Astronomy:List of missions to Mars

From HandWiki

List of missions to Mars a listing of spacecraft missions relating to the planet Mars, such as orbiters and rovers.


Spacecraft Launch Date Operator Mission[1] Outcome[2] Remarks Carrier rocket[3]
1M No.1 10 October 1960 OKB-1
 Soviet Union
Flyby Launch failure Failed to orbit Molniya
1M No.2 14 October 1960 OKB-1
 Soviet Union
Flyby Launch failure Failed to orbit Molniya
2MV-4 No.1 24 October 1962  Soviet Union Flyby Launch failure Booster stage ("Block L") disintegrated in LEO Molniya
Mars 1
(2MV-4 No.2)
1 November 1962  Soviet Union Flyby Spacecraft failure Communications lost before flyby Molniya
2MV-3 No.1 4 November 1962  Soviet Union Lander Launch failure Never left LEO Molniya
Mariner 3 5 November 1964 NASA
 United States
Flyby Launch failure Payload fairing failed to separate Atlas LV-3 Agena-D
Mariner 4 28 November 1964 NASA
 United States
Flyby Successful The first flyby of Mars on 15 July 1965 Atlas LV-3 Agena-D
Zond 2
(3MV-4A No.2)
30 November 1964  Soviet Union Flyby Spacecraft failure Communications lost before flyby Molniya
Mariner 6 25 February 1969 NASA
 United States
Flyby Successful Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D
2M No.521


27 March 1969  Soviet Union Orbiter Launch failure Failed to orbit Proton-K/D
Mariner 7 27 March 1969 NASA
 United States
Flyby Successful Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D
2M No.522


2 April 1969  Soviet Union Orbiter Launch failure Failed to orbit Proton-K/D
Mariner 8 9 May 1971 NASA
 United States
Orbiter Launch failure Failed to orbit Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D
Kosmos 419
(3MS No.170)
10 May 1971  Soviet Union Orbiter Launch failure Never left LEO; booster stage burn timer set incorrectly Proton-K/D
Mars 2
(4M No.171)
19 May 1971  Soviet Union Orbiter Successful Entered orbit on 27 November 1971, operated for 362 orbits[5] Proton-K/D
Mars 2 lander
(SA 4M No.171)
19 May 1971  Soviet Union Lander Spacecraft failure Deployed from Mars 2, failed to land during attempt on 27 November 1971 Proton-K/D
Mars 3
(4M No.172)
28 May 1971  Soviet Union Orbiter Successful Entered orbit on 2 December 1971, operated for 20 orbits[6][7] Proton-K/D
Mars 3 lander
(SA 4M No.172)
28 May 1971  Soviet Union Lander Successful[8] The first lander on Mars, soft landed on 2 December 1971. The first partial image (70 lines) was transmitted. Contact lost 14.5 seconds after transmission start. Proton-K/D
Prop-M Rover rover
(SA 4M No.172)
28 May 1971  Soviet Union Rover Partial failure Deployment is unknown, due to communication problem because of storm Proton-K/D
Mariner 9 30 May 1971 NASA
 United States
Orbiter Successful[9] The first orbiter of Mars. Entered orbit on 14 November 1971, deactivated 516 days after entering orbit Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D
Mars 4
(3MS No.52S)
21 July 1973  Soviet Union Orbiter Spacecraft failure Failed to perform orbital insertion burn Proton-K/D
Mars 5
(3MS No.53S)
25 July 1973  Soviet Union Orbiter Partial failure Failed after 9 days in Mars orbit; returned 180 frames Proton-K/D
Mars 6
(3MP No.50P)
5 August 1973  Soviet Union Lander
Spacecraft failure Contact lost upon landing, atmospheric data mostly unreadable. Flyby bus collected data.[10] Proton-K/D
Mars 7
(3MP No.51P)
9 August 1973  Soviet Union Lander
Spacecraft failure Separated from coast stage prematurely, failed to enter Martian atmosphere Proton-K/D
Viking 1 orbiter 20 August 1975 NASA
 United States
Orbiter Successful Operated for 1385 orbits. Entered Mars orbit in 1976 June 19. Titan IIIE Centaur-D1T
Viking 1 lander 20 August 1975 NASA
 United States
Lander Successful The second lander successfully returning data, deployed from Viking 1 orbiter. Operated for 2245 sols. Landed on Mars in 1976 July 20. Titan IIIE Centaur-D1T
Viking 2 orbiter 9 September 1975 NASA
 United States
Orbiter Successful Operated for 700 orbits. Entered Mars orbit in 1976 August 7. Titan IIIE Centaur-D1T
Viking 2 lander 9 September 1975 NASA
 United States
Lander Successful Deployed from Viking 2 orbiter, operated for 1281 sols (11 Apr 1980). Landed on Mars in 1976 September 3. Titan IIIE Centaur-D1T
Phobos 1
(1F No.101)
7 July 1988  Soviet Union Orbiter
Phobos lander
Spacecraft failure Communications lost before reaching Mars; failed to enter orbit Proton-K/D-2
Phobos 2
(1F No.102)
12 July 1988  Soviet Union Orbiter
Phobos lander
Partial failure Orbital observations successful, communications lost before landing Proton-K/D-2
Mars Observer 25 September 1992 NASA
 United States
Orbiter Spacecraft failure Lost communications before orbital insertion Commercial Titan III
Mars Global Surveyor 7 November 1996 NASA
 United States
Orbiter Successful Operated for seven years Delta II 7925
Mars 96
(M1 No.520)(Mars-8)[4]
16 November 1996 Rosaviakosmos
Launch failure Never left LEO Proton-K/D-2
Mars Pathfinder 4 December 1996 NASA
 United States
Lander Successful Landed at 19.13°N 33.22°W on 4 July 1997,[11] Last contact on September 27, 1997 Delta II 7925
Sojourner 4 December 1996 NASA
 United States
Rover Successful The first rover on another planet, operated for 84 days[12] Delta II 7925
3 July 1998 ISAS
Orbiter Spacecraft failure Ran out of fuel before reaching Mars M-V
Mars Climate Orbiter 11 December 1998 NASA
 United States
Orbiter Spacecraft failure Approached Mars too closely during orbit insertion attempt due to a software interface bug involving different units for impulse and burned up in the atmosphere Delta II 7425
Mars Polar Lander 3 January 1999 NASA
 United States
Lander Spacecraft failure Failed to land Delta II 7425
Deep Space 2 3 January 1999 NASA
 United States
Penetrator Spacecraft failure Deployed from MPL, no data returned Delta II 7425
Mars Odyssey 7 April 2001 NASA
 United States
Orbiter Operational Expected to remain operational until 2025. Delta II 7925
Mars Express 2 June 2003 ESA
 European Union
Orbiter Operational Enough fuel to remain operational until 2026. Soyuz-FG/Fregat
Beagle 2 2 June 2003 ESA
 European Union
Lander Lander failure No communications received after release from Mars Express. Orbital images of landing site suggest a successful landing, but two solar panels failed to deploy, obstructing its communications. Soyuz-FG/Fregat
10 June 2003 NASA
 United States
Rover Successful Landed on January 4, 2004.
Operated for 2208 sols
Delta II 7925
8 July 2003 NASA
 United States
Rover Successful Landed on January 25, 2004.
Operated for 5351 sols
Delta II 7925H
Rosetta 2 March 2004 ESA
 European Union
Gravity assist Successful Flyby in February 2007 en route to 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko[13] Ariane 5G+
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter 12 August 2005 NASA
 United States
Orbiter Operational Entered orbit on March 10, 2006 Atlas V 401
Phoenix 4 August 2007 NASA
 United States
Lander Successful Landed on May 25, 2008.
End of mission November 2, 2008
Delta II 7925
Dawn 27 September 2007 NASA
 United States
Gravity assist Successful Flyby in February 2009 en route to 4 Vesta and Ceres Delta II 7925H
Fobos-Grunt 8 November 2011 Roskosmos
Phobos sample
Spacecraft failure Never left LEO (intended to depart under own power) Zenit-2M
Yinghuo-1 8 November 2011 CNSA
Orbiter Failure
Lost with Fobos-Grunt
To have been deployed by Fobos-Grunt Zenit-2M
(Mars Science Laboratory)
26 November 2011 NASA
 United States
Rover Operational Landed on August 6, 2012 Atlas V 541
Mars Orbiter Mission
5 November 2013 ISRO
Orbiter Operational Entered orbit on 24 September 2014. Mission extended till 2020.[14] PSLV-XL
MAVEN 18 November 2013 NASA
 United States
Orbiter Operational Orbit insertion on September 22, 2014[15] Atlas V 401
ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter 14 March 2016 ESA/Roscosmos
 European Union/ Russia
Orbiter Operational Entered orbit on October 19, 2016 Proton-M/Briz-M
Schiaparelli EDM lander 14 March 2016 ESA
 European Union
Lander Spacecraft failure Carried by the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter. Although the lander crashed,[16][17] engineering data on the first five minutes of entry was successfully retrieved.[18][19] Proton-M/Briz-M
InSight 5 May 2018[20][21] NASA
 United States
Lander Operational Landed on November 26, 2018. Atlas V 401
MarCO 5 May 2018[20][21][22] NASA
 United States
Two CubeSats flyby supporting InSight Successful Flyby November 26, 2018. Last contact Feb 2019 Atlas V 401
Emirates Mars Mission 19 July 2020[23] MBRSC
 United Arab Emirates
Orbiter En route Arrives February 2021. H-IIA

Locations of selected Mars landers and rovers


There are a number of derelict orbiters around Mars whose location is not known precisely; there is a proposal to search for small moons, dust rings, and old orbiters with the Optical Navigation Camera on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. [24] There should be 8 derelict Mars orbiters barring unforeseen events if they have not decayed as of 2016.[25] One example is Mariner 9, which entered Mars orbit in 1971 and is expected to remain in orbit until approximately 2022, when the spacecraft is projected to enter the Martian atmosphere and either burn up or crash into the planet's surface.[26] The Viking 1 orbiter is predicted not to decay until at least 2019.[27] One orbiter that is confirmed to have undergone Mars atmospheric entry is Mars Climate Orbiter.

(see also List of Mars orbiters)

Future missions

In development

Mission Organization Launch Type
Tianwen-1 CNSA  China 23 July 2020[28][29][30] Orbiter, lander, rover
Mars 2020 NASA  United States 30 July 2020[31] Rover, helicopter
ExoMars 2022 ESA,  European Union
SRI RAS  Russia
2022[32][33] Lander, rover
Mars Terahertz Microsatellite[34] NICT, ISSL  Japan 2022[35] Orbiter, lander
Mars Orbiter Mission 2 (Mangalyaan 2) ISRO  India 2024[36][37] Orbiter and possibly a lander
Martian Moons Exploration (MMX) JAXA  Japan 2024[38][39] Orbiter


Mission Organisation Proposed
Demo mission SpaceX  United States 2022 Lander, cargo[40]
Crewed mission SpaceX  United States 2024 Lander, cargo, crew[41]
Next Mars Orbiter (NeMO) NASA  United States Late 2020s[42] Telecomm orbiter[43] (originally proposed for 2022)

Missions to the moons of Mars

Deimos (lower left) and Phobos (lower right) compared with the asteroid 951 Gaspra
Phobos by Mars Global Surveyor in 1998[44]

Missions dedicated to explore the two moons of Mars, Phobos and Deimos. Many missions to Mars have also included dedicated observations of the Moons, while this section is about missions focused solely on them. There have been three unsuccessful dedicated missions and many proposals. Because of the proximity of the Mars moons to Mars, any mission to them may also be considered a mission to Mars from some perspectives.

There have been at least three proposals in the United States Discovery Program, including PADME, PANDORA, and MERLIN.[45] The ESA has also considered a sample return mission, one of the latest known as Martian Moon Sample Return or MMSR, and it may use heritage from an asteroid sample return mission.[46]

Proposal Target Reference
Aladdin Phobos and Deimos [47]
DePhine Phobos and Deimos [48]
DSR Deimos [49]
Gulliver Deimos [50]
Hall Phobos and Deimos [51]
M-PADS Phobos and Deimos [52]
Merlin Phobos and Deimos [53]
MMSR (2011 ver.) Phobos or Deimos [46]
OSRIS-REx 2 Phobos or Deimos [54]
Pandora Phobos and Deimos [45]
PCROSS Phobos [55]
Phobos Surveyor Phobos [56]
PRIME Phobos [57]
Fobos-Grunt 2 Phobos [58]
Phootprint Phobos [59][60]
PADME Phobos and Deimos [61][62]

In Japan, the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) is developing a sample return mission to Phobos,[63][64] due to launch in 2024. This mission is called Martian Moons Exploration (MMX)[65] and is proposed as a flagship Strategic Large Mission.[66] MMX will build on the expertise the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) would gain through the Hayabusa2 and SLIM missions.[67] As of January 2018, MMX is set for launch in September 2024.[68]

Planned mission Target Reference
Martian Moons Exploration (MMX) Phobos and Deimos [65]

Three missions to land on Phobos have been launched; the Phobos program in the late 1980s saw the launch of Fobos 1 and Fobos 2, while the Fobos-Grunt sample return mission was launched in 2011. None of these missions were successful: Fobos 1 failed en route to Mars, Fobos 2 failed shortly before landing, and Fobos-Grunt never left low Earth orbit.

Launched mission Target Reference
Phobos 1 Phobos
Phobos 2 Phobos
Fobos-Grunt Phobos

Missions sent to the Martian system have returned data on Phobos and Deimos and missions specifically dedicated to the moons are a subset of missions Mars that often include dedicated goals to acquire data about these moons. An example of this is the imaging campaigns by Mars Express of the Mars moons.

Osiris-Rex 2 was a proposal to make OR a double mission, with the other one collecting samples from the two Mars moons.[69] In 2012, it was stated that this mission would be the both quickest and least expensive way to get samples from the Moons.[70]

The 'Red Rocks Project', a part of Lockheed Martin's "Stepping stones to Mars" program, proposed to explore Mars robotically from Deimos.[71][72]

Undeveloped concepts

examples only


  • Mars 4NM and Mars 5NM – projects intended by the Soviet Union for heavy Marsokhod (in 1973 according to initial plan of 1970) and Mars sample return (planned for 1975). The missions were to be launched on the failed N1 rocket.[73]
  • Mars 5M (Mars-79) – double-launching Soviet sample return mission planned to 1979 but cancelled due to complexity and technical problems
  • Voyager-Mars – USA, 1970s – Two orbiters and two landers, launched by a single Saturn V rocket.


  • Vesta – the multiaimed Soviet mission, developed in cooperation with European countries for realisation in 1991–1994 but canceled due to the Soviet Union disbanding, included the flyby of Mars with delivering the aerostat and small landers or penetrators followed by flybys of 1 Ceres or 4 Vesta and some other asteroids with impact of penetrator on the one of them.
  • Mars Aerostat – Russian/French balloon part for cancelled Vesta mission and then for failed Mars 96 mission,[74] originally planned for the 1992 launch window, postponed to 1994 and then to 1996 before being cancelled.[75]
  • Mars Together, combined U.S. and Russian mission study in the 1990s. To be launched by a Molinya with possible U.S. orbiter or lander.[76][77]
  • Mars Environmental Survey – set of 16 landers planned for 1999–2009
  • Mars-98 – Russian mission including an orbiter, lander, and rover, planned for 1998 launch opportunity as repeat of failured Mars 96 mission and cancelled due to lack of funding


  • Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander – October 2001 – Mars lander (refurbished, became Phoenix lander)
  • Kitty Hawk – Mars airplane micromission, proposed for December 17, 2003, the centennial of the Wright brothers' first flight.[78] Its funding was eventually given to the 2003 Mars Network project.[79]
  • NetLander – 2007 or 2009 – Mars netlanders
  • Beagle 3 – 2009 British lander mission meant to search for life, past or present.
  • Mars Telecommunications Orbiter – September 2009 – Mars orbiter for telecommunications


  • Sky-Sailor – 2014 – Plane developed by Switzerland to take detailed pictures of Mars surface
  • Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher – 2018 rover concept, cancelled due to budget cuts in 2011. Sample cache goal later moved to Mars 2020 rover.[80]
  • Red Dragon – Derivative of a Dragon 2 capsule by SpaceX, designed to land by aerobraking and retropropulsion. Planned for 2018, then 2020. Canceled in favor of the Starship system.
  • Tumbleweed rover, wind-propelled sphere[81]

See also


  1. Chronology of Mars Exploration. NASA. Retrieved on 2011-12-01.
  2. "Pathfinder Rover Gets Its Name". 
  3. Russian Space Web - Mars Missions
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 "Chronology of Mars Missions" (in en). 
  5. "Missions to Mars". The Planetary Society. 
  6. Perminov, V.G. (July 1999). The Difficult Road to Mars - A Brief History of Mars Exploration in the Soviet Union. NASA Headquarters History Division. pp. 34–60. ISBN 0-16-058859-6. 
  7. Webster, Guy (April 11, 2013). "NASA Mars Orbiter Images May Show 1971 Soviet Lander". NASA. Retrieved April 12, 2013. 
  8. "Mars 3 Lander". NASA. "Mars 3 was the first spacecraft to make a successful soft landing on Mars." 
  9. Pyle, Rod (2012). Destination Mars. Prometheus Books. pp. 73–78. ISBN 978-1-61614-589-7. "It was the first spacecraft to enter orbit around another world." 
  10. NSSDC - Mars 6
  11. "Mars Pathfinder Science Results". NASA. 
  12. Mars Pathfinder - Welcome to Mars - Sol 86
  13. "ESA - Beautiful new images from Rosetta's approach to Mars: OSIRIS UPDATE". 2007-02-24. Retrieved 2012-01-16. 
  15. Brown, Dwayne; Neal-Jones, Nancy; Zubritsky, Elizabeth (September 21, 2014). "NASA's Newest Mars Mission Spacecraft Enters Orbit around Red Planet". NASA. Retrieved September 22, 2014. 
  16. Clark, Stephen (24 May 2017). "Probe into crash of ESA lander recommends more checks on ExoMars descent craft". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 21 November 2018. 
  17. "Weak Simulations, Inadequate Software & Mismanagement caused Schiaparelli Crash Landing". Spaceflight101. 24 May 2017. Retrieved 21 November 2018. 
  18. Chan, Sewell (20 October 2016). "No Signal From Mars Lander, but European Officials Declare Mission a Success". New York Times. Retrieved 20 October 2016. 
  19. Wall, Mike (21 October 2016). "ExoMars '96 Percent' Successful Despite Lander Crash: ESA". Retrieved 2016-10-21. 
  20. 20.0 20.1 Clark, Stephen (9 March 2016). "InSight Mars lander escapes cancellation, aims for 2018 launch". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 2016-03-09. 
  21. 21.0 21.1 Chang, Kenneth (9 March 2016). "NASA Reschedules Mars InSight Mission for May 2018". New York Times. Retrieved 9 March 2016. 
  22. [1]
  23. "Live coverage: Launch of Emirates Mars Mission rescheduled for Sunday". Spaceflight Now. 14 July 2020. 
  24. M. Adler, et al. – Use of MRO Optical Navigation Camera .. (2012)
  25. [2]
  26. NASA - This Month in NASA History: Mariner 9, November 29, 2011 – Vol. 4, Issue 9
  27. [3]
  28. "China to launch Mars probe in July". 23 January 2020. Retrieved 2020-01-23. 
  29. "China shows first images of Mars rover, aims for 2020 mission". Reuters. 24 Aug 2016. Retrieved 10 Dec 2016. 
  30. "China's Mars mission named Tianwen-1, appears on track for July launch". 
  31. Wall, Mike (30 June 2020). "NASA delays launch of next Mars rover to no earlier than July 30". 
  32. Jones, Andrew (12 March 2020). "ExoMars rover mission delayed to late 2022". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 12 March 2020. 
  33. "Second ExoMars mission moves to next launch opportunity in 2020" (Press release). ESA. 2 May 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
  34. "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}" (in Japanese). National Institute of Information and Communications Technology. 25 January 2017. 
  35. Kasai, Yasuko (13 June 2018). "Tera-hertz Explorer, TEREX, Mission". University of Tsukuba. NICT. Archived from the original on 25 November 2018. Retrieved 30 April 2019. 
  36. "Episode 90 – An update on ISRO's activities with S Somanath and R Umamaheshwaran". AstrotalkUK. October 24, 2019. Retrieved October 30, 2019. 
  37. Jatiya, Satyanarayan (18 July 2019). "Rajya Sabha Unstarred Question No. 2955". 
  38. NASA confirms contribution to Japanese-led Mars mission. Stephen Clark, Space Flight Now. 20 November 2017.
  39. Back to the Red Planet. Johns Hopkins APL. 17 November 2017.
  40. Elon Musk: we can launch a manned mission to Mars by 2024 – video. The Guardian. 29 September 2017.
  42. Clark, Stephen (April 9, 2018). "NASA is counting on long-lived Mars orbiter lasting another decade". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved April 22, 2018. 
  43. Stephen, Clark (March 3, 2015). "NASA eyes ion engines for Mars orbiter launching in 2022". Space Flight Now. Retrieved 2015-03-05. 
  44. [4]
  45. 45.0 45.1 MERLIN: The Creative Choices Behind a Proposal to Explore the Martian Moons (Merlin and PADME info also)
  46. 46.0 46.1 MMSR - a study for a Martian Moon Sample Return mission
  47. C. Pieters, et al. - Aladdin: Phobos-Deimos Sample Return
  48. DePhine: The Deimos and Phobos Interior Explorer. (PDF) Jurgen Oberst, Kai Wickhusen, Konrad Willner, Klaus Gwinner, Sofya Spiridonova, Ralph Kahle, Andrew Coates, Alain Herique, Dirk Plettemeier, Marina Dıaz-Michelena, Alexander Zakharo, Yoshifumi Futaana, Martin Patzold, Pascal Rosenblatt, David J. Lawrence, Valery Lainey, Alison Gibbings, Ingo Gerth. Advances in Space Research. Volume 62, Issue 8. pp: 2220-2238. 15 October 2018. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2017.12.028
  49. Small Body Sample Return to Deimos
  50. Dr. Britt - The Gulliver Mission: Sample Return from Deimos
  51. P. Lee, et al. - Hall: A Phobos and Deimos Sample Return Mission
  52. Mars Phobos and Deimos Survey (M-PADS)–A Martian Moons Orbiter and Phobos Lander (Ball, Andrew J.; Price, Michael E.; Walker, Roger J.; Dando, Glyn C.; Wells, Nigel S. and Zarnecki, John C. (2009). Mars Phobos and Deimos Survey (M-PADS)–A Martian Moons Orbiter and Phobos Lander. Advances in Space Research, 43(1), pp. 120–127.)
  53. Murchie, S.; Eng, D.; Chabot, N.; Guo, Y.; Arvidson, R.; Yen, A.; Trebi-Ollennu, A.; Seelos, F. et al. (2014). "MERLIN: Mars-Moon Exploration, Reconnaissance and Landed Investigation". Acta Astronautica 93: 475–482. doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2012.10.014. Bibcode2014AcAau..93..475M. 
  54. Elifritz, T. L. - OSIRIS-REx II to Mars
  55. Colaprete, A, et al. - PCROSS — Phobos Close Rendevous [sic] Observation Sensing Satellite
  56. Phobos Surveyor - Space Safety Magazine
  57. PRIME
  58. SSM - Phobos-Grunt 2 Bound for Launch in 2020, Russians Confirmed While Celebrating Sputnik
  59. Barraclough, Simon; Ratcliffe, Andrew; Buchwald, Robert; Scheer, Heloise; Chapuy, Marc; Garland, Martin (June 16, 2014). "Phootprint: A European Phobos Sample Return Mission". 11th International Planetary Probe Workshop. Airbus Defense and Space. Retrieved December 22, 2015. 
  60. Koschny, Detlef; Svedhem, Håkan; Rebuffat, Denis (August 2, 2014). "Phootprint - A Phobos sample return mission study". ESA 40: B0.4–9–14. Bibcode2014cosp...40E1592K. 
  61. Lee, Pascal; Bicay, Michael; Colapre, Anthony; Elphic, Richard (March 17–21, 2014). "Phobos And Deimos & Mars Environment (PADME): A LADEE-Derived Mission to Explore Mars's Moons and the Martian Orbital Environment.". 45th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2014). 
  62. Reyes, Tim (1 October 2014). "Making the Case for a Mission to the Martian Moon Phobos". Universe Today. Retrieved 2014-10-05. 
  63. "Introduction to JAXA's Exploration of the Two Moons of Mars, with Sample Return from Phobos" (PDF). Phobos/Deimos Sample Return Mission Study Team. 26 October 2015. 
  64. "JAXA、火星衛星「フォボス」探査…22年に" (in Japanese). The Yomiuri Shimbun. January 4, 2016. Retrieved 2016-02-04. 
  65. 65.0 65.1 "ISASニュース 2016.1 No.418" (in Japanese) (PDF). Institute of Space and Astronautical Science. 22 January 2016. 
  66. "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}" (in Japanese) (PDF). Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency. 13 October 2015. 
  67. Torishima, Shinya (June 19, 2015). "JAXAの「火星の衛星からのサンプル・リターン」計画とは" (in Japanese). Mynavi News. Retrieved 2015-10-06. 
  68. MMX Homepage. JAXA, 2017
  69. OSIRIS-REx II to Mars - Mars Sample Return from Phobos and Deimos
  70. Elifritz, T. L. - OSIRIS-REx II to Mars — Mars Sample Return from Phobos and Deimos (2012)
  71. Larry Page Deep Space Exploration - Stepping Stones builds up to "Red Rocks : Explore Mars from Deimos"
  72. One Possible Small Step Toward Mars Landing: A Martian Moon
  73. Советский грунт с Марса (in Russian).
  74. C. Tarrieu, "Status of the Mars 96 Aerostat Development", Paper IAF-93-Q.3.399, 44th Congress of the International Astronautical Federation, 1993.
  75. P.B. de Selding, "Planned French Balloon May Be Dropped", Space News, 17–23 April 1995, pp. 1, 20
  76. "Mars Together Update". Retrieved 9 February 2017. 
  77. "Mars Together: An Update". Retrieved 9 February 2017. 
  78. Oliver Morton in To Mars, En Masse, pp. 1103–04, Science (Magazine) vol. 283, 19 February 1999, ISSN 0036-8075
  79. MIT Mars Airplane Project. Retrieved on 2012-08-14.
  81. Exploring Mars: Blowing in the Wind? (2001-08-10). Retrieved on 2012-08-14.