Earth:Vallis (planetary geology)
Scientists used vallis for old river valleys they discovered when they sent the first probes to Mars. The Viking Orbiters caused a revolution in our ideas about water on Mars; finding huge river valleys in many areas. Space craft cameras showed that floods of water broke through dams, carved deep valleys, eroded grooves into bedrock, and traveled thousands of kilometers. Some valles on Mars (Mangala Vallis, Athabasca Vallis, Granicus Vallis, and Tinjar Valles) clearly begin at graben. On the other hand, some of the large outflow channels begin in rubble-filled low areas, called chaos or chaotic terrain. It has been suggested that massive amounts of water were trapped under pressure beneath a thick cryosphere (layer of frozen ground), then the water was suddenly released, perhaps when the cryosphere was broken by a fault.
Nirgal Vallis and sapping
Nirgal Vallis is one of the longest valley networks on Mars. It is so large that it is found on more than one quadrangle. Scientists are not sure about how all the ancient river valleys were formed. There is evidence that instead of rain or snow, the water that formed the valleys originated underground. One mechanism that has been advanced is sapping. In sapping, the ground just gives away as water comes out. Sapping is common in some desert areas in America's Southwest. Sapping forms alcoves and stubby tributaries. These features are visible in the picture from the Coprates quadrangle of Nigal Vallis taken with Mars Odyssey's THEMIS.
One of the most significant features of the Lunae Palus region, Kasei Valles is one of the largest outflow channels on Mars. Like other outflow channels, it was carved by liquid water, probably during gigantic floods.
Kasei is about 2,400 kilometers (1,500 mi) long. Some sections of Kasei Valles are 300 kilometers (190 mi) wide. It begins in Echus Chasma, near Valles Marineris, and empties into Chryse Planitia, not far from where Viking 1 landed. Sacra Mensa, a large tableland divides Kasei into northern and southern channels.
Scientists suggest it was formed by several episodes of flooding and maybe by some glacial activity.
Map of Lunae Palus with labels. Kasei Valles is a very large ancient river valley.
Kasei Valles, as seen by THEMIS.
Other valles in the Lunae Palus quadrangle
Hypanis Vallis in the Lunae Palus quadrangle of Mars, as seen by HiRISE. Scale bar is 500 meters long.
Scour patterns were produced by flowing water from Maja Valles, which lies just to the left of this mosaic. Detail of flow around Dromore crater is shown on next image. Image is located in Lunae Palus quadrangle and was taken by Viking Orbiter.
Great amounts of water were required to carry out the erosion shown in this Viking image of a small part of Maja Valles. Image is located in Lunae Palus quadrangle.
Nanedi Valles, as seen by THEMIS. Click on image to see more details.
Valles in the Syrtis Major quadrangle
Huo Hsing Vallis Ridges, as seen by HiRISE. Ridges may be caused by water moving along faults.
Arnus Vallis layers, as seen by HiRISE.
Valles in the Hellas quadrangle
Mad Vallis, as seen by HiRISE. Picture on right is an enlargement of part of the other picture.
Lineated Floor Deposits
The floors of some channels have features called lineated floor deposits. They are ridged and grooved materials that seem to deflect around obstacles. Scientists believe they are ice-rich. Some glaciers on the Earth show such features. Lineated floor deposits may be related to lobate debris aprons, which have been proven to contain large amounts of ice. Reull Vallis, as pictured below, displays these deposits.
Niger Vallis with features typical of this latitude, as seen by HiRISE. Chevon pattern results from movement of ice-rich material. Click on image to see chevron pattern and mantle.
Origin of Dao Vallis
Dao Vallis begins near a large volcano, called Hadriaca Patera, so it is thought to have received water when hot magma melted huge amounts of ice in the frozen ground. The partially circular depressions on the left side of the channel in the image below suggests that groundwater sapping also contributed water.
Hellas quadrangle map showing Dao Vallis in the upper middle of the map.
Vallis in Elysium quadrangle
Wide view of Iberus Vallis, as seen by HiRISE. Imagine taking a walk in these canyons and looking up at the layers.
Vallis in Oxia Palus quadrangle
Ares Vallis, as seen by HiRISE. Ares Valles is found in the Oxia Palus quadrangle.
Channels in Ares Vallis region (Oxia Palus quadrangle), as seen by HiRISE.
Tear-drop shaped islands caused by flood waters from Maja Valles, as seen by Viking Orbiter. Image is located in Oxia Palus quadrangle.
Vallis in Memnonia quadrangle
Samara Vallis in the Memnonia quadrangle, as seen by HiRISE. Scale bar is 500 meters long.
Close-up of Padus Vallis, as seen by THEMIS. Padus Vallis is in the Memnonia quadrangle.
Other examples of valles
Frento Vallis in Noachis quadrangle, as seen by HiRISE. Click on image to see better view of Dust Devil Tracks. In the Arcadia quadrangle on Mars, its exact location is centered at 37 degrees north latitude and 93.1 degrees west longitude. It is 357 km long and was named after a classical river.
Branched channels in Thaumasia quadrangle, as seen by Viking Orbiter. Networks of channels like this are strong evidence for rain on Mars in the past.
- Astronomy:List of valles on Mars – valley-like topographical features
- Astronomy:List of geological features on Mercury – Wikimedia list article
- Astronomy:Outflow channels – Long, wide swathes of scoured ground on Mars
- Astronomy:Peace Vallis
- Astronomy:Valley network (Mars) – Branching networks of valleys on Mars
- In Latin, the singular is valles (with a short 'e') or vallis, and the plural is valēs with a long 'e'.
valles. Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project.
- Hugh H. Kieffer (1992). Mars. University of Arizona Press. ISBN 978-0-8165-1257-7. https://books.google.com/books?id=NoDvAAAAMAAJ. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
- Raeburn, P. 1998. Uncovering the Secrets of the Red Planet Mars. National Geographic Society. Washington D.C.
- Moore, P. et al. 1990. The Atlas of the Solar System. Mitchell Beazley Publishers NY, NY.
- Carr, M. 1979. Formation of martian flood features by release of water from confined aquifers. J. Geophys. Res. 84: 2995-3007.
- Hanna, J. and R. Phillips. 2005. Tectonic pressurization of aquifers in the formation of Mangala and Athabasca Valles on Mars. LPSC XXXVI. Abstract 2261.
- "Nirgal Vallis - Mars Odyssey Mission THEMIS". http://themis.asu.edu/zoom-20030916a.
- "The Cataracts of Kasei - Mars Odyssey Mission THEMIS". http://themis.asu.edu/node/5672.
- "Dao Vallis - Mars Odyssey Mission THEMIS". http://themis.asu.edu/zoom-20020807a.
- "Planetary Names: Welcome". http://planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov.