Chemistry:Hydrogen deuteride

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Hydrogen deuteride
Skeletal formula of hydrogen deuteride
Hydrogen-deuteride-3D-vdW.png
Names
IUPAC name
Hydrogen deuteride
Systematic IUPAC name
(2H)Dihydrogen
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
EC Number
  • 237-773-0
UN number 1049
Properties
HD
Molar mass 3.02204 g mol−1
Melting point −259 °C (−434.2 °F; 14.1 K)
Boiling point −253 °C (−423.4 °F; 20.1 K)
Hazards
GHS pictograms GHS02: FlammableGHS04: Compressed Gas
GHS Signal word Danger
H220, H280
P210, P377, P381, P403, P410+403
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
Flammability code 4: Will rapidly or completely vaporize at normal atmospheric pressure and temperature, or is readily dispersed in air and will burn readily. Flash point below 23 °C (73 °F). E.g. propaneHealth code 0: Exposure under fire conditions would offer no hazard beyond that of ordinary combustible material. E.g. sodium chlorideReactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g. liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
4
0
0
571 °C (1,060 °F; 844 K)
Related compounds
Related hydrogens
Deuterium

Hydrogen
Tritium

Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Hydrogen deuteride is a diatomic molecule substance or compound of two isotopes of hydrogen: the majority isotope 1H (protium) and 2H (deuterium). Its proper molecular formula is H2H, but for simplification, it is usually written as HD.

Preparation and occurrence

In the laboratory it is produced by treating sodium hydride with deuterated water:[1]

NaH + D
2
O → HD + NaOD

Hydrogen deuteride is a minor component of naturally occurring molecular hydrogen. It is one of the minor but noticeable components of the atmospheres of all the giant planets, with abundances from about 30 ppm to about 200 ppm. HD has also been found in supernova remnants,[2] and other sources.

Occurrence of HD vs. H
2
in giant planets' atmospheres
Planet HD H
2
Jupiter ~0.003% 89.8% ±2.0%
Uranus ~0.007% 83.0% ±3.0%
Neptune ~0.019% 80.0% ±3.2%
H NMR spectrum of a solution of HD (labeled with red bars) and H
2
(blue bar). The 1:1:1 triplet arises from the coupling of the 1H nucleus (I = 1/2) to the 2H nucleus ( I = 1).

Radio emission spectra

HD and H2 have very similar emission spectra, but the emission frequencies differ.[3]

The frequency of the astronomically important J = 1-0 rotational transition of HD at 2.7 THz has been measured with tunable FIR radiation with an accuracy of 150 kHz.[4]


References

  1. Bautista, Maria T.; Cappellani, E. Paul; Drouin, Samantha D.; Morris, Robert H.; Schweitzer, Caroline T.; Sella, Andrea; Zubkowski, Jeffery (1991). "Preparation and Spectroscopic Properties of the η2-Dihydrogen Complexes [MH(η2-H2)PR2CH2CH2PR2)2]+ (M = Iron, Ruthenium; R = Ph, Et) and Trends in Properties Down the Iron Group Triad". Journal of the American Chemical Society 113 (13): 4876–87. doi:10.1021/ja00013a025. 
  2. Neufeld, David A.; Hollenbach, David J.; Kaufman, Michael J.; Snell, Ronald L.; Melnick, Gary J.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Sonnentrucker, Paule (2007). "SpitzerSpectral Line Mapping of Supernova Remnants. I. Basic Data and Principal Component Analysis". The Astrophysical Journal 664 (2): 890–908. doi:10.1086/518857. Bibcode2007ApJ...664..890N. 
  3. Quinn, W.; Baker, J.; Latourrette, J.; Ramsey, N. (1958). "Radio-Frequency Spectra of Hydrogen Deuteride in Strong Magnetic Fields". Phys. Rev. 112 (6): 1929. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.112.1929. Bibcode1958PhRv..112.1929Q. 
  4. Evenson, K. M.; Jennings, D. A.; Brown, J. M.; Zink, L. R.; Leopold, K. R. (1988). "Frequency measurement of the J = 1-0 rotational transition of HD". Astrophysical Journal 330: L135. doi:10.1086/185221. Bibcode1988ApJ...330L.135E. 

Further reading