# Margolus–Levitin theorem

From HandWiki

__: Theorem which gives a fundamental limit on quantum computation__

**Short description**The **Margolus–Levitin theorem** states that the processing rate of all forms of computation (including quantum computation) cannot be higher than about 6 × 10^{33} operations per second per joule of energy. The theorem is named for Norman Margolus and Lev B. Levitin, who derived this fundamental limit on the rate of computation.

Stating the bound for one bit is as follows:

- A quantum system of energy
*E*needs at least a time of [math]\displaystyle{ \frac{h}{4 E} }[/math] to go from one state to an orthogonal state, where*h*is the Planck constant (6.626×10^{−34}J⋅s^{[1]}) and*E*is average energy.

## See also

- Bekenstein bound
- Bremermann's limit
- Landauer's principle
- Kolmogorov complexity
- Koomey's law
- Limits to computation
- Moore's law

## References

- Norman Margolus, Lev B. Levitin (1998). "The maximum speed of dynamical evolution".
*Physica D***120**(1–2): 188–195. doi:10.1016/S0167-2789(98)00054-2. Bibcode: 1998PhyD..120..188M. - Deffner, Sebastian; Campbell, Steve (2017), "Quantum speed limits",
*Journal of Physics A***50**(45): 453001, doi:10.1088/1751-8121/aa86c6, Bibcode: 2017JPhA...50S3001D - Jordan, Stephen P. (2017), "Fast quantum computation at arbitrarily low energy",
*Physical Review A***95**(3): 032305, doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.95.032305, Bibcode: 2017PhRvA..95c2305J - Lloyd, Seth; Ng, Y. Jack, "Black Hole Computers",
*Scientific American*(April 2007), p. 53–61 - Sinitsyn, Nikolai A. (2018). "Is there a quantum limit on speed of computation?".
*Physics Letters A***382**(7): 477–481. doi:10.1016/j.physleta.2017.12.042. Bibcode: 2018PhLA..382..477S.

Original source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margolus–Levitin theorem.
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- ↑ "2018 CODATA Value: Planck constant".
*The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty*. NIST. 20 May 2019. http://physics.nist.gov/cgi-bin/cuu/Value?h. Retrieved 2019-05-20.