Astronomy:List of artificial objects on Mars

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The following table is a partial list of artificial objects on the surface of Mars, consisting of spacecraft which were launched from Earth. Although most are defunct after having served their purpose, the Curiosity rover, InSight lander, Perseverance rover, Ingenuity helicopter, and Zhurong rover are all active. China's Tianwen-1 spacecraft is the most recent artificial object to land safely on Mars, with Mars 3 and Tianwen-1 remote camera the heaviest and lightest Martian spacecraft respectively.

The table does not include smaller objects, such as springs, fragments, parachutes and heat shields. (As of February 2021), there are 14 missions with objects on the surface of Mars. Some of these missions contain multiple spacecraft.

List of landers and vehicles

An example of an additional object from a spacecraft landing is the metal shroud ejected by the Viking 2 lander, as seen in this 1977 view of Mars. The shroud covered the surface sampler instrument and could be seen in images taken by the lander while it was active on the surface.[1]

In this listing, it is implied that each mission left debris according to its design. For example, the Schiaparelli EDM lander likely exploded on impact, creating an unknown number of fragments at one location. At another location, there may be a lower heat shield, and at another location, a parachute and upper heat shield. Another example is the counterweights ejected by MSL during its descent. In some cases, the nature and location of this additional debris has been determined and, in other cases, even the location of the main spacecraft has remained unknown. The identification of Beagle 2 after 11 years is one of the greatest breakthroughs yet, since prior to that, it could not be confirmed what had happened.[2] Spacecraft that have not been precisely located include Mars 2, Mars 3, Mars 6, Mars Polar Lander, and the two Deep Space 2 probes.

Key
No data collection
Transmitted data
Operational
Year Agency Mission Object(s) Image Mass (kg) Status Location
1971 USSR Mars 2 Mars 2 lander and Prop-M rover Mars3 lander vsm.jpgMars propm rover.jpg 1210 Failure during descent; crashed on surface Estimated at 45°S 313°W / 45°S 313°W / -45; -313 (Mars 2)[3]
1971 USSR Mars 3 Mars 3 lander and Prop-M rover Mars3 lander vsm.jpgMars propm rover.jpg 1210 Transmission failure 14.5 seconds after soft landing Estimated at Sirenum Terra

45°S 158°W / 45°S 158°W / -45; -158 (Mars 3)[4]

1973 USSR Mars 6 Mars 6 lander Mars6.gif 635 Returned corrupted data for 224 seconds during its descent but contact lost before reaching surface[5] Estimated at Margaritifer Terra

23°54′S 19°25′W / 23.90°S 19.42°W / -23.90; -19.42 (Mars 6)[5]

1976 NASA Viking 1 Viking 1 lander Viking lander model.jpg 657 Operated 2245 sols. Last contact Nov 11, 1982 Chryse Planitia

22°41′49″N 48°13′19″W / 22.697°N 48.222°W / 22.697; -48.222 (Viking 1)[6]

1976 NASA Viking 2 Viking 2 lander Viking lander model.jpg 657 Operated 1281 sols. Last contact Apr 11, 1980 Utopia Planitia

48°16′08″N 225°59′24″W / 48.269°N 225.990°W / 48.269; -225.990 (Viking 2)[7]

1997 NASA Mars Pathfinder Pathfinder (lander) Lander and rover drawing.gif 360 Operated 83 sols. Last contact Sep 27, 1997[8] Ares Vallis

19°20′N 33°33′W / 19.33°N 33.55°W / 19.33; -33.55 (Mars Pathfinder and Sojourner)[9][10]

Sojourner (rover) 11.5
1999 NASA Mars Surveyor '98 Mars Polar Lander and

Deep Space 2 (probes)

Mars polar lander.jpg 500 Unknown failure during descent; crashed on surface Estimated at Ultimi Scopuli

76°S 195°W / 76°S 195°W / -76; -195 (Mars Polar Lander and Deep Space 2)

2003 ESA

(United Kingdom )

Mars Express Beagle 2 (lander) Beagle 2 model at Liverpool Spaceport.jpg 33.2 Landed safely; solar panels failed to deploy Isidis Planitia

11°31′35″N 90°25′46″E / 11.5265°N 90.4295°E / 11.5265; 90.4295 (Beagle 2 landing site)

2004 NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit (rover) NASA Mars Rover.jpg 185 Operated 2210 sols. Last contact Mar 22, 2010 Gusev crater

14°34′18″S 175°28′43″E / 14.5718°S 175.4785°E / -14.5718; 175.4785 (Spirit rover)

Opportunity (rover) NASA Mars Rover.jpg 185 Operated 5111 sols. Last contact June 10, 2018 Meridiani Planum

1°56′46″S 354°28′24″E / 1.9462°S 354.4734°E / -1.9462; 354.4734 (Opportunity rover)

2008 NASA Phoenix Mars Lander Phoenix (lander) Pia09344.jpg 350 Operated 155 sols. Last contact Nov 2, 2008 Green Valley in Vastitas Borealis

68°13′N 125°42′W / 68.22°N 125.7°W / 68.22; -125.7 (Phoenix)

2012 NASA Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity (rover) Curiosity - The Next Mars Rover.jpg 900 In operation, 3258 sols Aeolis Palus in Gale Crater

4°35′22″S 137°26′30″E / 4.5895°S 137.4417°E / -4.5895; 137.4417

2016 ESA

Roscosmos

ExoMars 2016 Schiaparelli EDM (lander) Maquette EDM salon du Bourget 2013 DSC 0192.JPG 577 Crashed on impact; transmitted descent telemetry Meridiani Planum

2°03′S 6°13′W / 2.05°S 6.21°W / -2.05; -6.21 (Schiaparelli EDM lander crash site)

2018 NASA InSight InSight (lander) PIA22743-Mars-InSightLander-ArtistConcept-20181024.jpg 358 In operation, 1017 sols Elysium Planitia

4°30′09″N 135°37′24″E / 4.5024°N 135.6234°E / 4.5024; 135.6234 (InSight landing site)

2021 NASA Mars 2020 Perseverance (rover) Perseverance rover design.png 1024 In operation, 224 sols Jezero crater

18°26′45″N 77°27′03″E / 18.4457°N 77.4508°E / 18.4457; 77.4508 (Perseverance landing site)

Ingenuity (helicopter) PIA23882-MarsHelicopterIngenuity-20200429 (trsp).png 1.8 In operation (deployment successful), 224 sols Wright Brothers Field

18°26′45″N 77°27′03″E / 18.4457°N 77.4508°E / 18.4457; 77.4508 (Ingenuity drop site)

2021 CNSA Tianwen-1 Tianwen-1 (lander) 1285(citation?) Reached end of designed lifespan after landing on 14 May, 2021. Utopia Planitia

25°06′N 109°54′E / 25.1°N 109.9°E / 25.1; 109.9 (Zhurong landing site)

Zhurong (rover) 240 In operation (deployment successful), 141 sols
Tianwen-1 Remote camera <1 Reached end of designed lifespan after mission completion on 1 June, 2021.

Combined, the total weight would be 9470 kg.

Other objects

Gallery

From surface

From orbit

Landing site namings and memorials

Several landing sites have been named, either the spacecraft itself or the landing site:

See also

References

  1. Mars - Viking 2 Lander
  2. Beagle 2 spacecraft found intact on surface of Mars after 11 years
  3. "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Mars 2". https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraft/display.action?id=1971-045A. 
  4. "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Mars 3". https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraft/display.action?id=1971-049A. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Mars 6". https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraft/display.action?id=1973-052A. 
  6. "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Viking 1 lander". https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraft/display.action?id=1975-075C. 
  7. "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Viking 2 lander". https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraft/display.action?id=1975-083C. 
  8. "Mars Pathfinder". http://www.marsnews.com/missions/pathfinder/. 
  9. "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Mars Pathfinder". https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraft/display.action?id=1996-068A. 
  10. "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Mars Pathfinder Rover". https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraft/display.action?id=MESURPR. 
  11. NASA - This Month in NASA History: Mariner 9, November 29, 2011 – Vol. 4, Issue 9
  12. Soviet Craft - Mars (1960-1974)
  13. NSSDC - Viking 1 lander
  14. NSSDC - Viking 2 lander
  15. NSSDC - Mars Pathfinder
  16. NASA - Space Shuttle Challenger Crew Memorialized on Mars
  17. NASA - Space Shuttle Columbia Crew Memorialized on Mars
  18. "Curiosity Landing Site Named for Ray Bradbury". NASA. August 22, 2012. http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html?media_id=150917411.