Nature 590 (7847): 594–599. doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03212-z. PMID 33627812. Bibcode2021Natur.590..594H. 
  38. Hua, Martian; Wu, Shuwang; Ma, Yanfei; Zhao, Yusen; Chen, Zilin; Frenkel, Imri; Strzalka, Joseph; Zhou, Hua et al. (24 February 2021). "Strong tough hydrogels via the synergy of freeze-casting and salting out". Nature 590 (7847): 594–599. doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03212-z. PMID 33627812. Bibcode2021Natur.590..594H. 
  39. Tang, Yiqing; Heaysman, Clare L.; Willis, Sean; Lewis, Andrew L. (2011-09-01). "Physical hydrogels with self-assembled nanostructures as drug delivery systems". Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 8 (9): 1141–1159. doi:10.1517/17425247.2011.588205. ISSN 1742-5247. PMID 21619469. 
  40. Aurand, Emily R.; Lampe, Kyle J.; Bjugstad, Kimberly B. (March 2012). "Defining and designing polymers and hydrogels for neural tissue engineering" (in en). Neuroscience Research 72 (3): 199–213. doi:10.1016/j.neures.2011.12.005. PMID 22192467. 
  41. Ozcelik, Berkay; Brown, Karl D.; Blencowe, Anton; Daniell, Mark; Stevens, Geoff W.; Qiao, Greg G. (May 2013). "Ultrathin chitosan–poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel films for corneal tissue engineering" (in en). Acta Biomaterialia 9 (5): 6594–6605. doi:10.1016/j.actbio.2013.01.020. PMID 23376126. 
  42. Gao, Jiasheng; Liu, Rongfu; Wu, Jie; Liu, Zhiqiang; Li, Junjie; Zhou, Jin; Hao, Tong; Wang, Yan et al. (May 2012). "The use of chitosan based hydrogel for enhancing the therapeutic benefits of adipose-derived MSCs for acute kidney injury" (in en). Biomaterials 33 (14): 3673–3681. doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2012.01.061. PMID 22361096. 
  43. Otani, Yuto; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Ikada, Yoshito (April 1999). "Sealing effect of rapidly curable gelatin-poly (l-glutamic acid) hydrogel glue on lung air leak" (in en). The Annals of Thoracic Surgery 67 (4): 922–926. doi:10.1016/S0003-4975(99)00153-8. PMID 10320229. 
  44. Ramdas, M.; Dileep, K. J.; Anitha, Y.; Paul, Willi; Sharma, Chandra P. (April 1999). "Alginate Encapsulated Bioadhesive Chitosan Microspheres for Intestinal Drug Delivery" (in en). Journal of Biomaterials Applications 13 (4): 290–296. doi:10.1177/088532829901300402. ISSN 0885-3282. PMID 10340211. 
  45. Liu, Xing; Ma, Lie; Mao, Zhengwei; Gao, Changyou (2011), Jayakumar, Rangasamy; Prabaharan, M.; Muzzarelli, Riccardo A. A., eds., "Chitosan-Based Biomaterials for Tissue Repair and Regeneration" (in en), Chitosan for Biomaterials II, Advances in Polymer Science (Springer Berlin Heidelberg): pp. 81–127, doi:10.1007/12_2011_118, ISBN 978-3-642-24061-4 
  46. Wu, Zi Liang; Gong, Jian Ping (June 2011). "Hydrogels with self-assembling ordered structures and their functions" (in en). NPG Asia Materials 3 (6): 57–64. doi:10.1038/asiamat.2010.200. ISSN 1884-4057. 
  47. Kim, Jinku; Yaszemski, Michael J.; Lu, Lichun (December 2009). "Three-dimensional porous biodegradable polymeric scaffolds fabricated with biodegradable hydrogel porogens". Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods 15 (4): 583–594. doi:10.1089/ten.TEC.2008.0642. ISSN 1937-3392. PMID 19216632.