Timeline of quantum computing

From HandWiki

This is a timeline of quantum computing.



  • 1973
  • 1975
    • R. P. Poplavskii publishes "Thermodynamical models of information processing" (in Russian)[4] which showed the computational infeasibility of simulating quantum systems on classical computers, due to the superposition principle.
  • 1976
    • Polish mathematical physicist Roman Stanisław Ingarden publishes a seminal paper entitled "Quantum Information Theory" in Reports on Mathematical Physics, vol. 10, 43–72, 1976. (The paper was submitted in 1975.) It is one of the first attempts at creating a quantum information theory, showing that Shannon information theory cannot directly be generalized to the quantum case, but rather that it is possible to construct a quantum information theory, which is a generalization of Shannon's theory, within the formalism of a generalized quantum mechanics of open systems and a generalized concept of observables (the so-called semi-observables).


  • 1980
    • Paul Benioff describes the first quantum mechanical model of a computer. In this work, Benioff showed that a computer could operate under the laws of quantum mechanics by describing a Schrödinger equation description of Turing machines, laying a foundation for further work in quantum computing. The paper [5] was submitted in June 1979 and published in April 1980.
    • Yuri Manin briefly motivates the idea of quantum computing[6]
    • Tommaso Toffoli introduces the reversible Toffoli gate[7], which, together with the NOT and XOR gates provides a universal set for reversible classical computation.
  • 1980
    • At the First Conference on the Physics of Computation, held at MIT in May, Paul Benioff and Richard Feynman give talks on quantum computing. Benioff's built on his earlier 1980 work showing that a computer can operate under the laws of quantum mechanics. The talk was titled “Quantum mechanical Hamiltonian models of discrete processes that erase their own histories: application to Turing machines”.[8] In Feynman's talk, he observed that it appeared to be impossible to efficiently simulate an evolution of a quantum system on a classical computer, and he proposed a basic model for a quantum computer.[9]
  • 1982
  • 1984
    • Charles Bennett and Gilles Brassard employ Wiesner's conjugate coding for distribution of cryptographic keys.[13]
  • 1985
    • David Deutsch, at the University of Oxford, describes the first universal quantum computer. Just as a Universal Turing machine can simulate any other Turing machine efficiently (Church-Turing thesis), so the universal quantum computer is able to simulate any other quantum computer with at most a polynomial slowdown.
  • 1988
    • Yoshihisa Yamamoto (scientist) and K. Igeta propose the first physical realization of a quantum computer, including Feynman's CNOT gate.[14] Their approach uses atoms and photons and is the progenitor of modern quantum computing and networking protocols using photons to transmit qubits and atoms to perform two-qubit operations.
    • Gerard J. Milburn proposes a quantum-optical realization of a Fredkin gate.[15]
  • 1989
    • Bikas K. Chakrabarti & collaborators from Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata, propose the idea that quantum fluctuations could help explore rough energy landscapes by escaping from local minima of glassy systems having tall but thin barriers by tunneling (instead of climbing over using thermal excitations), suggesting the effectiveness of quantum annealing over classical simulated annealing.[16][17]


  • 1991
  • 1992
    • David Deutsch and Richard Jozsa propose a computational problem that can be solved efficiently with the determinist Deutsch–Jozsa algorithm on a quantum computer, but for which no deterministic classical algorithm is possible. This was perhaps the earliest result in the computational complexity of quantum computers, proving that they were capable of performing some well-defined computational task more efficiently than any classical computer.
  • 1993
  • 1994
    • Peter Shor, at AT&T's Bell Labs in New Jersey, discovers an important algorithm. It allows a quantum computer to factor large integers quickly. It solves both the factoring problem and the discrete log problem. Shor's algorithm can theoretically break many of the cryptosystems in use today. Its invention sparked a tremendous interest in quantum computers.
    • First United States Government workshop on quantum computing is organized by NIST in Gaithersburg, Maryland, in autumn.
    • Isaac Chuang and Yoshihisa Yamamoto (scientist) propose a quantum-optical realization of a quantum computer to implement Deutsch's algorithm.[20] Their work introduces dual-rail encoding for photonic qubits.
    • In December, Ignacio Cirac, at University of Castilla-La Mancha at Ciudad Real, and Peter Zoller at the University of Innsbruck propose an experimental realization of the controlled-NOT gate with cold trapped ions.
  • 1995
    • The first United States Department of Defense workshop on quantum computing and quantum cryptography is organized by United States Army physicists Charles M. Bowden, Jonathan P. Dowling, and Henry O. Everitt; it takes place in February at the University of Arizona in Tucson.
    • Peter Shor proposes the first schemes for quantum error correction.[21]
    • Christopher Monroe and David Wineland at NIST (Boulder, Colorado) experimentally realize the first quantum logic gate – the controlled-NOT gate – with trapped ions, following the Cirac-Zoller proposal.[22]
  • 1996
    • Lov Grover, at Bell Labs, invents the quantum database search algorithm. The quadratic speedup is not as dramatic as the speedup for factoring, discrete logs, or physics simulations. However, the algorithm can be applied to a much wider variety of problems. Any problem that has to be solved by random, brute-force search, can take advantage of this quadratic speedup (in the number of search queries).
    • The United States Government, particularly in a joint partnership of the Army Research Office (now part of the Army Research Laboratory) and the National Security Agency, issues the first public call for research proposals in quantum information processing.
    • Andrew Steane designs Steane codes for error correction.[23]
    • David P. DiVincenzo, from IBM, proposes a list of minimal requirements for creating a quantum computer.[24]
  • 1997
    • David Cory, Amr Fahmy and Timothy Havel, and at the same time Neil Gershenfeld and Isaac L. Chuang at MIT publish the first papers realizing gates for quantum computers based on bulk nuclear spin resonance, or thermal ensembles. The technology is based on a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) machine, which is similar to the medical magnetic resonance imaging machine.
    • Alexei Kitaev describes the principles of topological quantum computation as a method for combating decoherence.[25]
    • Daniel Loss and David P. DiVincenzo propose the Loss-DiVincenzo quantum computer, using as qubits the intrinsic spin-1/2 degree of freedom of individual electrons confined to quantum dots.[26]
  • 1998
    • First experimental demonstration of a quantum algorithm. A working 2-qubit NMR quantum computer is used to solve Deutsch's problem by Jonathan A. Jones and Michele Mosca at Oxford University and shortly after by Isaac L. Chuang at IBM's Almaden Research Center and Mark Kubinec and the University of California, Berkeley together with coworkers at Stanford University and MIT.[27]
    • First working 3-qubit NMR computer.
    • Bruce Kane proposes a silicon based nuclear spin quantum computer, using nuclear spins of individual phosphorus atoms in silicon as the qubits and donor electrons to mediate the coupling between qubits.[28]
    • First execution of Grover's algorithm on an NMR computer.
    • Hidetoshi Nishimori & colleagues from Tokyo Institute of Technology showed that quantum annealing algorithm can perform better than classical simulated annealing.
    • Daniel Gottesman and Emanuel Knill independently prove that a certain subclass of quantum computations can be efficiently emulated with classical resources (Gottesman–Knill theorem).[29]
  • 1999
    • Samuel L. Braunstein and collaborators show that none of the bulk NMR experiments performed to date contained any entanglement, the quantum states being too strongly mixed. This is seen as evidence that NMR computers would likely not yield a benefit over classical computers. It remains an open question, however, whether entanglement is necessary for quantum computational speedup.[30]
    • Gabriel Aeppli, Thomas Felix Rosenbaum and colleagues demonstrate experimentally the basic concepts of quantum annealing in a condensed matter system.
    • Yasunobu Nakamura and Jaw-Shen Tsai demonstrate that a superconducting circuit can be used as a qubit.[31] This leads to a global effort to develop quantum computers using superconducting circuits, culminating in Google's demonstration of quantum supremacy using this technology in 2019.


  • 2000
    • Arun K. Pati and Samuel L. Braunstein proved the quantum no-deleting theorem. This is dual to the no-cloning theorem which shows that one cannot delete a copy of an unknown qubit. Together with the stronger no-cloning theorem, the no-deleting theorem has important implication, i.e., quantum information can neither be created nor be destroyed.
    • First working 5-qubit NMR computer demonstrated at the Technical University of Munich.
    • First execution of order finding (part of Shor's algorithm) at IBM's Almaden Research Center and Stanford University.
    • First working 7-qubit NMR computer demonstrated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    • The standard textbook, Quantum Computation and Quantum Information, by Michael Nielsen and Isaac Chuang is published.
  • 2001
    • First execution of Shor's algorithm at IBM's Almaden Research Center and Stanford University. The number 15 was factored using 1018 identical molecules, each containing seven active nuclear spins.
    • Noah Linden and Sandu Popescu proved that the presence of entanglement is a necessary condition for a large class of quantum protocols. This, coupled with Braunstein's result (see 1999 above), called the validity of NMR quantum computation into question.[32]
    • Emanuel Knill, Raymond Laflamme, and Gerard Milburn show that optical quantum computing is possible with single photon sources, linear optical elements, and single photon detectors, launching the field of linear optical quantum computing.
    • Robert Raussendorf and Hans Jürgen Briegel propose measurement-based quantum computation.[33]
  • 2002
  • 2003
  • 2004
    • First working pure state NMR quantum computer (based on parahydrogen) demonstrated at Oxford University and University of York.
    • Physicists at the University of Innsbruck show deterministic quantum-state teleportation between a pair of trapped calcium ions.[39]
    • First five-photon entanglement demonstrated by Jian-Wei Pan's group at the University of Science and Technology of China, the minimal number of qubits required for universal quantum error correction.[40]


  • University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign scientists demonstrate quantum entanglement of multiple characteristics, potentially allowing multiple qubits per particle.
  • Two teams of physicists measured the capacitance of a Josephson junction for the first time. The methods could be used to measure the state of quantum bits in a quantum computer without disturbing the state.[41]
  • In December, the first quantum byte, or qubyte, is announced to have been created by scientists at the Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information and the University of Innsbruck in Austria.[42]
  • Harvard University and Georgia Institute of Technology researchers succeeded in transferring quantum information between "quantum memories" – from atoms to photons and back again.


  • Materials Science Department of Oxford University, cage a qubit in a "buckyball" (a molecule of buckminsterfullerene), and demonstrated quantum "bang-bang" error correction.[43]
  • Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign use the Zeno Effect, repeatedly measuring the properties of a photon to gradually change it without actually allowing the photon to reach the program, to search a database without actually "running" the quantum computer.[44]
  • Vlatko Vedral of the University of Leeds and colleagues at the universities of Porto and Vienna found that the photons in ordinary laser light can be quantum mechanically entangled with the vibrations of a macroscopic mirror.[45]
  • Samuel L. Braunstein at the University of York along with the University of Tokyo and the Japan Science and Technology Agency gave the first experimental demonstration of quantum telecloning.[46]
  • Professors at the University of Sheffield develop a means to efficiently produce and manipulate individual photons at high efficiency at room temperature.[47]
  • New error checking method theorized for Josephson junction computers.[48]
  • First 12 qubit quantum computer benchmarked by researchers at the Institute for Quantum Computing and the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, as well as MIT, Cambridge.[49]
  • Two dimensional ion trap developed for quantum computing.[50]
  • Seven atoms placed in stable line, a step on the way to constructing a quantum gate, at the University of Bonn.[51]
  • A team at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands created a device that can manipulate the "up" or "down" spin-states of electrons on quantum dots.[52]
  • University of Arkansas develops quantum dot molecules.[53]
  • Spinning new theory on particle spin brings science closer to quantum computing.[54]
  • University of Copenhagen develops quantum teleportation between photons and atoms.[55]
  • University of Camerino scientists develop theory of macroscopic object entanglement, which has implications for the development of quantum repeaters.[56]
  • Tai-Chang Chiang, at Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, finds that quantum coherence can be maintained in mixed-material systems.[57]
  • Cristophe Boehme, University of Utah, demonstrates the feasibility of reading spin-data on a silicon-phosphorus quantum computer.[58]


  • Subwavelength waveguide developed for light.[59]
  • Single photon emitter for optical fibers developed.[60]
  • Six-photon one-way quantum computer is created in lab.[61]
  • New material proposed for quantum computing.[62]
  • Single atom single photon server devised.[63]
  • First use of Deutsch's Algorithm in a cluster state quantum computer.[64]
  • University of Cambridge develops electron quantum pump.[65]
  • Superior method of qubit coupling developed.[66]
  • Successful demonstration of controllably coupled qubits.[67]
  • Breakthrough in applying spin-based electronics to silicon.[68]
  • Scientists demonstrate quantum state exchange between light and matter.[69]
  • Diamond quantum register developed.[70]
  • Controlled-NOT quantum gates on a pair of superconducting quantum bits realized.[71]
  • Scientists contain, study hundreds of individual atoms in 3D array.[72]
  • Nitrogen in buckyball molecule used in quantum computing.[73]
  • Large number of electrons quantum coupled.[74]
  • Spin-orbit interaction of electrons measured.[75]
  • Atoms quantum manipulated in laser light.[76]
  • Light pulses used to control electron spins.[77]
  • Quantum effects demonstrated across tens of nanometers.[78]
  • Light pulses used to accelerate quantum computing development.[79]
  • Quantum RAM blueprint unveiled.[80]
  • Model of quantum transistor developed.[81]
  • Long distance entanglement demonstrated.[82]
  • Photonic quantum computing used to factor number by two independent labs.[83]
  • Quantum bus developed by two independent labs.[84]
  • Superconducting quantum cable developed.[85]
  • Transmission of qubits demonstrated.[86]
  • Superior qubit material devised.[87]
  • Single electron qubit memory.[88]
  • Bose-Einstein condensate quantum memory developed.[89]
  • D-Wave Systems demonstrates use of a 28-qubit quantum annealing computer.[90]
  • New cryonic method reduces decoherence and increases interaction distance, and thus quantum computing speed.[91]
  • Photonic quantum computer demonstrated.[92]
  • Graphene quantum dot spin qubits proposed.[93]


  • Graphene quantum dot qubits[94]
  • Quantum bit stored[95]
  • 3D qubit-qutrit entanglement demonstrated[96]
  • Analog quantum computing devised[97]
  • Control of quantum tunneling[98]
  • Entangled memory developed[99]
  • Superior NOT gate developed[100]
  • Qutrits developed[101]
  • Quantum logic gate in optical fiber[102]
  • Superior quantum Hall Effect discovered[103]
  • Enduring spin states in quantum dots[104]
  • Molecular magnets proposed for quantum RAM[105]
  • Quasiparticles offer hope of stable quantum computer[106]
  • Image storage may have better storage of qubits[107]
  • Quantum entangled images[108]
  • Quantum state intentionally altered in molecule[109]
  • Electron position controlled in silicon circuit[110]
  • Superconducting electronic circuit pumps microwave photons[111]
  • Amplitude spectroscopy developed[112]
  • Superior quantum computer test developed[113]
  • Optical frequency comb devised[114]
  • Quantum Darwinism supported[115]
  • Hybrid qubit memory developed[116]
  • Qubit stored for over 1 second in atomic nucleus[117]
  • Faster electron spin qubit switching and reading developed[118]
  • Possible non-entanglement quantum computing[119]
  • D-Wave Systems claims to have produced a 128 qubit computer chip, though this claim has yet to be verified.[120]


  • Carbon 12 purified for longer coherence times[121]
  • Lifetime of qubits extended to hundreds of milliseconds[122]
  • Quantum control of photons[123]
  • Quantum entanglement demonstrated over 240 micrometres[124]
  • Qubit lifetime extended by factor of 1000[125]
  • First electronic quantum processor created[126]
  • Six-photon graph state entanglement used to simulate the fractional statistics of anyons living in artificial spin-lattice models[127]
  • Single molecule optical transistor[128]
  • NIST reads, writes individual qubits[129]
  • NIST demonstrates multiple computing operations on qubits[130]
  • First large-scale topological cluster state quantum architecture developed for atom-optics[131]
  • A combination of all of the fundamental elements required to perform scalable quantum computing through the use of qubits stored in the internal states of trapped atomic ions shown[132]
  • Researchers at University of Bristol demonstrate Shor's algorithm on a silicon photonic chip[133]
  • Quantum Computing with an Electron Spin Ensemble[134]
  • Scalable flux qubit demonstrated[135]
  • Photon machine gun developed for quantum computing[136]
  • Quantum algorithm developed for differential equation systems[137]
  • First universal programmable quantum computer unveiled[138]
  • Scientists electrically control quantum states of electrons[139]
  • Google collaborates with D-Wave Systems on image search technology using quantum computing[140]
  • A method for synchronizing the properties of multiple coupled CJJ rf-SQUID flux qubits with a small spread of device parameters due to fabrication variations was demonstrated[141]
  • Realization of Universal Ion Trap Quantum Computation with Decoherence Free Qubits [142]



  • Ion trapped in optical trap[143]
  • Optical quantum computer with three qubits calculated the energy spectrum of molecular hydrogen to high precision[144]
  • First germanium laser brings us closer to optical computers[145]
  • Single electron qubit developed[146]
  • Quantum state in macroscopic object[147]
  • New quantum computer cooling method developed[148]
  • Racetrack ion trap developed[149]
  • Evidence for a Moore-Read state in the [math]\displaystyle{ u=5/2 }[/math] quantum Hall plateau,[150] which would be suitable for topological quantum computation
  • Quantum interface between a single photon and a single atom demonstrated[151]
  • LED quantum entanglement demonstrated[152]
  • Multiplexed design speeds up transmission of quantum information through a quantum communications channel[153]
  • Two photon optical chip[154]
  • Microfabricated planar ion traps[155][156]
  • Qubits manipulated electrically, not magnetically[157]


  • Entanglement in a solid-state spin ensemble[158]
  • NOON photons in superconducting quantum integrated circuit[159]
  • Quantum antenna[160]
  • Multimode quantum interference[161]
  • Magnetic Resonance applied to quantum computing[162]
  • Quantum pen[163]
  • Atomic "Racing Dual"[164]
  • 14 qubit register[165]
  • D-Wave claims to have developed quantum annealing and introduces their product called D-Wave One. The company claims this is the first commercially available quantum computer[166]
  • Repetitive error correction demonstrated in a quantum processor[167]
  • Diamond quantum computer memory demonstrated[168]
  • Qmodes developed[169]
  • Decoherence suppressed[170]
  • Simplification of controlled operations[171]
  • Ions entangled using microwaves[172]
  • Practical error rates achieved[173]
  • Quantum computer employing Von Neumann architecture[174]
  • Quantum spin Hall topological insulator[175]
  • Two Diamonds Linked by Quantum Entanglement could help develop photonic processors[176]


  • D-Wave claims a quantum computation using 84 qubits.[177]
  • Physicists create a working transistor from a single atom[178][179]
  • A method for manipulating the charge of nitrogen vacancy-centres in diamond[180]
  • Reported creation of a 300 qubit/particle quantum simulator.[181][182]
  • Demonstration of topologically protected qubits with an eight-photon entanglement, a robust approach to practical quantum computing[183]
  • 1QB Information Technologies (1QBit) founded. World's first dedicated quantum computing software company.[184]
  • First design of a quantum repeater system without a need for quantum memories[185]
  • Decoherence suppressed for 2 seconds at room temperature by manipulating Carbon-13 atoms with lasers.[186][187]
  • Theory of Bell-based randomness expansion with reduced assumption of measurement independence.[188]
  • New low overhead method for fault-tolerant quantum logic developed, called lattice surgery[189]


  • Coherence time of 39 minutes at room temperature (and 3 hours at cryogenic temperatures) demonstrated for an ensemble of impurity-spin qubits in isotopically purified silicon.[190]
  • Extension of time for qubit maintained in superimposed state for ten times longer than what has ever been achieved before[191]
  • First resource analysis of a large-scale quantum algorithm using explicit fault-tolerant, error-correction protocols was developed for factoring[192]


  • Documents leaked by Edward Snowden confirm the Penetrating Hard Targets project,[193] by which the National Security Agency seeks to develop a quantum computing capability for cryptography purposes.[194][195][196]
  • Researchers in Japan and Austria publish the first large-scale quantum computing architecture for a diamond based system[197]
  • Scientists at the University of Innsbruck do quantum computations on a topologically encoded qubit which is encoded in entangled states distributed over seven trapped-ion qubits[198]
  • Scientists transfer data by quantum teleportation over a distance of 10 feet (3.048 meters) with zero percent error rate, a vital step towards a quantum Internet.[199][200]
  • Nike Dattani & Nathan Bryans break the record for largest number factored on a quantum device: 56153 (previous record was 143).[201][202]


  • Optically addressable nuclear spins in a solid with a six-hour coherence time.[203]
  • Quantum information encoded by simple electrical pulses.[204]
  • Quantum error detection code using a square lattice of four superconducting qubits.[205]
  • D-Wave Systems Inc. announced on June 22 that it had broken the 1000 qubit barrier.[206]
  • Two qubit silicon logic gate successfully developed.[207]
  • Quantum computer, along with quantum superposition and entanglement, emulated by a classical analog computer, with the result that the fully classical system behaves like a true quantum computer.[208]


  • Physicists led by Rainer Blatt joined forces with scientists at MIT, led by Isaac Chuang, to efficiently implement Shor's algorithm in an ion-trap based quantum computer.[209]
  • IBM releases the Quantum Experience, an online interface to their superconducting systems. The system is immediately used to publish new protocols in quantum information processing[210][211]
  • Google, using an array of 9 superconducting qubits developed by the Martinis group and UCSB, simulates a hydrogen molecule.[212]
  • Scientists in Japan and Australia invent the quantum version of a Sneakernet communications system[213]


  • D-Wave Systems Inc. announces general commercial availability of the D-Wave 2000Q quantum annealer, which it claims has 2000 qubits.[214]
  • Blueprint for a microwave trapped ion quantum computer published.[215]
  • IBM unveils 17-qubit quantum computer—and a better way of benchmarking it.[216]
  • Scientists build a microchip that generates two entangled qudits each with 10 states, for 100 dimensions total.[217]
  • Microsoft reveals Q Sharp, a quantum programming language integrated with Visual Studio. Programs can be executed locally on a 32-qubit simulator, or a 40-qubit simulator on Azure.[218]
  • Intel confirms development of a 17-qubit superconducting test chip.[219]
  • IBM reveals a working 50-qubit quantum computer that can maintain its quantum state for 90 microseconds.[220]


  • MIT scientists report the discovery of a new triple-photon form of light.[221][222]
  • Oxford researchers successfully used a trapped-ion technique where they place two charged atoms in a state of quantum entanglement, to speed up logic gates by a factor of 20 to 60 times as compared with the previous best gates, translated to 1.6 microseconds long, with 99.8% precision.[223]
  • QuTech successfully tests silicon-based 2-spin-qubit processor.[224]
  • Google announces the creation of a 72-qubit quantum chip, called "Bristlecone",[225] achieving a new record.
  • Intel begins testing silicon-based spin-qubit processor, manufactured in the company's D1D Fab in Oregon.[226]
  • Intel confirms development of a 49-qubit superconducting test chip, called "Tangle Lake".[227]
  • Japanese researchers demonstrate universal holonomic quantum gates.[228]
  • Integrated photonic platform for quantum information with continuous variables.[229]
  • On December 17, 2018, the company IonQ introduced the first commercial trapped-ion quantum computer, with a program length of over 60 two-qubit gates, 11 fully connected qubits, 55 addressable pairs, one-qubit gate error <0.03% and two-qubit gate error <1.0% [230] [231]
  • On December 21, 2018, the National Quantum Initiative Act was signed into law by President Donald Trump, establishing the goals and priorities for a 10-year plan to accelerate the development of quantum information science and technology applications in the United States .[232][233][234]


  • IBM unveils its first commercial quantum computer, the IBM Q System One,[235] designed by UK-based Map Project Office and Universal Design Studio and manufactured by Goppion.[236]
  • Nike Dattani and co-workers de-code D-Wave's Pegasus architecture and make its description open to the public.[237][238]
  • Austrian physicists demonstrate self-verifying, hybrid, variational quantum simulation of lattice models in condensed matter and high-energy physics using a feedback loop between a classical computer and a quantum co-processor. [239]
  • A paper by Google's quantum computer research team was briefly available in late September 2019, claiming the project has reached quantum supremacy.[240][241][242]
  • IBM reveals its biggest yet quantum computer, consisting of 53 qubits. The system goes online in October 2019.[243]


  • UNSW Sydney develops a way of producing 'hot qubits' – quantum devices that operate at 1.5 Kelvin.
  • Griffith university, UNSW and UTS in partnership with 7 USA universities develop Noise cancelling for quantum bits via machine learning, taking quantum noise in a quantum chip down to 0%.
  • UNSW performs electric nuclear resonance to control single atoms in electronic devices.
  • Bob Coecke (Oxford university) explains why NLP is quantum-native. A graphical representation of how the meanings of the words are combined to build the meaning of a sentence as a whole, was created.
  • Tokyo university and Australian scientists create and successfully test a solution to the quantum wiring problem, creating a 2d structure for qubits. Such structure can be built using existing integrated circuit technology and has a considerably lower cross-talk.

Content copied from 2020 in science
  • 11 February – Quantum engineers report that they have created artificial atoms in silicon quantum dots for quantum computing and that artificial atoms with a higher number of electrons can be more stable qubits than previously thought possible. Enabling silicon-based quantum computers may make it possible to reuse of manufacturing technology of "classical" modern-day computer chips among other advantages.[246][247]
  • 14 February – Quantum physicists develop a novel single-photon source which may allow to bridge semiconductor-based quantum-computers that use photons by converting the state of an electron spin to the polarisation of a photon. They show that they can generate a single photon in a controlled way without the need for randomly formed quantum dots or structural defects in a diamonds.[248][249]
  • 25 February – Scientists visualize a quantum measurement: by taking snapshots of ion states at different times of measurement via coupling of a trapped ion qutrit to the photon environment they show that the changes of the degrees of superpositions and therefore of probabilities of states after measurement happens gradually under the measurement influence.[250][251]
  • 11 March – Quantum engineers report to have managed to control the nucleus of a single atom using only electric fields. This was first suggested to be possible in 1961 and may be used for silicon quantum computers that use single-atom spins without needing oscillating magnetic fields which may be especially useful for nanodevices, for precise sensors of electric and magnetic fields as well as for fundamental inquiries into quantum nature.[254][255]
  • 19 March – An US Army laboratory announces that its scientists analysed a Rydberg sensor's sensitivity to oscillating electric fields over an enormous range of frequencies—from 0 to 10^12 Hertz (the spectrum to 0.3mm wavelength). The Rydberg sensor may potentially be used detect communications signals as it could reliably detect signals over the entire spectrum and compare favourably with other established electric field sensor technologies, such as electro-optic crystals and dipole antenna-coupled passive electronics.[256][257]
  • 23 March – Researchers report that they have found a way to correct for signal loss in a prototype quantum node that can catch, store and entangle bits of quantum information. Their concepts could be used for key components of quantum repeaters in quantum networks and extend their longest possible range.[258][259]
  • 15 April – Researchers demonstrate a proof-of-concept silicon quantum processor unit cell which works at 1.5 Kelvin – many times warmer than common quantum processors that are being developed. It may enable integrating classical control electronics with the qubit array and reduce costs substantially. The cooling requirements necessary for quantum computing have been called one of the toughest roadblocks in the field.[260][261][262][263][264][265]
  • 16 April – Scientists prove the existence of the Rashba effect in bulk perovskites. Previously researchers have hypothesized that the materials' extraordinary electronic, magnetic and optical properties – which make it a commonly used material for solar cells and quantum electronics – are related to this effect which to date hasn't been proven to be present in the material.[266][267]
  • 15 June – Scientists report the development of the smallest synthetic molecular motor, consisting of 12 atoms and a rotor of 4 atoms, shown to be capable of being powered by an electric current using an electron scanning microscope and moving even with very low amounts of energy due to quantum tunneling.[280][281][282]
  • 17 June – Quantum scientists report the development of a system that entangles two photon quantum communication nodes through a microwave cable that can send information inbetween without the photons ever being sent through, or occupying, the cable. On 12 June it was reported that they also, for the first time, entangled two phonons as well as erase information from their measurement after the measurement has been completed using delayed-choice quantum erasure.[283][284][285][286]

See also


  1. Bassard, Gilles (October 17, 2005). Brief History of Quantum Cryptography: A Personal Perspective. 
  2. Park, James (1970). "The concept of transition in quantum mechanics". Foundations of Physics 1 (1): 23–33. doi:10.1007/BF00708652. Bibcode1970FoPh....1...23P. 
  3. Bennett, C. (November 1973). "Logical Reversibility of Computation". IBM Journal of Research and Development 17 (6): 525–532. doi:10.1147/rd.176.0525. https://www.math.ucsd.edu/~sbuss/CourseWeb/Math268_2013W/Bennett_Reversibiity.pdf. 
  4. Poplavskii, R.P (1975). "Thermodynamical models of information processing" (in Russian). Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk 115 (3): 465–501. doi:10.3367/UFNr.0115.197503d.0465. 
  5. Benioff, Paul (1980). "The computer as a physical system: A microscopic quantum mechanical Hamiltonian model of computers as represented by Turing machines". Journal of Statistical Physics 22 (5): 563–591. doi:10.1007/bf01011339. Bibcode1980JSP....22..563B. 
  6. Manin, Yu I (1980) (in Russian). Vychislimoe i nevychislimoe (Computable and Noncomputable). Sov. Radio. pp. 13–15. http://publ.lib.ru/ARCHIVES/M/MANIN_Yuriy_Ivanovich/Manin_Yu.I._Vychislimoe_i_nevychislimoe.(1980).%5Bdjv%5D.zip. Retrieved March 4, 2013. 
  7. Technical Report MIT/LCS/TM-151 (1980) and an adapted and condensed version: Toffoli, Tommaso (1980). "Reversible computing". in J. W. de Bakker and J. van Leeuwen. Automata, Languages and Programming, Seventh Colloquium. Noordwijkerhout, Netherlands: Springer Verlag. pp. 632–644. doi:10.1007/3-540-10003-2_104. ISBN 3-540-10003-2. Archived from the original on April 15, 2010. https://web.archive.org/web/20100415041123/http://pm1.bu.edu/~tt/publ/revcomp-rep.pdf. 
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