Biology:Timeline of extinctions in the Holocene

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This article is a list of biological species, subspecies, and evolutionary significant units that are known to have become extinct during the Holocene, the current geologic epoch, ordered by their known or approximate date of disappearance from oldest to most recent.

The Holocene is considered to have started with the Holocene glacial retreat around 11650 years Before Present (c. 9700 BC). It is characterized by a general trend towards global warming, the expansion of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) to all emerged land masses, the appearance of agriculture and animal husbandry, and a reduction in global biodiversity. The latter, dubbed the sixth mass extinction in Earth history, is largely attributed to increased human population and activity, and may have started already during the preceding Pleistocene epoch with the demise of the Pleistocene megafauna.

The following list is incomplete by necessity, since the majority of extinctions are thought to be undocumented, and for many others there isn't a definitive, widely accepted last, or most recent record. According to the species-area theory, the present rate of extinction may be up to 140,000 species per year.[1]

10th millennium BC

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Causes
10250-9180 BC[2] Page's crane Grus pagei Rancho La Brea, California , United States Undetermined.
La Brea owl Oraristix brea Southern California, United States
10210-9850 BC[2] Errant vulture Neogyps errans California, United States
Eurasian cave lion Panthera spelaea Northern Eurasia and Beringia
10035-9845 BC[2] Dow's puffin Fratercula dowi Channel Islands of California, United States
9948-9306 BC[3] Northern glyptodont Glyptotherium sp. Florida and Texas to northeastern Brazil
9705-9545 BC[4] Patagonian panther Panthera onca mesembrina Patagonia
9690-9040 BC[5] Toronto subway deer Torontoceros hypnogeos Toronto, Canada
9610-9220 BC[6] Haiti pine forest ground sloth Neocnus dousman Hispaniola
9580-8860 BC[7] Dwarf pronghorn Capromeryx minor Southwestern United States and Mexico
9550 BC[8] Chinese cave hyena Crocuta crocuta ultima East Asia
9550 BC[9][10] Shrub-ox Euceratherium collinum Southwestern North America
American mountain deer Odocoileus lucasi Oasisamerica[11] and Mexico[12] Hunting?[10]
Stock's pronghorn Stockoceros sp. Mexico and Southwestern United States
c. 9515 BC[13] Southeastern giant tortoise Hesperotestudo crassiscutata Southern United States Undetermined.
9500-9300 BC[14] Sardinian dhole Cynotherium sardous Corsica and Sardinia
9460-9350 BC[15][16] American lion Panthera atrox North America;
Western South America?
9381-9281 BC[17] Macrauchenia Macrauchenia patachonica Southwestern South America Hunting.[18]
9350 BC[19] Long-nosed peccary Mylohyus nasutus Eastern United States Habitat loss and competition with the American black bear.[10]
9200-9350 BC[20] American mastodon Mammut americanum North America Undetermined.
9190-8870 BC[10] Jefferson's ground sloth Megalonyx jeffersonii North America Undetermined.
9130-9030 BC[4] Pygmy mammoth Mammuthus exilis Channel Islands of California, United States
9117-8793 BC[3] Highland gomphothere Cuvieronius hyodon Central America, northern and central Andes[21] Hunting?[22]
9100-8380 BC[2] Californian turkey Meleagris californica California, United States Undetermined.
c. 9050 BC[13] Wilson's tortoise Hesperotestudo wilsoni Southwestern United States
Ryukyu tortoise Manouria oyamai Ryukyu, Japan
9050 BC[23] Cypriot genet Genetta plesictoides Cyprus
9050-8050 BC[23][2] Miyako roe deer Capreolus tokunagai Miyako Island, Ryukyu, Japan
Asphalt stork Ciconia maltha Americas
Miyako long-tailed rat Diplothrix miyakoensis Miyako Island, Ryukyu, Japan
Merriam's teratorn Teratornis merriami California, United States

9th millennium BC

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Causes
8995-8845 BC[4] North American short-faced bear Arctodus simus North America Competition with the grizzly bear.[10]
8965-8875 BC[4][24] Mexican horse Equus conversidens Hunting.[4]
8850-8750 BC[25] Flat-headed peccary Platygonus compressus Possibly vegetation changes induced by climate change and competition with the American black bear.[10]
8800-8300 BC[2] Schneider's duck Anas schneideri Converse County, Wyoming, United States Undetermined.
Large-billed blackbird Euphagus magnirostris California to Venezuela and Peru
8470-8320 BC[4] Argentinian short-faced bear Arctotherium tarijense Argentina [26]
8430-8130 BC[27] Stag-moose Cervalces scotti Eastern United States
8420 BC[7] Woodland muskox Bootherium bombifrons North America
8350-7550 BC[27] Shasta ground sloth Nothrotheriops shastensis Southwestern United States Hunting.[28]
8340-3950 BC Giant Cape zebra Equus capensis Southern Africa Reduction of grasslands after the end of the Last Glacial Period.[29]
8301-7190 BC[14] Giant pika Ochotona whartoni Northern North America;
Eastern Siberia?
8250-8150 BC[25] Giant beaver Castoroides ohiensis North America
8200-7660 BC[27] Vero tapir Tapirus veroensis Southern United States Hunting.[10][28][18]
8100 BC[27] Harrington's mountain goat Oreamnos harringtoni Southern Rocky Mountains
8059 BC[30] Smaller South American horse Hippidion saldiasi[31] Eastern South America[32]
8050-5845 BC South American palmate-antlered deer Morenelaphus brachyceros Temperate South America Undetermined.[33]
8050 BC or less Hipposideros besaoka Northern coast of Madagascar Undetermined.[34]
8000 BC[14] Glossothere Glossotherium sp. South America[21]

8th millennium BC

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Causes
c. 7950 BC[35] South American pointed-antlered deer Antifer ultra River Plate and central Chile Undetermined.
7930 BC[10] North American pampathere Holmesina septentrionalis Southeastern United States
7830-7430 BC[4][14] Cuvier's small ground sloth Catonyx cuvieri Eastern South America
7820-7300 BC[36] Woolly rhinoceros Coelodonta antiquitatis Northern Eurasia Shrinking of the mammoth steppe due to warmer and wetter climate conditions.[37]
7800-7740 BC[38] Panamerican ground sloth Eremotherium laurillardi[39] Southern United States to Brazil Undetermined.
7615-7305 BC North American sabertooth Smilodon fatalis Southern North America and northern South America Prey loss.[10]
7600-6245 BC[40] Asian ostrich Struthio asiaticus Greece and Eastern Europe through Kazakhstan to India and China [41] Undetermined.
7390-7320 BC Xibalbaonyx oviceps Quintana Roo, Mexico Hunting.[3]
7330-6250 BC (unconfirmed)[42] Asian straight-tusked elephant Palaeoloxodon namadicus South and east Asia Undetermined.
7330-7030 BC[14] South American sabertooth Smilodon populator Eastern South America Competition with human hunters.[18]
7250-5330 BC American camel Camelops hesternus Western North America Hunting.[10]
7250-6750 BC[24][43] Scott's horse Equus scotti Hunting?
7160-6760 BC Chilean scelidodont Scelidodon chiliensis Western South America[44] Undetermined.[14]
7100-6300 BC[5][45] Columbian mammoth Mammuthus columbi Northern Mexico, western and southern United States Hunting.[10]
7043-6507 BC[14] Greater Cuban nesophontes Nesophontes major Cuba Undetermined.
Cuban pauraque Siphonorhis daiquiri
7043-6503 BC[14] Giant ghost-faced bat Mormoops magna

7th millennium BC

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Causes
6833-6321 BC Long-legged llama Hemiauchenia macrocephala North and Central America Hunting.[10][18]
6689 BC[10] Darwin's mylodon Mylodon darwini Pampas and Patagonia Hunting.[18]
6660-4880 BC[14] Larger South American horse Equus neogeus South America[46]
6660-4880 BC[14][47] Common glyptodont Glyptodon sp. Eastern South America
6660-4880 BC[14] Brazilian glyptodont Hoplophorus euphractus Eastern Brazil Undetermined.[14]
Stout-legged llama Palaeolama major North and east South America Hunting.[18]
Eastern giant armadillo Propraopus sulcatus Eastern South America[48] Undetermined.[14]
6389-6060 BC Pampean giant armadillo Eutatus seguini Northern Argentina and Uruguay[49] Undetermined.[50]
6150-5750 BC[51] Yukon horse Equus lambei Eastern Beringia Reduction of grasslands after the end of the Last Glacial Period.[37][29]
6130-3950 BC Giant hartebeest Megalotragus priscus Southern Africa;
Eastern Africa?
6050-5050 BC[27] Dire wolf Aenocyon dirus North America and western South America Competition with the gray wolf.[10]

6th millennium BC

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Causes
5941-5596 BC Kambuaya's triok Dactylopsila kambuayai New Guinea Undetermined.[14]
New Guinea greater glider Petauroides ayamaruensis
5790-5658 BC Beringian wolf Canis lupus Northwestern North America Prey loss.[52] The eastern wolf, a descendant hybridized with coyotes, survives.[53]
5740-5500 BC Bond's springbok Antidorcas bondi Southern Africa Reduction of grasslands after the end of the Last Glacial Period.[29]
5660-5540 BC[54] Narrow-headed ground sloth Scelidotherium leptocephalum Southern South America Hunting?[10]
5550 BC Sardinian giant deer Praemegaceros cazioti Corsica and Sardinia[55] Undetermined.[56]
5483-5221 BC Unnamed South African caprine ?Makapania sp. South Africa n mountains Reduction of grasslands after the end of the Last Glacial Period.[29]
5295-4848 BC Ibiza rail Rallus eivissensis Ibiza, Spain Undetermined, but presumably a result of human colonization.[57]
5271-5131 BC[58] Ancient bison Bison antiquus North America Possibly hybridisation with western bison resulting in modern American bison.[27]
5270-4310 BC[59] Giant ground sloth Megatherium americanum Temperate South America and the Andes Hunting.[18]
5120 BC Neosclerocalyptus paskoensis Southern South America Undetermined.[60]

5th millennium BC

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Causes
4901-4831 BC[61] Irish elk Megaloceros giganteus Europe and southern Siberia Reduction of grasslands after the end of the Last Glacial Period, and possibly hunting.[62]
4855-4733 BC North African horse Equus algericus Maghreb Aridification.[29]
4840-4690 BC Majorcan giant dormouse Hypnomys morpheus Mallorca, Spain Possibly disease spread by introduced rodents.[63]
4765-4445 BC[59][64] Club-tailed glyptodont[50] Doedicurus clavicaudatus South American Pampas Undetermined.
4691-4059 BC Algerian giant deer Megaceroides algericus Northern Maghreb Possibly habitat fragmentation.[65]
4650-1450 BC[14] Toxodont Toxodon platensis South America Undetermined.
4570 BC - 130 CE[66] Jamaican caracara Caracara tellustris Jamaica
4170-4050 BC[67] Lowland gomphothere Notiomastodon platensis South America Hunting?[10]
c. 4000 BC North African aurochs Bos primigenius africanus North Africa Aridification. Domestic descendants survive in captivity.[29]
North African zebra Equus mauritanicus Aridification.[29]

4th millennium BC

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Causes
3570-3630 BC[68] Malagasy crowned eagle Stephanoaetus mahery Central and southern Madagascar Possibly natural aridification or habitat degradation and prey loss caused by human activity.[69]
3540-3355 BC[70] Kauaʻi mole duck Talpanas lippa Kaua'i, Hawaii, United States Undetermined.
3340-2890 BC[71] Radofilao's sloth lemur Babakotia radofilai Northern coast of Madagascar
3290-2730 BC[4] Smaller Cuban ground sloth Parocnus brownii Cuba Hunting.[6]
3060-2470 BC Giant long-horned buffalo Syncerus antiquus Africa and the Arabian Peninsula[72] Aridification and competition with domestic cattle for water and pastures.[14]
3050 BC[23] Sardinian shrew Asoriculus similis Sardinia, Italy Undetermined.
Buka Island mosaic-tailed rat Melomys spechti Buka Island, Papua New Guinea
Buka Island solomys Solomys spriggsarum
3040-1840 BC[73] Tilos dwarf elephant Palaeoloxodon tiliensis Tilos, Greece
3030-2690 BC Balearic giant shrew Nesiotites hidalgo Gymnesian Islands, Spain Possibly disease spread by introduced rodents.[63]

3rd millennium BC

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Causes
2830-2470 BC Balearic cave goat Myotragus balearicus Gymnesian Islands, Spain Likely vegetation changes related to aridification or human activity.[74][75]
2550 BC Bennu heron Ardea bennuides Arabian Peninsula Wetland degradation.[14]
2550-2450 BC[76] Steppe bison Bison priscus Northern Eurasia and North America Hunting[77] and habitat loss due to climate change.[37]
2550-1550 BC[14] Niue night heron Nycticorax kalavikai Niue Undetermined.
2508-2116 BC[78] Hispaniola monkey Antillothrix bernensis Hispaniola
2483-2399 BC[4] Lesser Haitian ground sloth Neocnus comes
2280-2240 BC[79] Cuban giant sloth Megalocnus rodens Cuba
2134-1408 BC[14][80] Chatham raven Corvus moriorum Chatham Islands, New Zealand

2nd millennium BC

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Causes
1950-1050 BC[81] New Caledonian terrestrial crocodile Mekosuchus inexpectatus Grande Terre and Isle of Pines, New Caledonia Hunting.
1935-1700 BC Sumba Island giant rat Raksasamys tikusbesar Sumba Island, Indonesia Undetermined.[23]
1900-1600 BC Noel's barn owl Tyto noeli Cuba, Jamaica, and Bermuda Undetermined.[82]
1800 BC Indian aurochs Bos primigenius namadicus Indian Subcontinent Undetermined. Domestic descendants survive in captivity and as feral populations.[83]
1795-1675 BC[84][85][86][87] Woolly mammoth Mammuthus primigenius Northern Eurasia and North America Hunting[88] and habitat loss due to climate change.[37]
1750-1650 BC[89] Short-horned water buffalo Bubalus mephistopheles South, central, and east China[50] Undetermined.
1738-1500 BC[14] Puerto Rican ground sloth Acratocnus odontrigonus Puerto Rico
1738-1385 BC[14] Christensen's pademelon Thylogale christenseni New Guinea
1581 BC[90] Hawaiian eagle Haliaeetus sp. Hawaii, United States Possibly deforestation, loss of prey, and predation of chicks by introduced rats and pigs.[69]
1500 BC New Caledonian giant megapode Sylviornis neocaledoniae Grande Terre and Isle of Pines, New Caledonia Hunting.[91]
c. 1500 BC Puerto Rican flower bat Phyllonycteris major Puerto Rico and Antigua Undetermined.[92]
Leeward Islands curlytail Leiocephalus cuneus Antigua and Barbuda
1294-1035 BC European wild ass Equus hydruntinus Southern Europe and Southwest Asia; Northern Europe (Pleistocene) Hunting and habitat fragmentation after the end of the Last Glacial Period.[93]
1159-790 BC Dune shearwater Puffinus holeae Canary Islands, Spain;
mainland Portugal (Pleistocene)
Predation by introduced house mice.[94]
c. 1050 BC[13] Mona Island tortoise Chelonoidis monensis Mona Island of Puerto Rico Undetermined.
1050 BC[23] Alor Island giant rat Alormys aplini Alor Island, Indonesia
Hooijer's giant rat Hooijeromys nusantenggara Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia
Vanuatu terrestrial crocodile Mekosuchus kalpokasi Efate, Vanuatu Hunting.[81]
Verhoeven's giant tree rat Papagomys theodorverhoeveni Flores, Indonesia Undetermined.

1st millennium BC

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Causes
c. 950 BC Noble megapode Megavitiornis altirostris Fiji Hunting.[95]
Fiji giant iguana Lapitiguana impensa
Fiji terrestrial crocodile Volia athollandersoni
900-750 BC Tongan tooth-billed pigeon Didunculus placopedetes Tonga Undetermined.[14]
821-171 BC Balsam shrew Crocidura balsamifera Nile gallery forests, Egypt Habitat destruction.[14]
820-680 BC Eurasian muskox Ovibos moschatus[96] Northern Eurasia Hunting.[77] The same species survived in North America and was reintroduced to Eurasia in the 20th century.[97]
c. 810 BC[13] Vanuatu horned turtle ?Meiolania damelipi Vanuatu and Viti Levu, Fiji Hunting.[98]
800-700 BC Syrian elephant Elephas maximus asurus Mesopotamia Hunting and habitat loss due to agriculture and aridification. However, it's been suggested that it was introduced by humans in the area, which would not make it a valid subspecies.[99]
790-410 BC MacPhee's shrew tenrec Microgale macpheei Southeastern Madagascar Aridification.[100]
787-320 BC Jamaican ibis Xenicibis xympithecus Jamaica Undetermined.[14]
770-400 BC Law's diving-goose Chendytes lawi Coastal California and Oregon, United States Hunting.[101][102]
760-660 BC Consumed scrubfowl Megapodius alimentum Tonga and Fiji
744-202 BC Kaua'i stilt-owl Grallistrix auceps Kaua'i, Hawaii, United States Undetermined.[14]
701-119 BC[103] Chatham coot Fulica chathamensis Chatham Islands, New Zealand Probably hunting and predation by introduced mammals.[69]
700-400 BC Bahaman caracara Caracara creightoni Cuba and Bahamas Undetermined.[104]
550-50 BC[14] David's imperial pigeon Ducula david Ouvéa Island, New Caledonia Hunting.[69]
511-407 BC Plate-toothed giant hutia Elasmodontomys obliquus Puerto Rico Undetermined.[105]
440-280 BC[106] Lena horse Equus lenensis Northern Siberia Hunting.[77][107]
412-199 BC[71] Gorilla lemur Archaeoindris fontoynontii Central Madagascar
404 BC[108] Wild dromedary camel Camelus dromedarius Arabian Peninsula Desertification, hunting, and capture to replenish domestic herds. Domestic and feral descendants survive.[109]
c. 350 BC Tongan giant iguana Brachylophus gibbonsi Tonga and Fiji Hunting.[102][110]
348 BC - 283 BC Corsican giant shrew Asoriculus corsicanus Corsica, France Introduced black rats and human-induced habitat loss.[111]
Sardinian pika Prolagus sardus Corsica and Sardinia Hunting, predation and competition with introduced mammals.[112][113]
Hensel's field mouse Rhagamys orthodon Introduced black rats and human-induced habitat loss.[111]
Tyrrhenian vole Tyrrhenicola henseli
c. 240 BC Imperial gibbon Junzi imperialis Shaanxi?, China Possibly capture as pets and deforestation.[114]
170 BC - 370 CE[115] Maui flightless ibis Apteribis brevis Maui, Hawaii, United States Undetermined.
130 BC Gran Canaria giant rat Canariomys tamarani Gran Canaria, Canary Islands Hunting or predation by introduced dogs?[116]
110 BC - 130 BC[71] Ancient coua Coua primaeva Madagascar Undetermined.
50 BC[23] Buhler's coryphomys Coryphomys buehleri Timor
Timor giant rat Coryphomys musseri
49 BC - 125 BC São Miguel scops owl Otus frutuosoi São Miguel Island, Azores, Portugal Introduced predators?[117]

1st millennium CE

1st–5th centuries

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Causes
1-1000[118] Eyles's harrier Circus teauteensis New Zealand Prey loss and habitat alteration.[69][119]
South Island goose Cnemiornis calcitrans South Island, New Zealand Undetermined.[120]
54-68 Silphium ?Ferula sp. Cyrenaica coast Aridification, overgrazing, and overharvesting.[121]
86-428[14] Powerful goshawk Accipiter efficax New Caledonia Undetermined.
Gracile goshawk Accipiter quartus
Kanaka pigeon Caloenas canacorum New Caledonia and Tonga; Vanuatu and Fiji? Probably hunting.[69]
Pile-builder megapode Megapodius molistructor New Caledonia and Tonga Undetermined.
New Caledonian ground dove Pampusana longitarsus New Caledonia
New Caledonian gallinule[122] Porphyrio kukwiedei
210[123] Giant fossa Cryptoprocta spelaea Madagascar
220[124] Western bison Bison occidentalis Alaska and Yukon
245-429[71] Ball-headed sloth lemur Mesopropithecus globiceps Southwestern Madagascar Hunting and aridification.[107]
c. 300 Atlas wild ass Equus africanus atlanticus North Africa Undetermined. Domestic descendants survive in captivity.[125]
300-1200[14] Marquesas cuckoo-dove Macropygia heana Nuku Hiva and Ua Huka, Marquesas Islands Undetermined.
347-535[14] New Ireland forest rat Rattus sanila New Ireland, Papua New Guinea
370[126] North African elephant Loxodonta africana pharaoensis Northwest Africa Hunting and aridification.[127]
428-618[71] Southern Malagasy giant rat Hypogeomys australis Central and southern Madagascar Undetermined.
439-1473[78] Jamaican monkey Xenothrix mcgregori Jamaica
440-639[14] Oʻahu moa-nalo Thambetochen xanion Oahu, Hawaii, United States
448-657[128] Chatham duck Pachyanas chathamica Chatham Islands, New Zealand Hunting?[14]
c. 450 New Caledonian horned turtle Meiolania mackayi New Caledonia Hunting.[129]

6th–10th centuries

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Causes
530-590 Cuban spectacled owl Pulsatrix arredondoi Cuba Undetermined.[82]
530-860[71] Malagasy shelduck Alopochen sirabensis Madagascar Possibly hunting and aridification.[69]
535-876[50] Large baboon lemur Hadropithecus stenognathus Central and southern Madagascar Hunting and aridification.[107]
586-670 Horned crocodile Voay robustus Madagascar Possibly overexploitation of eggs for consumption, environmental changes (natural or caused by human activity), and competition with the Nile crocodile.[130]
600-765[50] Monkey-like sloth lemur Mesopropithecus pithecoides Central Madagascar Hunting and aridification.[107]
650-780[71] Forsyth Major's baboon lemur Archaeolemur majori Madagascar
650-869 Small O'ahu crake Porzana ziegleri Oahu, Hawaii, United States Undetermined.[14]
664-773 Hildebrandt's elephant bird Aepyornis hildebrandti Central Madagascar Deforestation.[131]
666-857[132] Cayman Islands geocapromys Geocapromys caymanensis Cayman Islands Undetermined.
Cayman Islands nesophontes Nesophontes hemicingulus
670-836 Malagasy dwarf hippopotamus Hippopotamus lemerlei Southwestern Madagascar[133] Deforestation,[131] hunting, competition with, and changes to vegetation caused by livestock.[107]
680-880[131] Lesser elephant bird Mullerornis modestus Central and southern Madagascar Hunting, aridification,[107] and deforestation.[131]
687-880 Malagasy pygmy hippopotamus Hippopotamus madagascariensis Northwestern and central Madagascar[133] Deforestation,[131] hunting, competition with, and changes to vegetation caused by livestock.[107]
700-1150[14] Huahine starling Aplonis diluvialis Huahine, Society Islands, French Polynesia Undetermined.
Huahine gull Chroicocephalus utunui
Huahine rail Gallirallus storrsolsoni Possibly hunting and predation by introduced animals.[69]
Huahine cuckoo-dove Macropygia arevarevauupa Undetermined.
Huahine swamphen Porphyrio mcnabi Possibly hunting and introduced predators.[69]
760 Cuban cave rail Nesotrochis picapicensis Cuba Undetermined.[82]
771-952 Titan elephant bird Vorombe titan Central and southern Madagascar Deforestation.[131]
772-870 Insular cave rat Heteropsomys insulans Puerto Rico Undetermined.[105]
810-1025 Sinoto's lorikeet Vini sinotoi Marquesas and Society Islands, French Polynesia Hunting.[134]
Conquered lorikeet Vini vidivici Marquesas, Society, and Cook Islands
865-965 Malagasy aardvark Plesiorycteropus madagascariensis Central and southern Madagascar Undetermined.[10]
c. 884[13] Grandidier's giant tortoise Aldabrachelys grandidieri Madagascar Hunting and aridification.[107]
890-990[50] Southern giant ruffed lemur Pachylemur insignis Southwestern Madagascar
900-1150 Giant aye-aye Daubentonia robusta Southern Madagascar Hunting, expansion of grasses and deforestation caused by domestic cattle and goat grazing.[107]
c. 950 Giant island deer mouse Peromyscus nesodytes Channel Islands of California, United States Possibly habitat loss through overgrazing and erosion.[135]
980-1170 Grandidier's koala lemur Megaladapis grandidieri Madagascar Hunting and vegetation changes caused by livestock.[107]

2nd millennium CE

11th-12th century

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Causes
c. 1000 North Island adzebill Aptornis otidiformis North Island, New Zealand Hunting and predation by introduced Polynesian rats.[69]
1000-1600[14] Henderson archaic pigeon Bountyphaps obsoleta Henderson Island, Pitcairn Undetermined.
Henderson imperial pigeon Ducula harrisoni Probably hunting and predation by introduced animals.[69]
Henderson ground dove Pampusana leonpascoi Undetermined.
1015-1147[105] Puerto Rican nesophontes Nesophontes edithae Puerto Rico
1020-1260 Lava shearwater Puffinus olsoni Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, Canary Islands Predation by introduced black rats and cats.[136]
1040-1380[69][137] Giant elephant bird Aepyornis maximus Southern Madagascar Hunting, competition with, and changes to vegetation caused by livestock.[107]
1046-1380[14] Nēnē-nui Branta hylobadistes Oahu, Hawaii, United States Probably hunting or introduced predators.[69]
1047-1280[71] Edwards' baboon lemur Archaeolemur edwardsi Central Madagascar[138] Hunting and changes to vegetation caused by livestock.[107]
1057-1375[14] Maui Nui moa-nalo Thambetochen chauliodous Molokai and Maui, Hawaii, United States Undetermined.
1057-1440[14] Maui stilt-owl Grallistrix erdmani Maui, Hawaii, United States
1059-1401 New Zealand swan Cygnus sumnerensis/chathamicus New Zealand? and the Chatham Islands Hunting.[14] It was suggested that the material from the main islands is conspecific with the extant black swan, while that from the Chathams represents a truly different, extinct species.[69]
1100-1300 Tenerife giant rat Canariomys bravoi Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain Hunting.[139]
1170[140] Bahaman tortoise Chelonoidis alburyorum Bahamas Undetermined.
1173-1385[14] Barbuda giant rice rat Megalomys audreyae Barbuda
1175-1295[141] Atalaye nesophontes Nesophontes hypomicrus Hispaniola
1183 New Zealand owlet-nightjar Aegotheles novaezealandiae New Zealand Predation by introduced Polynesian rats.[142]

13th-14th century

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Causes
c. 1200[13] Abrupt giant tortoise Aldabrachelys abrupta Madagascar Hunting and aridification.[107]
Ua Huka booby Papasula abbotti costelloi Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia Hunting and possibly also deforestation.[69]
1200-1600 Chatham kaka Nestor chathamensis Chatham Islands, New Zealand Probably hunting, deforestation, and predation by introduced Polynesian rats.[69]
1206-1427[50] Common koala lemur Megaladapis madagascariensis Madagascar Hunting.[107]
1234-1445[118] South Island adzebill Aptornis defossor South Island, New Zealand Hunting and predation by introduced Polynesian rats.[69]
1265-1400 St. Michel nesophontes Nesophontes paramicrus Hispaniola Undetermined.[141]
1270 Lava mouse Malpaisomys insularis Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, Canary Islands Possibly disease spread by introduced rats.[143]
1278-1415 Mantell's moa Pachyornis geranoides North Island, New Zealand Hunting.[14][144]
1286-1390 North Island giant moa Dinornis novaezelandiae
1292-1630 Chinese gharial Hanyusuchus sinensis South China and Hainan Extermination campaign.[145]
1294-1438 Heavy-footed moa Pachyornis elephantopus Eastern South Island, New Zealand Hunting.[146]
1295-1430[141][14] Western Cuban nesophontes Nesophontes micrus Cuba Undetermined.
Haitian nesophontes Nesophontes zamicrus Hispaniola
c. 1300[69] Tabuai rail Hypotaenidia steadmani Tabuai, Austral Islands, French Polynesia
After 1300 Chatham penguin[147] Eudyptes warhami New Zealand Hunting.[148][146]
Dwarf yellow-eyed penguin Megadyptes antipodes richdalei
1300-1422 Upland moa Megalapteryx didinus South Island, New Zealand
1300-1430 Edwards' koala lemur Megaladapis edwardsi Madagascar Hunting and vegetation changes caused by livestock.[107]
1300-1800 Eua rail Hypotaenidia vekamatolu Eua, Tonga Undetermined.[69]
1310-1420 Bush moa Anomalopteryx didiformis New Zealand Hunting.[146][149]
1320-1350[149] Eastern moa Emeus crassus South Island, New Zealand
Haast's eagle[150] Hieraaetus moorei Deforestation and loss of prey. Possibly also predation of nests by introduced pigs and rats.[69]
1320-1630 Southern sloth lemur Palaeopropithecus ingens Southwestern Madagascar Hunting and vegetation changes caused by livestock.[107]
1320-1380 Hispaniola woodcock Scolopax brachycarpa Hispaniola Undetermined.[151]
1347-1529 Waitaha penguin Megadyptes waitaha Coastal South Island, New Zealand Hunting.[152]
1350 Scarlett's shearwater Puffinus spelaeus Western South Island, New Zealand Predation by Polynesian rats.[136]
1380-1500[153] Giant Hawaii goose Branta rhuax Hawai'i, Hawaii, United States Probably hunting.[69]
1390-1470 Great ground dove Pampusana nui French Polynesia and Cook Islands Undetermined.[14]
1396-1442 Crested moa Pachyornis australis Subalpine South Island, New Zealand Hunting.[146]

15th-16th century

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
1400-1450 Pico rail Rallus montivagorum Pico Island, Açores, Portugal Undetermined.[69]
1400-1500 Tenerife giant lizard Gallotia goliath Tenerife and La Palma, Canary Islands Hunting.[139]
1425-1660 Kauaʻi finch Telespiza persecutrix Kaua'i and Oahu, Hawaii, United States Undetermined.[14]
South Island giant moa Dinornis robustus South Island, New Zealand Hunting.[146]
1454-1626[155] South American wolf Dusicyon avus Argentina and Uruguay 2015 (IUCN) Possibly climate change, hunting, and competition with domestic dogs.[156]
1460-1660 Dwarf thick-knee Burhinus nanus Bahamas Undetermined.[157]
Broad-billed moa Euryapteryx curtus North, South, and Stewart Island of New Zealand Hunting.[146]
1500-1600 Finsch's duck Chenonetta finschi New Zealand 2014 (IUCN) Hunting and predation by introduced Polynesian rats.[159]
1502 Olson's petrel Bulweria bifax Saint Helena 1988 (IUCN) Hunting and introduced predators?[160]
1503 Vespucci's giant rat Noronhomys vespucii Fernando de Noronha Island, Brazil 2008 (IUCN) Undetermined.[161]
1520-1950[14] Galápagos giant rat Megaoryzomys curioi Santa Cruz, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador Possibly introduced predators.[162]
1525 Puerto Rican hutia Isolobodon portoricensis Hispaniola and Gonâve;
Introduced to Puerto Rico, Mona, and U.S. Virgin Islands
1994-2008 (IUCN) Possibly predation by introduced black rats.[163]
1525-1625[4] Cayman Islands hutia Capromys sp. Cayman Islands Possibly hunting, introduced predators, and habitat loss caused by introduced ungulates.[132]
1550-1670[4] Hispaniolan edible rat Brotomys voratus Hispaniola 1994 (IUCN) Introduced rats.[164]
1555 Ascension night heron Nycticorax olsoni Ascension Island Probably predation by introduced cats and rats.[69]

17th century

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
c. 1600 Mauritian giant skink Leiolopisma mauritiana Mauritius 2021 (IUCN)
1600-1700 Hoffstetter's worm snake Madatyphlops cariei 1994 (IUCN)
Hodgens's waterhen Tribonyx hodgenorum New Zealand 2014 (IUCN) Hunting and predation by Polynesian rats.[165]
1601? Rodrigues blue pigeon Alectroenas payandeei Rodrigues Possibly predation by introduced rats.[69]
1602 Mauritius white-throated rail Dryolimnas sp. Mauritius 1638 Hunting and predation by introduced mammals.[69]
1603 Bermuda hawk Bermuteo avivorus Bermuda 2014 (IUCN) Possibly hunting and predation by introduced feral pigs and other animals.[166]
1609-1610 Bermuda saw-whet owl Aegolius gradyi 1623
2014 (IUCN)[167]
Habitat destruction and introduced predators.[69]
Bermuda towhee Pipilio naufragus Undetermined.[69]
1610 Bermuda night heron Nyctanassa carcinocatactes 2014 (IUCN) Possibly hunting and introduced predators.[168]
1623 Bermuda flicker Colaptes oceanicus 2014 (IUCN) Probably predation by introduced cats.[69]
1627[169] Eurasian aurochs Bos primigenius primigenius Mid-latitude Eurasia 2008 (IUCN) Hunting, competition with, and diseases from domestic cattle. Domestic descendants survive worldwide, including feral populations.[170]
c. 1640[171] Saint Helena rail Aphanocrex podarces Saint Helena 1988 (IUCN)
Saint Helena cuckoo Nannococcyx psix Possibly deforestation.[171]
Saint Helena petrel Pterodroma rupinarum Probably deforestation and introduced mammals.[69]
Saint Helena hoopoe Upupa antaios Possibly hunting and introduced predators.[172]
Saint Helena crake Zapornia astrictocarpus Probably introduced predators.[173]
1656 Ascension crake Mundia elpenor Ascension Island Possibly introduction of rats and cats, although it is not attested by the time they arrived in the 18th and 19th centuries.[174]
1670-1950[71][175] Larger Malagasy hippopotamus Hippopotamus laloumena Eastern Madagascar Increased human and cattle pressure after the introduction of prickly pear farming.[107] Its specific separation from the common hippopotamus has been questioned.[176]
1671-1672 Réunion blue pigeon Alectroenas sp. Réunion 1704 Probably hunting and predation by introduced cats.[69]
Réunion sheldgoose Alopochen kervazoi 1710
1988 (IUCN)
Hunting and habitat destruction.[177]
Réunion kestrel Falco duboisi 2004 (IUCN) Undetermined.[178]
1672[69] Réunion fody Foudia delloni 2016 (IUCN) Probably predation by introduced rats.[179]
1673-1675 Broad-billed parrot Lophopsittacus mauritianus Mauritius 1693
1988 (IUCN)
1674 Réunion rail Dryolimnas augusti Réunion 2014 (IUCN) Probably hunting and introduced rats and cats.[181]
Réunion pigeon Nesoenas duboisi 1988 (IUCN)
Réunion night heron Nycticorax duboisi Hunting.[182]
1675-1755 Giant vampire bat Desmodus draculae Eastern South America;
Central America (Pleistocene)[183]
1688 Dodo Raphus cucullatus Mauritius 1988 (IUCN) Hunting.[185][186]
1693 Mauritius sheldgoose Alopochen mauritiana 1698
1988 (IUCN)
Red rail Aphanapteryx bonasia 1988 (IUCN)
Mascarene coot[187] Fulica newtonii Mauritius and Réunion Hunting.[188]
Mauritius night heron Nycticorax mauritianus Mauritius Probably hunting.[189]
1696 Mascarene teal Anas theodori Mauritius; Réunion? Hunting.[190]

18th century

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
1700-1800 Imber's petrel Pterodroma imberi Chatham Islands, New Zealand Hunting and predation by introduced cats.[69]
1705 Mascarene reed cormorant Phalacrocorax africanus nanus Mauritius and Réunion Probably hunting and predation by introduced cats.[69]
1724 Guadeloupe parakeet Psittacara labati Guadeloupe 1988 (IUCN) Probably hunting.[191]
1725-1726 Rodrigues petrel Pterodroma sp. Rodrigues Predation by introduced cats and rats.[69]
1726 Rodrigues rail Erythromachus leguati 1988 (IUCN) Hunting.[192]
Rodrigues owl Mascarenotus murivorus Probably hunting, deforestation, and predation by introduced animals.[193]
Rodrigues starling Necropsar rodericanus 1761
1988 (IUCN)
Rodrigues pigeon Nesoenas rodericanus 1988 (IUCN) Probably predation by introduced black rats.[194]
Rodrigues night heron Nycticorax megacephalus 1761
1988 (IUCN)
c. 1730 Mauritius wood pigeon Columba thiriouxi Mauritius 2014 (IUCN) Hunting, predation by introduced black rats, and deforestation.[69]
Mauritius turtle dove Nesoenas cicur Hunting, predation by introduced mammals, and deforestation.[69]
Réunion swamphen Porphyrio caerulescens Réunion 1988 (IUCN)
c. 1735-1844?[13][196] Saddle-backed Mauritius giant tortoise Cylindraspis inepta Mauritius 1994 (IUCN) Possibly hunting and introduced predators and competitors.[197][198]
Domed Mauritius giant tortoise Cylindraspis triserrata
1742[199] Lesser Antillean macaw Ara guadeloupensis Guadeloupe Undetermined.[69]
1746 Corynanthe brachythyrsus Cameroon 1998 (IUCN) Undetermined.[200]
1760[201] Atlantic gray whale Eschrichtius robustus North Atlantic and the Mediterranean 2007 (IUCN) Whaling. The same species survives in the Pacific Ocean.[202]
1761 Rodrigues parrot Necropsittacus rodricanus Rodrigues 1988 (IUCN)
Rodrigues solitaire Pezophaps solitaria 1778
1988 (IUCN)
Hunting and predation by introduced cats.[203]
1762-1763 Steller's sea cow Hydrodamalis gigas Bering Sea; Northern Pacific coasts from Japan to Baja California (Pleistocene) 1768
1986 (IUCN)
Hunting and reduction of kelp as a result of sea otter hunting, which caused proliferation of kelp-eating sea urchins.[204]
1763 Réunion ibis Threskiornis solitarius Réunion 1988 (IUCN) Hunting.[205][206][69]
1764 Mauritius grey parrot Lophopsittacus bensoni Mauritius and Réunion
1770 Seychelles purple swamphen Porphyrio sp. Mahé, Seychelles
1773 Raiatea parakeet Cyanoramphus ulietanus Raiatea, Society Islands, French Polynesia 1988 (IUCN) Possibly deforestation, hunting, and predation by introduced species.[207]
1774 Tanna ground dove Alopecoenas ferrugineus Tanna, Vanuatu Hunting?[208]
Raiatea starling ?Aplonis ulietensis Raiatea, Society Islands, French Polynesia 1850
2016 (IUCN)
Possibly predation by introduced rats.[209]
1777 Tongatapu rail Hypotaenidia hypoleucus Tongatapu, Tonga Undetermined.[69]
Moorea sandpiper Prosobonia ellisi Moorea, Society Islands, French Polynesia 1988 (IUCN) Predation by introduced rats.[210][211]
Tahiti sandpiper Prosobonia leucoptera Tahiti, Society Islands, French Polynesia
1779 Martinique amazon Amazona martinicana Martinique Probably hunting.[212]
Guadeloupe amazon Amazona violacea Guadeloupe Hunting.[213]
1784 Tahiti crake Zapornia nigra Tahiti, Society Islands, French Polynesia Possibly introduced predators.[214]
1790 White swamphen Porphyrio albus Lord Howe Island, Australia 1834
1988 (IUCN)
1793 Amsterdam wigeon Mareca marecula Amsterdam Island, French Southern and Antarctic Lands 1874
1988 (IUCN)
Hunting and predation by introduced rats.[69]
Oceanic eclectus parrot Eclectus infectus Tonga and Vanuatu; Fiji? 2014 (IUCN) Probably hunting and predation by introduced mammals.[216]
Vava'u rail Hypotaenidia sp. Vava'u, Tonga Possibly habitat destruction and introduced predators.[69]
1799-1800 Bluebuck Hippotragus leucophaeus Overberg;
South Africa (Pleistocene)
1986 (IUCN)[217] Vegetation change and disruption of migration routes after the Last Glacial Period, competition with domestic cattle, overhunting, and further habitat loss due to agriculture.[29]

19th century


Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
c. 1800[13] Domed Rodrigues giant tortoise Cylindraspis peltastes Rodrigues 1994 (IUCN) Possibly hunting and introduced predators and competitors.[218][219]
Saddle-backed Rodrigues giant tortoise Cylindraspis vosmaeri
19th century Sooty crayfish Pacifastacus nigrescens San Francisco Bay, California, United States 2010 Invasive fish and crayfish species, and urban development[220]
1802 Smooth handfish Sympterichthys unipennis Southeastern Tasmania? 2020 (IUCN) Fishing?[221]
1806 Wynberg conebush Leucadendron grandiflorum Cape Peninsula, South Africa Probably habitat destruction.[222]
1807 St. Paul Island duck Mareca sp. Île Saint-Paul, French Southern and Antarctic Lands Hunting.[69]
1819[223] Kangaroo Island emu Dromaius baudinianus Kangaroo Island, Australia 1837
1988 (IUCN)[224]
1822[225] King Island emu Dromaius minor King Island, Australia 1988 (IUCN)
1823 Spotted green pigeon Caloenas maculata Tahiti, French Polynesia? 2008 (IUCN) Hunting?[226]
Madeira finch Goniaphea leucocephala Madeira, Portugal 1853 Undetermined.[69]
Maupiti monarch Pomarea pomarea Maupiti, Society Islands, French Polynesia 1988 (IUCN) Probably introduced species.[227]
1825 Mysterious starling Aplonis mavornata Mauke, Cook Islands Predation by introduced brown rats.[228]
ʻĀmaui Myadestes woahensis Oahu, Hawaii, United States Possibly habitat destruction and introduced avian malaria.[229]
1826[230] Mauritius blue pigeon Alectroenas nitidissimus Mauritius Deforestation.[69]
1827-1828 Kosrae crake Zapornia monasa Kosrae, Micronesia Predation by introduced rats.[231]
1828 Kosrae starling Aplonis corvina 1880
1988 (IUCN)
Probably predation by introduced rats.[232]
Bonin grosbeak Carpodacus ferreorostris Bonin Islands, Japan 1854
1988 (IUCN)
Possibly deforestation and predation by introduced cats and rats.[233]
Bonin thrush Zoothera terrestris 1889
1988 (IUCN)
Probably predation by introduced cats and rats.[234]
c. 1829[235] Tonga ground skink Tachygyia microlepis Tonga 1996 (IUCN) Habitat loss and predation by introduced dogs, pigs, and rats.[236]


Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
1834 Delalande's coua Coua delalandei Nosy Boraha, Madagascar 1994 (IUCN) Deforestation.[237]
Mascarene parrot[238] Mascarinus mascarin Réunion 1804 (wild)
1988 (IUCN)
Atlas bear Ursus arctos crowtheri Northern Maghreb Possibly habitat fragmentation.[239] Two haplotypes are found in remains from the Vandal and Byzantine periods: one shared with Iberian bears that could have been introduced by humans, and another unique to Africa.[240] It is not known which type survived until more recent times.
1835 Darwin's large ground finch Geospiza magnirostris magnirostris Floreana and San Cristóbal, Galápagos Islands 1838 Habitat destruction and introduced predators.[69]
1837 Oʻahu ʻakialoa Akialoa ellisiana[241] Oahu, Hawaii, United States 2016 (IUCN) Possibly habitat destruction and introduced disease.[242]
Hoopoe starling Fregilupus varius Réunion 1988 (IUCN) Possibly introduced disease, hunting, and habitat degradation.[243]
Oʻahu ʻōʻō Moho apicalis Oahu, Hawaii, United States 1890
1988 (IUCN)
Habitat loss and introduction of disease-carrying mosquitos.[244]
Mauritius owl Mascarenotus sauzieri Mauritius 1859
1988 (IUCN)
Possibly deforestation, hunting, and predation by introduced mammals.[245]
1838-1841[246] Oʻahu nukupuʻu Hemignathus lucidus Oahu, Hawaii, United States 1890 Undetermined.
1839 Réunion slit-eared skink Gongylomorphus borbonicus Réunion Probably predation by introduced snakes.[247]
1839-1841 Large Samoan flying fox Pteropus coxi Samoan Islands 2020 (IUCN)[248] Undetermined.
c. 1840[13] Réunion giant tortoise Cylindraspis indica Réunion 1994 (IUCN)[249]
1840 Dieffenbach's Rail Hypotaenidia dieffenbachii Chatham Islands, New Zealand 1872
1988 (IUCN)
Possibly introduced predators and habitat loss from fire.[250]
1842 Rodrigues giant day gecko Phelsuma gigas Rodrigues 1874 Possibly introduced Norway rats.[247]
1844 Black-fronted parakeet Cyanorhamphus zealandicus Tahiti, Society Islands, French Polynesia 1988 (IUCN) Possibly deforestation, hunting, and predation by introduced species.[251]


Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
c. 1850 Daudin's giant tortoise Aldabrachelys gigantea daudinii Mahé, Seychelles Undetermined.[13]
Floreana giant tortoise Chelonoidis niger Floreana, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador 1996 (IUCN) Probably hunting and introduced species. Hybrid descendants of C. niger and C. becki survive in nearby Isabela Island.[252]
Southern black rhinoceros Diceros bicornis bicornis Southwestern Africa Undetermined.[253]
Christmas sandpiper Prosobonia cancellata Kiritimati, Kiribati 2014 (IUCN) Probably predation by introduced cats and rats.[254]
1850 Turquoise-throated puffleg Eriocnemis godini Northern Ecuador Habitat destruction.[255]
Spectacled cormorant Phalacrocorax perspicillatus Commander Islands, Russia; Northeast Japan (Pleistocene)[256] 1882
1988 (IUCN)
1850-1875[257] String tree Acalypha rubrinervis Central ridge of St Helena island 1998 (IUCN) Undetermined.[258]
1851 Belido Chitala lopis Northwestern Java, Indonesia 2020 (IUCN) Overfishing, pollution, and habitat destruction for agriculture and urban development.[259]
Tasmanian emu Dromaius novaehollandiae diemenensis Tasmania, Australia Hunting.[260]
Norfolk kaka[261] Nestor productus Norfolk Island, Australia 1988 (IUCN) Hunting[262] and habitat destruction by introduced rabbits, pigs, and goats.[69]
Before 1852 Letitia's thorntail Discosura letitiae Bolivia Undetermined.[69]
1852 Great auk Pinguinus impennis North Atlantic and western Mediterranean 1988 (IUCN)
1853 Lord Howe pigeon Columba vitiensis godmanae Lord Howe Island, Australia
1856 Small Samoan flying fox Pteropus allenorum Upolu, Samoa 2020 (IUCN) Undetermined.[263]
1859 Kioea Chaetoptila angustipluma Hawai'i, Oahu, and Maui, Hawaii, United States 1988 (IUCN) Possibly deforestation, hunting, and introduced predators.[264]
c. 1860[265] Sea mink Neovison macrodon Atlantic coast of Canada and New England 2002 (IUCN) Hunting for the fur trade.[266]
1860 Pseudoyersinia brevipennis Hyères, France 2020 (IUCN)[267] Undetermined.
Gould's emerald Riccordia elegans Jamaica? 1988 (IUCN)[268]
Jamaican poorwill Siphonorhis americana Jamaica Predation by introduced black rats, brown rats, and small Indian mongooses.[269]
1862[270] Small Mauritian flying fox Pteropus subniger Mauritius and Réunion 1988 (IUCN) Hunting and deforestation.[271]
1863 Mbashe River buff Deloneura immaculata Eastern Cape Province, South Africa 1994 (IUCN) Undetermined.[272]
1865 Cape lion Panthera leo melanochaita Cape Province, South Africa Extermination campaign.[273] Genetics do not support subspecific differentiation between the Cape lion and living lions in Eastern Africa; if placed in a single subspecies, it would be P. l. melanochaita because of being the older name.[274]
1866[275] Siau scops owl Otus manadensis siaoensis Siau Island, Indonesia Deforestation.[69]
1867[276] Eastern elk Cervus canadensis canadensis Eastern North America 1880[277] Hunting. It's been argued (based on genetic data) that most or all elk subspecies in North America are actually the same, which would be C. c. canadensis due to being named first.[278][279]
1868[280] Kawaihae hibiscadelphus Hibiscadelphus bombycinus Kawaihae, Hawaii, United States[281] 1998 (IUCN) Undetermined.
1869 Huahine warbler Acrocephalus musae garretti Huahine, Society Islands, French Polynesia 1921 Possibly predation by introduced rats.[69]


Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
1870 North Island snipe Coenocorypha barrierensis North Island, New Zealand 2014 (IUCN) Predation by introduced Polynesian rats and feral cats.[282]
1870-1873 Raiatea warbler Acrocephalus musae musae Raiatea, Society Islands, French Polynesia Undetermined.[69]
1871 Spined dwarf mantis Ameles fasciipennis Tolentino, Italy 2020 (IUCN) Possibly habitat loss to agriculture.[283]
Cape warthog Phacochoerus aethiopicus aethiopicus Cape Province, South Africa Undetermined.[284]
1873 Tristan moorhen[69] Gallinula nesiotis Tristan da Cunha 1988 (IUCN) Hunting, predation by introduced cats, rats, and pigs; and habitat destruction by fire.[285]
Samoan woodhen[286] Pareudiastes pacificus Savai'i, Samoa Hunting and predation by introduced cats, rats, pigs, and dogs.[287]
Before 1874 Large Palau flying fox Pteropus pilosus Palau 1988 (IUCN) Possibly hunting and habitat degradation.[288]
1874 Coues's gadwall Mareca strepera couesi Teraina, Line Islands, Kiribati 1924 Probably hunting and introduced predators.[69]
Percy Island flying fox Pteropus brunneus Percy Islands, Australia 1996 (IUCN) Possibly habitat loss.[289]
1875 Newton's parakeet Alexandrinus exsul Rodrigues 1988 (IUCN)
North Island little spotted kiwi Apteryx owenii iredalei North Island, New Zealand Hunting, habitat degradation, and predation by introduced mammals.[69]
Labrador duck[290] Camptorhynchus labradorius Atlantic coast of Canada and New England 1988 (IUCN) Hunting, egg harvesting, and habitat loss.[291]
New Zealand quail Coturnix novaezelandiae New Zealand Introduced diseases?[292]
Broad-faced potoroo Potorous platyops Western Australia 1982 (IUCN) Predation by feral cats and habitat loss.[293]
1876 Falkland Islands wolf Dusicyon australis Falkland Islands 1986 (IUCN) Extermination campaign.[294]
Kermadec megapode Megapodius sp. Raoul, Kermadec Islands, New Zealand Volcanic eruption.[69]
Himalayan quail[295] Ophrysia superciliosa Uttarakhand, India Hunting and habitat loss.[296]
1877 Brace's emerald Riccordia bracei New Providence, Bahamas 1988 (IUCN) Undetermined.[297]
Jamaican rice rat Oryzomys antillarum Jamaica 2008 (IUCN) Competition with introduced rats,[78] or predation by introduced mongooses.[298]
1878 Navassa Island iguana Cyclura cornuta onchiopsis Navassa Island 2011 (IUCN) Probably hunting.[299]
Antioquia brown-banded antpitta Grallaria milleri gilesi Santa Elena, Antioquia, Colombia Probably deforestation.[69]
Madeiran land snail Leiostyla lamellosa Madeira, Portugal 1996 (IUCN) Undetermined.[300]
Pseudocampylaea lowii Undetermined.[301]
1879 Macquarie Island banded rail Hypotaenidia philippensis macquariensis South Macquarie Island, Australia 1894 Predation by introduced cats, rats, weka, and overgrazing by introduced rabbits.[69]
Jamaican petrel[302] Pterodroma caribbaea Jamaica; Dominica and Guadeloupe? Hunting and predation by introduced rats, mongooses, pigs, and dogs.[303]


Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
1880-1889?[304] Parras characodon Characodon garmani Southern Coahuila, Mexico 1953[305]
1988 (IUCN)
Probably habitat loss.[304]
c. 1881 Saint Lucia giant rice rat Megalomys luciae Saint Lucia 1994 (IUCN) Predation by introduced mongooses.[306]
1881 Jamaican wood rail Amaurolimnas concolor concolor Jamaica Possibly predation by introduced mongooses, cats, and rats.[69]
1883[307] Quagga Equus quagga quagga Cape Province, South Africa 1889[308]
1986 (IUCN)[309]
1884 Hawaiian rail Zapornia sandwichensis Eastern Hawai'i (and Molokai?), United States 1988 (IUCN) Possibly hunting and predation by introduced rats, cats, and dogs.[310]
1886 Martinique house wren Troglodytes aedon martinicensis Martinique Undetermined.[69]
Bennett's seaweed Vanvoorstia bennettiana Port Jackson, Australia 2003 (IUCN) Habitat loss and pollution.[311]
c. 1889 Hokkaido wolf Canis lupus hattai Hokkaido, Sakhalin, Kamchatka, Iturup and Kunashir[312] Extermination campaign.[313]
1889 Cuban macaw Ara tricolor Cuba and Juventud 2000 (IUCN) Hunting for food and the exotic pet trade.[69]
Bonin wood pigeon Columba versicolor Bonin Islands, Japan 1988 (IUCN) Deforestation and predation by introduced cats and rats.[314]
Whiteline topminnow Fundulus albolineatus Huntsville, Alabama, United States 1986 (IUCN) Habitat destruction.[304]
Eastern hare-wallaby Lagorchestes leporides Interior southeastern Australia 1982 (IUCN) Possibly habitat loss due to livestock grazing and wildfires.[315][316]
Bonin nankeen night heron Nycticorax caledonicus crassirostris Chichi-jima and Nakōdo-jima, Bonin Islands, Japan Undetermined.[69][317]
Sturdee's pipistrelle Pipistrellus sturdeei Haha-jima, Bonin Islands, Japan 1994 (IUCN)


Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
c. 1890[318] Portuguese ibex Capra pyrenaica lusitanica Portuguese-Galician border Hunting.
1890 New Caledonian rail[319] Cabalus lafresnayanus New Caledonia Probably predation by introduced dogs, cats, pigs, and rats.[320]
Macquarie parakeet[321] Cyanoramphus erythrotis Macquarie Island, Australia 1894 Increased predation by introduced cats and weka after rabbits were introduced, boosting their numbers.[322]
Kauaʻi nukupuʻu[323] Hemignathus hanapepe Kaua'i, Hawaii, United States Undetermined.
1890-1899 New Zealand bittern Ixobrychus novaezelandiae New Zealand 1988 (IUCN)[324]
1891 Sulu bleeding-heart[325] Gallicolumba menagei Tawi-tawi, Sulu archipelago, Philippines Possibly deforestation and hunting.[69]
Raoul Island banded rail Hypotaenidia sp. Raoul, Kermadec Islands, New Zealand 1944 Predation by introduced cats or rats.[69]
Lesser koa finch Rhodacanthis flaviceps Hawai'i Island, Hawaii, United States 1893
1988 (IUCN)
1892 Maui Nui ʻakialoa Akialoa lanaiensis Lana'i, Hawaii, United States 2016 (IUCN) Possibly habitat destruction and introduced disease.[327]
ʻUla-ʻai-hawane[328] Ciridops anna Hawai'i Island, Hawaii, United States 1988 (IUCN) Undetermined.[329]
Nendo tube-nosed fruit bat[330] Nyctimene sanctacrucis Santa Cruz Islands, Solomon Islands 1994 (IUCN) Undetermined. Could be conspecific with the Island tube-nosed fruit bat.[331]
St. Vincent pygmy rice rat Oligoryzomys victus St. Vincent 2008 (IUCN) Probably predation by introduced brown rats, black rats, and mongooses.[332]
Chatham fernbird Poodytes rufescens Chatham Islands, New Zealand 1988 (IUCN) Possibly habitat loss and predation by introduced cats.[333]
Puerto Rican parakeet Psittacara maugei Puerto Rico and Mona Island Possibly deforestation, hunting, and disease.[69]
Marianne white-eye Zosterops semiflavus Marianne Island, Seychelles 1940
2016 (IUCN)
Deforestation, competition with introduced birds and predation by back rats.[69]
1893-1895 Chatham rail Cabalus modestus Chatham Islands, New Zealand 1988 (IUCN) Habitat destruction, predation and competition with introduced mammals.[334]
1893 Harelip sucker Lagochila lacera Southeastern United States 1986 (IUCN) Possibly water siltation and pollution.[304]
Seychelles parakeet Psittacula wardi Seychelles 1906
1988 (IUCN)
Hunting and habitat loss to agriculture.[335]
1894 Kona grosbeak Chloridops kona Hawai'i Island, Hawaii, United States 1988 (IUCN) Undetermined.[336]
North Island takahē Porhyrio mantelli North Island, New Zealand 2000 (IUCN) Climate-induced reduction of grasslands and hunting.[337]
1895 Hawkins's rail Diaphorapteryx hawkinsi Chatham Islands, New Zealand 2005 (IUCN) Hunting.[338]
Lyall's wren Traversia lyalli New Zealand 1895
1988 (IUCN)
Habitat loss and predation by introduced cats.[339]
1896 Greater koa finch Rhodacanthis palmeri Hawai'i Island, Hawaii, United States 1906
1988 (IUCN)
Possibly habitat destruction and introduced avian malaria.[340]
Newfoundland wolf[341] Canis lupus beothucus Newfoundland, Canada Hunting.[342]
1896-1906 Madeiran wood pigeon Columba palumbus maderensis Madeira, Portugal 1924 Undetermined.[343]
1897 Martinique giant rice rat Megalomys desmarestii Martinique 1994 (IUCN) Predation by introduced mongooses.[344]
Nelson's rice rat Oryzomys nelsoni Central María Madre Island, Mexico 1996 (IUCN) Competition with introduced black rats.[345]
Guadalupe towhee Pipilio maculatus consobrinus Guadalupe Island, Mexico 1954 Habitat destruction by introduced goats and predation by cats.[69]
Guadalupe wren Thryomanes bewickii brevicauda 1906 Habitat destruction by introduced goats.[69]
Stephens Island piopio Turnagra capensis minor Stephens Island, New Zealand 1898 Predation by introduced cats.[69]
1899 Culebra Island amazon Amazona vittata gracilipes Culebra Island of Puerto Rico 1912 Deforestation and persecution by crop farmers.[69]
Hawaii mamo Drepanis pacifica Hawai'i Island, Hawaii, United States 1988 (IUCN) Hunting, habitat destruction, and introduced disease.[346]

20th century


Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
c. 1900 Caucasian moose Alces alces caucasicus Northern Caucasus and Transcaucasian shore of the Black Sea[347] Hunting. The subspecies' validity is questioned because moose from Russia recolonized the Caucasian moose's former range naturally over the 20th century.[348]
Saint Croix racer Borikenophis sanctaecrucis Saint Croix, United States Virgin Islands Undetermined.[349]
Gravenche Coregonus hiemalis Lake Geneva 2008 (IUCN) Eutrophication and overfishing.[350]
c. 1900-1950 Lord Howe long-eared bat Nyctophilus howensis Lord Howe Island, Australia 2020 (IUCN) Possibly predation by introduced owls and rats.[351]
1900 Leafshell Epioblasma flexuosa Tennessee, Cumberland, and Ohio River systems, United States 1983 (IUCN) Undetermined.[352]
1901 Car Nicobar sparrowhawk[353] Accipiter butleri butleri Car Nicobar, Nicobar Islands 1995 Habitat destruction.[69]
Southern pig-footed bandicoot[354] Chaeropus ecaudatus Interior Australia 1982 (IUCN) Predation by feral cats and red foxes.[355]
Tennessee riffleshell Epioblasma propinqua Tennessee, Cumberland, Wabash, and Ohio River systems, United States 1983 (IUCN) Undetermined.[356]
Greater ʻamakihi Viridonia sagittirostris Wailuku river, Hawai'i Island, United States 1988 (IUCN) Habitat destruction for sugarcane agriculture.[357]
1902 Rocky Mountain locust Melanoplus spretus Rocky Mountains and North American Prairie 2014 (IUCN)[358] Breeding habitat loss due to irrigation and cattle ranching.
Auckland merganser Mergus australis South, Stewart, and Auckland Island, New Zealand 1910
1988 (IUCN)
Hunting and predation by introduced animals.[359]
North Island piopio[360] Turnagra tanagra North Island, New Zealand 1988 (IUCN) Possibly habitat destruction, hunting, and predation by introduced cats and rats.[361]
1903 Guadalupe caracara Caracara lutosa Guadalupe Island, Mexico Extermination campaign.[362]
Stumptooth minnow Stypodon signifer Southern Coahuila, Mexico 1983 (IUCN) Habitat degradation and pollution.[304]
1904 Choiseul pigeon Microgoura meeki Choiseul, Solomon Islands 1994 (IUCN)
1905 Japanese wolf[363][364][365] Canis lupus hodophilax Honshū, Shikoku and Kyūshū, Japan Hunting and a rabies-like epidemic.[313]
South Island piopio[366] Turnagra capensis South Island, New Zealand 1988 (IUCN) Possibly habitat destruction and predation by introduced rats.[367]
1906 Chatham bellbird Anthornis melanocephala Chatham Islands, New Zealand 1938
1988 (IUCN)
Possibly habitat destruction, predation by rats and cats, and overhunting by collectionists.[368]
Guadalupe flicker Colaptes auratus rufipileus Guadalupe Island, Mexico 1922 Habitat destruction and predation by introduced goats and cats.[69]
1907 Black mamo Drepanis funerea Molokai and Maui, Hawaii, United States 1988 (IUCN) Habitat destruction by introduced cattle and deer, and predation by introduced rats and mongooses.[369]
Huia[370][371] Heteralocha acutirostris North Island, New Zealand Hunting and deforestation of old growth forests to make pastures for livestock.
Huia louse Rallicola extinctus 1990 Extinction of its host.[372]
1908 Assumption rail Dryolimnas cuvieri abbotti Assumption Island, Seychelles 1937 Hunting, habitat destruction, and predation by introduced rats.[69]
Siquijor hanging parrot Loriculus philippensis siquijorensis Siquijor, Philippines Possibly deforestation and capture for the pet trade.[69]
Persoonia laxa Sydney's Northern Beaches, Australia 2020 (IUCN) Probably habitat destruction.[373]
Alejandro Selkirk firecrown Sephanoides fernandensis leyboldi Alejandro Selkirk Island?, Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile Probably deforestation, predation and erosion caused by introduced cats, rats, goats, and rabbits, and competition of introduced plants with the nesting tree Luma apiculata.[69]
1909 Cumberland leafshell Epioblasma stewardsonii Tennessee and Coosa River systems, United States 1983 (IUCN) Undetermined.[374]
Bogotá sunangel Heliantelus zusii Northern Andes? Possibly deforestation.[69]
Tarpan Equus ferus ferus Europe Hunting and hybridization with domestic horses.[375]


Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
1910 Southwestern thick-billed grasswren Amytornis textilis macrourus Southwest Australia Drought and overgrazing by livestock and introduced mammals.[69]
Maui hau kuahiwi[281] Hibiscadelphus wilderianus Maui, Hawaii, United States 1978 (IUCN) Undetermined.[376]
Yellowfin cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki macdonaldi Twin Lakes, Colorado, United States Hybridization with rainbow trout and competition with lake trout, both introduced.[304]
Slender-billed grackle Quiscalus palustris Lerma River and Xochimilco, Mexico 1988 (IUCN) Draining of marshlands.[377]
1911 Iwo Jima rail Amaurornis cinerea breviceps Naka Iwo Jima and Minami Iwo Jima, Bonin Islands, Japan Habitat clearance for agriculture and predation by introduced cats and rats.[69]
New Caledonian buttonquail Turnix novaecaledoniae New Caledonia
1912 Namoi Valley thick-billed grasswren Amytornis textilis inexpectatus Central New South Wales, Australia Undetermined.[69]
Cape Verde giant skink[378] Chioninia coctei Cape Verde 1996 (IUCN) Predation by feral cats.[379]
Guadalupe storm petrel Oceanodroma macrodactyla Guadalupe Island, Mexico Predation by feral cats, and habitat degradation by goat grazing.[380]
Bornean Baillon's crake Porzana pusilla mira Borneo Deforestation?[69]
1913 Laysan millerbird Acrocephalus familiaris familiaris Laysan, Hawaii, United States 1923 Habitat destruction by introduced rabbits.[69]
New Caledonian lorikeet[381] Charmosyna diadema New Caledonia 1998 Undetermined.[382]
1914 Passenger pigeon[383][384] Ectopistes migratorius Eastern North America 1988 (IUCN) Hunting and habitat loss.
Laughing owl[385] Ninox albifacies New Zealand Competition or predation by introduced stoats and cats.[386]
c. 1915[387] Kenai Peninsula wolf Canis lupus alces Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, United States Extermination campaign.
1915[388] New Caledonian owlet-nightjar Aegotheles savesi Southwestern New Caledonia Undetermined.[69]
1917 Cayenne nightjar Antrostomus maculosus Northwestern French Guiana
Rodrigues day gecko Phelsuma edwardnewtonii Rodrigues 2021 (IUCN) Possibly deforestation and predation by introduced rats and cats.[389]
1918 Dirk Hartog thick-billed grasswren Amytornis textilis carteri Dirk Hartog Island, Western Australia Predation by introduced rats.[69]
Lord Howe starling[69] Aplonis fusca hulliana Lord Howe Island, Australia 1928
1988 (IUCN)
Robust white-eye Zosterops strenuus
Carolina parakeet[390] Conuropsis carolinensis Eastern and central United States 1988 (IUCN) Hunting, habitat loss, and competition with introduced bees.[391]
Lānaʻi hookbill Dysmorodrepanis munroi Lana'i, Hawaii, United States Habitat destruction for pineapple agriculture, and predation by introduced cats and rats.[392]
1918-1952[393] Bernard's wolf Canis lupus bernardi Banks Island, Canada Undetermined. It's been suggested that Bernard's wolf should be merged with the extant arctic wolf[394] or other wolves from the continent.[393]
1919 Appalachian Barbara's buttons Marshallia grandiflora Henderson and Polk counties, North Carolina, United States 2020 Undetermined.[395]


Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
c. 1920 Florida black wolf Canis rufus floridanus Eastern United States Hunting and habitat loss.[396]
1920 True fera Coregonus fera Lake Geneva 2008 (IUCN) Eutrophication and overfishing.[397]
1922 Great Plains wolf[398] Canis lupus nubilus North American prairie 1926[399] Extermination campaign. The Great Plains wolf has been later determined to be continuous morphologically[394] and genetically[400] with the still existing Mexican wolf, which would use the name C. l. nubilus if placed in the same subspecies, due to being the older one.
Red-moustached fruit dove Ptilinopus mercierii Marquesas, French Polynesia 1994 (IUCN) Predation by introduced great horned owls, rats, and cats.[401]
1923 Norfolk Island starling Aplonis fusca fusca Norfolk Island, Australia 1968
1988 (IUCN)
Laysan honeycreeper Himatione fraithii Laysan, Hawaii, United States 2016 (IUCN) Habitat destruction by introduced rabbits.[403]
Nazareno Monteverdia lineata Western Cuba 2020 (IUCN) Possibly habitat degradation.[404]
1924 Round combshell Epioblasma personata Tennessee, Wabash, and Ohio River systems, United States Undetermined.[405]
Lord Howe fantail Rhipidura fuliginosa cervina Lord Howe Island, Australia 1928 Probably predation by introduced rats.[69]
California grizzly bear Ursus arctos californicus California, United States Hunting.[406]
1925 Bubal hartebeest Alcelaphus buselaphus buselaphus North Africa and Southern Levant Hunting.[407]
1926 Anthony's woodrat Neotoma bryanti anthonyi Isla Todos Santos, Mexico 2008 (IUCN) Predation by feral cats.[408]
1927 Thick-billed ground dove Alopecoenas salamonis Solomon Islands 2005 (IUCN) Probably habitat destruction, hunting, and predation by introduced cats and rats.[409]
Caucasian wisent[410] Bison bonasus caucasicus Caucasus Mountains Hunting. Hybrid descendants exist in captivity, and have been reintroduced to the wild.[411]
Snake River sucker Chasmistes muriei Snake River, United States Hybridization with the Utah sucker after dams changed the river's flow.[304]
Syrian wild ass Equus hemionus hemippus Near East Hunting.[412]
Hawaii yellowwood Ochrosia kilaueaensis Hawai'i, Hawaii, United States 2020 (IUCN) Habitat degradation by introduced plants, goats, and fires.[413]
Cry pansy Viola cryana Cry, Yonne, France 2011 (IUCN) Overcollection by botanists and limestone quarrying.[414]
1928 Utah Lake sculpin Cottus echinatus Utah Lake, Utah, United States Increased water pollution and salinity caused by agriculture, and introduced fishes. The last individuals may have been killed by drought in the 1930s.[304]
Lord Howe gerygone Gerygone insularis Lord Howe Island, Australia 1936
1988 (IUCN)
Predation by introduced rats.[415]
Ethiopian amphibious rat Nilopegamys plumbeus Northwestern Ethiopia Habitat destruction.[416][417]
Paradise parrot Psephotellus pulcherrimus Eastern Australia 1994 (IUCN) Probably habitat degradation.[418]
Eastwood's long-tailed seps Tetradactylus eastwoodae Limpopo, South Africa 1996 (IUCN) Habitat loss.[419]
1929 Acalypha wilderi Northwestern Rarotonga, Cook Islands 2014 (IUCN) Deforestation for agriculture and housing development. Doubts exist about it being distinct from still living A. raivavensis and A. tubuaiensis; if indeed the same, the older name A. wilderi prevails.[420]
St. Kitts bullfinch Melopyrrha grandis Saint Kitts 1972 Deforestation?[69]
Makira woodhen[421] Pareudiastes silvestris Makira, Solomon Islands Probably predation by introduced cats and rats.[69]
Scleria chevalieri Western Senegal 2020 (IUCN) Draining of wetland habitat.[422]


Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
c. 1930 Western rufous bristlebird Dasyornis broadbenti littoralis Southwestern Australia Burning of shrublands for pasture and predation by introduced cats.[69]
1930-1939 Tahiti rail Hypotaenidia pacifica Tahiti and Mehetia?, French Polynesia[69] 1988 (IUCN) Probably predation by introduced cats and rats.[423]
Nuku Hiva monarch[424] Pomarea nukuhivae Nuku Hiva, Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia 1972
2006 (IUCN)
Probably habitat destruction and predation by introduced species.[425]
1930 St Kilda house mouse Mus musculus muralis St Kilda, Scotland Complete evacuation of St Kilda's human population, which it depended on.[426]
Darwin's Galápagos mouse Nesoryzomys darwini Santa Cruz, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador 1994 (IUCN) Competition, predation, and exotic pathogens from introduced black rats.[427]
Silver trout Salvelinus agassizi Dublin Pond and Christine Lake, New Hampshire, United States 1986 (IUCN) Overfishing and introduction of exotic fish.[304]
1931 Bunker's woodrat Neotoma bryanti bunkeri Coronados Islands, Mexico 2008 (IUCN) Depletion of food resources and predation by feral cats.[428]
1932 Roosevelt's giant anole Anolis roosevelti Virgin Islands Possibly deforestation.[429]
Western Lewin's rail Lewinia pectoralis clelandii Southwest Australia 1980s Drainage and burning of wetlands for agriculture and settlement.[69]
Heath hen Tympanuchus cupido cupido East Coast of the United States Hunting, predation by feral cats, wildfires, and histomoniasis transmitted by domestic poultry.[430][431]
1933 Wolseley conebush Leucadendron spirale Breede River Valley, South Africa 2020 (IUCN) Habitat destruction for timber plantations and agriculture, competition with invasive plants.[432]
1934 Lost shark Carcharhinus obsoletus Southern South China Sea Fishing.[433]
Hawaiʻi ʻōʻō Moho nobilis Hawai'i Island, Hawaii, United States 1988 (IUCN) Possibly habitat loss and disease.[434]
Indefatigable Galápagos mouse Nesoryzomys indefessus Santa Cruz and Baltra, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador 2008 (IUCN) Introduction of black rats.[435]
Aguelmame Sidi Ali trout[436] Salmo pallaryi Lake Aguelmame Sidi Ali, Morocco 2006 (IUCN) Introduction of the common carp.[437]
1935[438] Desert rat-kangaroo[439] Caloprymnus campestris Central Australia 1994 (IUCN) Predation by introduced red foxes and cats.[440]
Mogollon mountain wolf Canis lupus mogollonensis Arizona, United States Hunting. The subspecific differences between extinct Great Plains wolf, Mogollon mountain wolf, Southern Rocky Mountain wolf, and surviving Mexican wolf have been denied on morphological grounds.[394]
Southern Rocky Mountain wolf Canis lupus youngi Southern Rocky Mountains
Roque Chico de Salmor giant lizard Gallotia simonyi simonyi Off El Hierro, Canary Islands Undetermined.[441]
1936 Ryukyu wood pigeon Columba jouyi Ryukyu, Japan 1988 (IUCN)[442] Possibly deforestation.[69]
Virgin Islands screech owl[443] Megascops nudipes newtoni Virgin Islands Deforestation for agriculture.[69]
Thylacine[257][444][445][446][447] Thylacinus cynocephalus Australia and New Guinea 1982 (IUCN)[448] Competition with humans and dingos, extermination campaign (in Tasmania).
1937 De Winton's golden mole Cryptochloris wintoni Port Nolloth, South Africa Habitat degradation.[449]
Bali tiger[450] Panthera tigris balica Bali, Indonesia Hunting and habitat loss. Genetics do not support a subspecific differentiation with the living Sumatran tiger.[274]
Marquesas swamphen Porphyrio paepae Hiva Oa and Tahuata, Marquesas, French Polynesia 2014 (IUCN) Probably hunting and predation by rats and cats.[451]
1938 Banara wilsonii Puerto Padre, Cuba 2020 (IUCN) Habitat destruction for sugarcane cultivation.[452]
McGregor's house finch Carpodacus mexicanus mcgregori San Benito Island, Mexico Undetermined.[69]
Grand Cayman oriole[453] Icterus leucopteryx bairdi Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands Deforestation.[69]
Pahranagat spinedace Lepidomeda altivelis Pahranagat Valley, Nevada, United States 1986 (IUCN) Competition and predation by introduced common carps, mosquitofish, and American bullfrogs.[304]
Bougainville black-faced pitta Pitta anerythra pallida Bougainville Island, Papua-New Guinea Undetermined.[69]
Eastern cougar[454] Puma concolor couguar Eastern North America 2011[455] Hunting. Genetics do not support subspecies differentiation between the eastern cougar and living cougars in Florida and Western North America;[274] if placed under a single subspecies, this would have the name P. c. couguar because of being older.
Grass Valley speckled dace Rhynichthys osculus reliquus Lander County, Nevada, United States Introduction of the rainbow trout.[304]
Daito varied tit Sittiparus varius orii Kitadaitōjima, Okinawa, Japan 1984-1986 Habitat destruction for agriculture and military infrastructure.[69]
Schomburgk's deer[456] Rucervus schomburgki Central Thailand 1994 (IUCN) Hunting.[457]
Grand Cayman thrush Turdus ravidus Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands 1965
1988 (IUCN)
Probably habitat loss.[458]
1939 New Caledonian nightjar Eurostopodus exul Northwestern New Caledonia Undetermined.[69]
Toolache wallaby[459] Macropus greyi Southeastern Australia 1982 (IUCN) Habitat loss to agriculture, hunting, and predation by introduced red fox.[460]
Roystonea stellata Baracoa, eastern Cuba 2020 (IUCN) Habitat destruction for coffee cultivation.[461]


Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
c. 1940 Sugarspoon Epioblasma arcaeformis Cumberland and Tennessee river systems, United States 1983 (IUCN) Damming.[462]
1940 Lesser ʻakialoa Akialoa obscura Hawai'i Island, Hawaii, United States 1994 (IUCN) Possibly deforestation and introduced disease-carrying mosquitos.[463]
Cascade mountain wolf[438] Canis lupus fuscus Continental Cascadia[394] Hunting.
Las Vegas dace Rhinichthys deaconi Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, United States 1965
1986 (IUCN)
Habitat destruction.[304]
Javan lapwing Vanellus macropterus Java, Indonesia Hunting and habitat loss to agriculture.[464]
c. 1941[465] Arabian ostrich Struthio camelus syriacus Arabian Peninsula and the Near East Hunting.[466]
1942 Texas gray wolf[438] Canis lupus monstrabilis Texas, United States Hunting. The Texas gray wolf has been at times included within either the extinct Great Plains wolf or the living Mexican wolf on morphological grounds.[394]
Chapin's crombec Sylvietta leucophrys chapini Lendu Plateau, Democratic Republic of the Congo Deforestation.[69]
1943 Eriocaulon inundatum Senegal coast 2020 (IUCN) Habitat destruction for salt mining.[467]
Cebu hanging parrot[468] Loriculus philippensis chrysonotus Cebu, Philippines Deforestation.[69]
Barbary lion[469] Panthera leo leo North Africa Habitat loss from desertification and human activities, followed by extermination campaign. Hybrid descendants are believed to exist in captivity.[470] However, genetics do not support subspecies differentiation with living wild lions in Asia, West and Central Africa,[274] which would be named P. l. leo if placed within a single subspecies.
Desert bandicoot[471] Perameles eremiana Central Australia 1982 (IUCN) Predation by cats and foxes, competition with European rabbits, and changes to the fire regime after the British colonization of Australia.[472]
1944 American ivory-billed woodpecker[473][474] Campephilus principalis principalis Southern United States Logging and hunting.[475]
Laysan rail Zapornia palmeri Laysan, Hawaii, United States 1988 (IUCN) Habitat destruction by introduced rabbits and guinea pigs, and predation by introduced rats.[476]
1944-1947 Aruba amazon Amazona barbadensis canifrons Aruba Persecution by farmers and exotic pet trade.[69]
1945 Wake Island rail Hypotaenidia wakensis Wake Island, United States 1988 (IUCN) Hunting and destruction caused by fighting in World War II.[477]
1948 Ash Meadows killifish Empetrichthys merriami Ash Meadows, Nevada, United States 1986 (IUCN) Predation by introduced American Bullfrogs and red swamp crayfish.[304]
1949 Sinú parakeet Pyrrhura subandina Sinú Valley, Córdoba, Colombia Possibly hunting and habitat loss.[69]
Pink-headed duck[478] Rhodonessa caryophyllacea Northeast India, Bangladesh, and northern Myanmar Habitat loss to agriculture.[479]


Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
c. 1950 Little Swan Island hutia Geocapromys thoracatus Little Swan Island, Honduras 1996 (IUCN) Introduced rats.[480]
1950-1959 Barbus microbarbis Lake Luhondo, Rwanda 2006 (IUCN) Introduced Tilapia and Haplochromis.[481]
Eriocaulon jordanii Sierra Leone coast 2020 (IUCN) Possibly habitat destruction for rice cultivation.[482]
San Martín Island woodrat Neotoma bryanti martinensis Isla San Martín, Mexico 2008 (IUCN) Predation by feral cats.[483]
Tawi-tawi buttonquail Turnix sylvaticus suluensis Jolo and Tawi-tawi, Sulu, Philippines Possibly deforestation and predation by introduced animals.[69]
1951 Afrocyclops pauliani Antananarivo, Madagascar 1996 (IUCN) Undetermined.[484]
Japanese sea lion[485] Zalophus japonicus Japanese Islands and Korea 1994 (IUCN) Hunting.[486]
1952 Niceforo's pintail Anas georgica niceforoi Central Colombia Possibly hunting and habitat degradation.[69]
Deepwater cisco Coregonus johannae Lakes Michigan and Huron 1986 (IUCN) Overfishing, predation by introduced lampreys, and hybridization with more common ciscoes.[304]
Caribbean monk seal[487] Neomonachus tropicalis Caribbean Sea, Bahamas, and Gulf of Mexico 1994 (IUCN)
San Benedicto rock wren Salpinctes obsoletus exsul San Benedicto, Revillagigedo Islands, Mexico Eruption of the El Boquerón vent.[69]
New Mexico sharp-tailed grouse Tympanuchus phasianellus hueyi New Mexico (and Colorado?), United States Aridification and habitat destruction.[69]
1953 Ilin Island cloudrunner[490] Crateromys paulus Mindoro and Ilin Islands, Philippines Deforestation?[491]
Raycraft Ranch killifish Empetrichthys latos concavus Pahrump Valley, Nevada, United States Predation by introduced carps and bullfrogs.[304]
Faramea chiapensis Selva Negra, Chiapas, Mexico 2020 (IUCN) Deforestation for agriculture.[492]
Negros fruit dove Ptilinopus arcanus Negros Island, Philippines Deforestation?[69]
Schizothorax saltans Talas River basin, Kazakhstan 2020 (IUCN) Water extraction, pollution, and fisheries.[493]
1954 Maravillas red shiner Cyprinella lutrensis blairi Maravillas Creek, Texas, United States 1987 Introduction of plains killifish.[304]
Plateau chub Evarra eigenmanni Chalco and Xochimilco-Tlahuac channels, Valley of Mexico 1986 (IUCN) Habitat destruction and pollution.[494]
1955[495] Itombwe nightjar Caprimulgus prigoginei Central Africa? Deforestation?[69]
1956 Coosa elktoe Alasmidonta mccordi Coosa River, Alabama, United States 2000 (IUCN) Impoundment of the Coosa River.[496]
Imperial woodpecker Campephilus imperialis North-Central Mexico Hunting and habitat loss.[497]
Levuana moth[498] Levuana iridescens Viti Levu, Fiji 1994 (IUCN)[499] Introduction of the parasitic fly Bessa remota by coconut farmers, as a form of biological pest control. However, it's been argued that L. iridescens was not actually native to Fiji and that lack of post-1956 records is the result of diminished enthomological research after Fiji's independence.[498]
Crescent nail-tail wallaby[500] Onychogalea lunata Western and central Australia 1982 (IUCN) Predation by introduced foxes and feral cats, human-induced habitat degradation.[501]
1957 Thicktail chub Gila crassicauda California Central Valley and San Francisco Bay, United States 1986 (IUCN) Habitat destruction for agriculture and introduced fish.[304]
Scioto madtom Noturus trautmani Big Darby Creek, Ohio, United States 2013 (IUCN) Undetermined.[502]
Hainan ormosia[503] Ormosia howii Hainan and Guangdong, China 1998 (IUCN) Possibly deforestation for agriculture.[504]
1958 Pahrump Ranch poolfish Empetrichthys latos pahrump Nye County, Nevada, United States Habitat destruction by excessive water pumping.[304]
Blue Pike Stizostedion vitreum glaucum Lake Erie, Ontario, and Niagara River 1983 Overfishing and hybridization with walleye.[505]
Sandhills crayfish Procambarus angustatus Sand Hills, Georgia, United States 2010 (IUCN) [506]
1959 Rennell Island teal Anas gibberifrons remissia Rennell Island, Solomon Islands Competition with introduced Tilapia.[69]
Santa Barbara song sparrow Melospiza melodia graminea Santa Barbara Island, California, United States 1983 Wildfire.[505]


Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
c. 1960 Lesser bilby Macrotis leucura Deserts of Australia 1982 (IUCN) Probably predation by introduced cats and red foxes, and changes to the fire regime.[507]
1960 Candango mouse Juscelinomys candango Brasilia, Brazil 2008 (IUCN) Urban sprawl.[508]
1960-1969 Pantanodon madagascariensis Mahambo, Madagascar 2004 (IUCN) Introduced Gambusia.[509]
Syr Darya sturgeon Pseudoscaphirhynchus fedtschenkoi Syr Darya river Draining of the Aral Sea.[510]
1961 Northern white-winged apalis Apalis chariessa chariessa Lower Tana river, Kenya Deforestation.[69]
Viesca mud turtle Kinosternon hirtipes megacephalum Southwestern Coahuila, Mexico Aridification.[511]
Semper's warbler[512] Leucopeza semperi St Lucia mountains Predation by introduced Javan mongooses.[513]
Durango shiner Notropis aulidion Tunal river, Durango, Mexico 1990 (IUCN) Pollution and introduced species.[304]
Zacatecas Worthen's sparrow Spizella wortheni browni Northwest Zacatecas, Mexico 1991 Habitat destruction caused by agriculture, overgrazing, cattle-induced erosion, and decline of native herbivores.[69]
1961-1963 Kākāwahie Paroreomyza flammea Molokai, Hawaii, United States 1979
1994 (IUCN)
Probably habitat destruction and introduced disease.[514]
1962 Du Toit's torrent frog Arthroleptides dutoiti Kenya-Uganda border Possibly habitat degradation and chytridiomycosis.[515]
Red-bellied gracile opossum Cryptonanus ignitus Jujuy, Argentina 2008 (IUCN) Habitat loss to agriculture and industry development.[516]
Saint Helena darter Sympetrum dilatatum Saint Helena 1996-2021 (IUCN) Probably deforestation and predation by extinct aquatic carnivores including the African clawed frog.[517]
1963 Eskimo curlew[518] Numenius borealis Northwestern Canada and Alaska, and Southern Cone Hunting and habitat destruction.[519][520]
Ptychochromis onilahy Onilahy River, Madagascar 2004 (IUCN) Overfishing, deforestation leading to increased sedimentation, and competition with introduced tilapias.[521]
1964 Hawaii chaff flower Achyranthes atollensis The atolls Kure, Midway, Pearl and Hermes, and Laysan of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, United States 2003 (IUCN) Habitat loss due to the construction of military installations.[522]
Barbodes disa Lake Lanao, Mindanao, Philippines 2020 (IUCN) Overfishing and predation by introduced tank goby and ornate sleeper.[523][524][525][526][527][528]
Katapa-tapa Barbodes flavifuscus
Kandar Barbodes lanaoensis
Bitungu Barbodes pachycheilus
Barbodes palata
Bagangan Barbodes resimus
South Island snipe Coenocorypha iredalei South and Stewart islands, New Zealand 2014 (IUCN) Predation by introduced animals.[529]
Lake Ontario kiyi Coregonus kiyi orientalis Lake Ontario Overfishing, introduction of exotic species, eutrophication, and water pollution.[304]
Goldman's yellow rail Coturnicops noveboracensis goldmani Lerma River, Mexico Undetermined.[69]
Rio Grande bluntnose shiner Notropis simus simus Upper Rio Grande Possibly habitat degradation and introduced species.[304]
Crested shelduck[530] Tadorna cristata Primorye, Hokkaido, and Korea;
Northeastern China?
1965 Turgid blossom Epioblasma turgidula Southern Appalachians and Cumberland Plateau, United States Damming and water pollution.[532]
1966 Independence Valley tui chub Gila bicolor isolata Warm Springs, Nevada, United States Predation by introduced species.[304]
1967 Narrow catspaw Epioblasma lenior Tennessee River system, United States 1983-2000 (IUCN) Damming.[533]
Saint Helena earwig Labidura herculeana Saint Helena 2014 (IUCN) Predation by introduced animals.[534]
New Zealand greater short-tailed bat Mystacina robusta New Zealand 1988 (IUCN) Predation by introduced Polynesian and black rats.[535]
1968 Amistad gambusia Gambusia amistadensis Goodenough Spring, Texas, United States 1986 (IUCN)
Flooding of the spring by the Amistad Reservoir, hybridization and predation.[505][304]
San Clemente wren Thryomanes bewickii leucophrys San Clemente, Channel Islands of California, United States Vegetation destruction by introduced goats and sheep.[69]
1969 Kauaʻi ʻakialoa Akialoa stejnegeri Kaua'i, Hawaii, United States 2016 (IUCN) Possibly habitat destruction and introduced disease.[536]
Blackfin cisco Coregonus nigripinnis Lakes Michigan and Huron 1996 (IUCN) Overfishing, predation by introduced sea lampreys, and hybridization with other ciscoes.[304]
Tubercled blossom Epioblasma torulosa torulosa Tennessee and Ohio River systems, United States Impoundment, siltation, and pollution.[537]
1969-1970[538] Kouprey Bos sauveli Northeastern Cambodia Hunting.[539]


Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
c. 1970 Socorro elf owl Micrathene whitneyi graysoni Socorro, Revillagigedo Islands, Mexico Habitat degradation.[69]
1970 Mexican dace Evarra bustamantei Xochimilco-Tlahuac channels, Valley of Mexico 1986 (IUCN) Habitat destruction and pollution.[540][541]
Endorheic chub Evarra tlahuacensis Lake Chalco, Valley of Mexico
Saudi gazelle Gazella saudiya Arabian Peninsula 2008 (IUCN) Hunting.[542]
Clear Lake splittail Pogonichthys ciscoides Clear Lake and its tributaries, California, United States 1986 (IUCN) Habitat destruction and pollution from agriculture.[304]
1970-1979 Pagan reed warbler Acrocephalus yamashinae Pagan, Northern Mariana Islands 1981
2016 (IUCN)
Habitat destruction and predation by introduced rats and cats.[69]
Acornshell Epioblasma haysiana Tennessee and Cumberland River systems, United States 1994 (IUCN) Exposure to domestic sewage.[543]
Western Turner's eremomela Eremomela turneri kalindei Southeast D. R. Congo and southwest Uganda Deforestation.[69]
1970-1989 Aplocheilichthys sp. nov. 'Naivasha' Lake Naivasha, Kenya 2004 (IUCN) Competition and predation by introduced fish.[544]
1971 Ticao Tarictic hornbill Penelopidis panini ticaensis Ticao Island, Philippines Habitat destruction.[69]
1972 Tecopa pupfish Cyprinodon nevadensis calidae Tecopa Hot Springs, California, United States 1982 Habitat degradation and introduced bluegill sunfish and mosquito fish.[505]
Tropical acidweed Desmarestia tropica Galápagos Islands, Ecuador Undetermined.[545][546]
Mason River myrtle Myrcia skeldingii Mason River, Jamaica 1998 (IUCN)
Bushwren Xenicus longipes New Zealand 1994 (IUCN) Predation by introduced cats, rats, weasels, and stoats.[69]
1973 Moorea reed warbler Acrocephalus longirostris Moorea, Society Islands, French Polynesia 1987 Possibly predation by introduced animals, deforestation, or avian malaria.[69]
Bitungu Barbodes truncatulus Lake Lanao, Mindanao, Philippines 2020 (IUCN) Predation by introduced tank goby and ornate sleeper.[547]
Bar-winged rail Hypotaenidia poeciloptera Fiji 1994 (IUCN) Predation by introduced cats and mongooses.[548]
Guadeloupe house wren Troglodytes aedon guadeloupensis Guadeloupe Deforestation.[69]
1974 Barbodes herrei Lake Lanao, Mindanao, Philippines 2020 (IUCN) Predation by introduced tank goby and ornate sleeper.[549]
Vanua Levu long-legged thicketbird[550] Cincloramphus rufus cluniei Vanua Levu, Fiji Undetermined.[69]
Flores rail Lewinia pectoralis exsul South and west Flores, Indonesia
Aragua robber frog Pristimantis anotis Henri Pittier National Park, Aragua, Venezuela Chytridiomycosis?[551]
1975 Bagangan Barbodes clemensi Lake Lanao, Mindanao, Philippines 2020 (IUCN) Predation by introduced tank goby and ornate sleeper.[552][553]
Bitungu Barbodes palaemophagus
Round Island burrowing boa Bolyeria multocarinata Round Island, Mauritius? 1996 (IUCN) Habitat degradation by introduced goats and rabbits.[554]
Longjaw cisco Coregonus alpenae Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie 1986 (IUCN) Overfishing, predation by introduced sea lampreys, and hybridization with introduced ciscoes.[304]
Phantom shiner Notropis orca Rio Grande Possibly habitat loss, hybridization with the bluntnose shiner, and introduction of exotic fishes.[304]
1976 Barbodes tras Lake Lanao, Mindanao, Philippines 2020 (IUCN) Predation by introduced tank goby and ornate sleeper.[555]
Jalpa false brook salamander Pseudoeurycea exspectata Cerro Miramundo, Jalapa, Guatemala Possibly logging and cattle grazing.[556]
Mexican grizzly bear Ursus arctos nelsoni Aridoamerica Hunting.[557]
1977 Barbodes katolo Lake Lanao, Mindanao, Philippines 2020 (IUCN) Predation by introduced tank goby and ornate sleeper.[558][559]
Barbodes manalak
Gonâve eastern chat-tanager Calyptophilus frugivorus abbotti Gonâve Island, Haiti Deforestation.[69]
Colombian grebe Podiceps andinus Bogotá wetlands, Colombia 1994 (IUCN) Habitat loss, pollution, hunting, and predation of chicks by introduced rainbow trout.[560]
Eiao monarch Pomarea fluxa Eiao, Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia 2006 (IUCN) Possibly predation by introduced cats, black rats, and Polynesian rats; disease transmitted by introduced chestnut-breasted mannikin, and habitat loss due to grazing by sheep.[561]
1978 Craugastor myllomyllon Finca Volcán, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala 2020 (IUCN) Habitat destruction for agriculture.[562]
White-eyed river martin Eurochelidon sirintarae Central Thailand Hunting and habitat loss.[563]
Little earth hutia Mesocapromys sanfelipensis Key Juan García, Cuba Hunting, man-made fires, and competition with black rats.[564]
1979 Yunnan lake newt Cynops wolterstorffi Kunming Lake, Yunnan, China 2004 (IUCN) Pollution, habitat destruction, and introduced fish and frog species.[565]
Caspian tiger[566] Panthera tigris virgata Transcaucasia, Kurdistan, Hyrcania, Afghanistan, and Turkestan Hunting and desertification.[273] Genetics do not support subspecific differentiation with extant mainland tigers.[274]
Mount Glorious day frog Taudactylus diurnus Southeast Queensland, Australia 2002 (IUCN) Undetermined.[567]


Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
1980[568] Olomaʻo Myadestes lanaiensis Maui, Lana'i, and Molokai, Hawaii Disease and habitat degradation caused by introduced pigs, axis deer, and mosquitos.[569]
1980-1985 Roberts's lechwe Kobus leche robertsi Luongo and Kalungwishi drainage systems, Luapula, Zambia 1994 (IUCN) Undetermined.[570]
1981 Anabarilius macrolepis Yilong Lake, Yunnan, China 2011 (IUCN) Drying of the lake for 20 days, after excessive water abstraction for agriculture.[571]
Mariana mallard[572] Anas platyrhynchos oustaleti Mariana Islands 2004 Hunting and habitat loss to agriculture.[573]
Yilong carp Cyprinus yilongensis Yilong Lake, Yunnan, China 1996 (IUCN) Drying of the lake after excessive water abstraction for agriculture.[574]
Canary Islands oystercatcher Haematopus meadewaldoi Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, Spain; Senegal 1994 (IUCN) Overharvesting of intertidal invertebrates.[575]
Puhielelu hibiscadelphus Hibiscadelphus crucibracteatus Lana'i, Hawaii, United States 1998 (IUCN) Predation by introduced axis deer.[281]
Bishop's ʻōʻō Moho bishopi Molokai, Hawaii, United States 2000 (IUCN) Habitat loss to agriculture and livestock grazing, followed by the introduction of black rats and disease-carrying mosquitos.[576]
Southern gastric-brooding frog Rheobatrachus silus Southeast Queensland, Australia 2002 (IUCN) Undetermined, possibly chytridiomycosis.[577]
1982-1983 Galápagos damsel Azurina eupalama Galápagos Islands, Ecuador 1982-83 El Niño event.[578]
1982 Pait Barbodes amarus Lake Lanao, Mindanao, Philippines 2020 (IUCN) Predation by introduced fishes.[579]
Samaná eastern chat-tanager Calyptophilus frugivorus frugivorus Samaná Peninsula, Dominican Republic Deforestation.[69]
1983 San Marcos gambusia Gambusia georgei San Marcos spring and river, Texas, United States 1990 (IUCN) Reduced flow and pollution from agriculture, introduced fishes and plants (Colocasia esculenta), and hybridization with Gambusia affinis.[580]
24-rayed sunstar Heliaster solaris Galápagos Islands, Ecuador 1982-83 El Niño event.[581]
Japanese otter Lutra nippon[582] Honshu, Kyushu, and Shikoku, Japan 2012 Hunting and habitat loss.[583]
Guam flycatcher Myiagra freycineti Guam 1994 (IUCN)
Predation by the introduced brown tree snake.[584]
Formosan clouded leopard[585] Neofelis nebulosa brachyura Taiwan 2013 Hunting. Subspecific status has been denied on morphological and genetic grounds.[274]
Aldabra brush-warbler Nesillas aldabrana Malabar Island, Seychelles 1994 (IUCN) Possibly predation by introduced cats and rats, and habitat degradation by goats and tortoises.[586]
Guam bridled white-eye Zosterops conspicillatus conspicillatus Guam Predation by introduced brown tree snakes.[69]
1983-1986 Atitlán grebe Podilymbus gigas Lake Atitlán, Guatemala 1994 (IUCN) Predation and competition with introduced largemouth bass, water level fall after the 1976 Guatemala earthquake, and degradation of breeding sites due to reed-cutting and tourism development.[587]
1984 Green blossom Epioblasma torulosa gubernaculum Tennessee River system, United States Impoundment, siltation, and pollution.[537]
Javan tiger Panthera tigris sondaica Java, Indonesia 1994 Hunting and habitat loss.[273] Genetics do not support subspecies differentiation with the extant Sumatran tiger; if placed in the same subspecies, this would have the name P. t. sondaica due to being older.[274]
Guam rufous fantail Rhipidura rufifrons uraniae Guam Predation by introduced brown tree snakes.[69]
c. 1985 California condor louse Colpocephalum californici North America Delousing of all surviving California condors before beginning their captive breeding program.[14]
1985 Timucua heart lichen Cora timucua Florida, United States Habitat destruction for urban development.[588]
Christmas Island shrew Crocidura trichura Christmas Island, Australia Undetermined.[589]
Kāmaʻo[590] Myadestes myadestinus Kaua'i, Hawaii, United States 2004 (IUCN) Habitat loss and disease spread by introduced mosquitos.[591]
Ua Pou monarch[295] Pomarea mira Ua Pou, Marquesas, French Polynesia Deforestation and predation by introduced black rats.[592]
Northern gastric-brooding frog Rheobatrachus vitellinus Mid-eastern Queensland, Australia 2002 (IUCN) Undetermined, possibly chytridiomycosis.[593]
Alaotra grebe[594] Tachybaptus rufolavatus Lake Alaotra, Madagascar 2010 (IUCN) Hunting, accidental capture in nylon gillnets, predation and competition with introduced largemouth bass, striped snakehead, and Tilapia; habitat degradation from agriculture, and hybridization with the little grebe.[595]
1986 Pass stubfoot toad Atelopus senex Central Costa Rica 2020 (IUCN) Possibly chytridiomycosis or climate change.[596]
Zanzibar leopard[597] Panthera pardus adersi Unguja Island, Tanzania Extermination campaign.[273] The subspecies has been subsumed into the extant African leopard on morphological grounds.[598]
Eastern Canary Islands chiffchaff Phylloscopus canariensis exsul Lanzarote and Fuerteventura?, Canary Islands Habitat loss?[69]
Banff longnose dace Rhinichthys cataractae smithi Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada 1987 Habitat degradation, competition and hybridization with introduced fishes.[599]
1987 Dusky seaside sparrow[600] Ammospiza maritima nigrescens Merritt Island and the St. Johns River, Florida, United States 1990 Flooding and draining of marshes to reduce mosquito population.[601]
Cuban ivory-billed woodpecker[602] Campephilus principalis bairdii Cuba Habitat loss.[475]
Kauaʻi ʻōʻō Moho braccatus Kauaʻi, Hawaii, United States 2000 (IUCN) Habitat loss and introduced black rats, pigs, and disease-carrying mosquitos. The last female was killed by Hurricane Iwa during the 1982-1983 El Niño event.[603]
Namibcypris costata Southern Kaokoveld, Namibia 1996 (IUCN) Habitat destruction.[604]
1988 Maui ʻakepa Loxops ochraceus Maui, Hawaii, United States Undetermined.[605]
Bachman's warbler[606] Vermivora bachmanii Southeastern United States and Cuba Habitat destruction from swampland draining and sugarcane agriculture.[607]
1989 Golden toad Incilius periglenes Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve, Costa Rica 2020 (IUCN) Anthropogenic global warming, chytridiomycosis, and airborne pollution.[608]
Jamaican golden swallow Tachycineta euchrysea euchrysea Jamaica Deforestation?[69]
Malabar large-spotted civet Viverra civettina Western Ghats, India Possibly deforestation, hunting, and predation by domestic dogs.[609]


Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
1990[610] Nechisar nightjar Caprimulgus solala Nechisar National Park, Ethiopia Undetermined.[69]
1990-1999[611] Magdalena tinamou Crypturellus erythropus saltuarius Magdalena River Valley, Colombia
1991 Baolan Barbodes baoulan Lake Lanao, Mindanao, Philippines 2020 (IUCN) Predation by introduced fishes.[612]
Alvarez's dwarf crayfish Cambarellus alvarezi Potosí Spring, Nuevo León, Mexico 2010 (IUCN) Water abstraction[613]
1992 Splendid poison frog Oophaga speciosa Western Panama Chytridiomycosis.[614]
1993 Moroccan bustard Ardeotis arabs lynesi Western Morocco Undetermined.[69]
1994 Pachnodus velutinus Mahé, Seychelles 2000 (IUCN) Hybridization with Pachnodus niger.[615]
1995 Aguijan reed warbler Acrocephalus nijoi Aguijan, Mariana Islands 2000-2009
2016 (IUCN)
Habitat destruction.[69]
Maui nukupu'u Hemignathus affinis Maui, Hawaii, United States Undetermined.[69]
1996 Chiriqui harlequin frog Atelopus chiriquiensis Talamanca-Chiriqui mountains, Costa Rica 2020 (IUCN) Chytridiomycosis.[616]
Norfolk Island boobook Ninox novaeseelandiae undulata Norfolk Island, Australia Deforestation leading to increased competition for nest-hollows with honeybees and crimson rosellas. Descendants of hybrids with the New Zealand subspecies survive in the island.[69]
Barbary leopard Panthera pardus panthera Atlas Mountains Hunting.[273] The subspecies has been subsumed into the extant African leopard on morphological grounds.[598]
Swollen Raiatea Tree Snail[617] Partula turgida Raiatea, Society Islands, French Polynesia 1996 (IUCN) Predation by introduced rosy wolfsnails.[618]
1997 Green and red venter harlequin toad Atelopus pinangoi Mérida, Venezuela Chytridiomicosis, habitat destruction, and predation by introduced trout.[619]
Sangihe dwarf kingfisher Ceyx fallax sangirensis Sangihe Islands, Indonesia Habitat destruction.[69]
Sakaraha pygmy kingfisher Corythornis madagascariensis dilutus Southwestern Madagascar Undetermined.[69][620]
Iberian lynx louse Felicola isidoroi Iberian Peninsula

3rd millennium CE

21st century


Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
2000 Pyrenean ibex[621] Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica Pyrenees;[318]
Cantabrian Mountains?[622]
2000 (IUCN)[623] Hunting, competition for pastures and diseases from exotic and domestic ungulates.[624][625]
2001 Glaucous macaw Anodorhynchus glaucus Border area of Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil, and Uruguay Deforestation for agriculture and livestock grazing, particularly of the Yatay palm in which it fed.[626]
Slender-billed curlew Numenius tenuirostris Western Eurasia and northern Africa Hunting and habitat destruction.[69]
2002 Chinese river dolphin[627] Lipotes vexillifer Middle and lower Yangtze, China 2007[628] Fishing, habitat destruction, and vessel strikes.[629]
Polynesian tree snail[617] Partula labrusca Raiatea, Society Islands, French Polynesia 2007 (IUCN) Predation by introduced rosy wolfsnails.[630]
2003 Osgood's Ethiopian toad Altiphrynoides osgoodi South-central Ethiopian mountains Habitat degradation.[631]
Saint Helena olive[632] Nesiota elliptica Saint Helena 2004 (IUCN) Deforestation for fuel and timber, and use of the land for plantations of New Zealand flax, leading to inbreeding depression and fungal infections from reduced numbers.[633]
Chinese paddlefish Psephurus gladius Yangtze and Yellow River basins, China 2019 (IUCN) Overfishing and construction of the Gezhouba Dam blocking the anadromous spawning migration[634][635]
2004 Po'ouli Melamprosops phaeosoma Eastern Maui, Hawaii, United States Introduced avian malaria and predators.[636]
2006 Western black rhinoceros Diceros bicornis longipes South Sudan to Nigerian-Niger border area 2011 (IUCN) Hunting.[637]
2007 South Island kōkako[638] Callaeas cinereus South Island, New Zealand Habitat destruction from logging and grazing ungulates, and predation by introduced black rats, brush-tailed possums, and stoats.[639]
2009 Bramble Cay melomys Melomys rubicola Bramble Cay, Australia 2015 (IUCN)[640] Sea level rise as a consequence of global warming.[641]
Christmas Island pipistrelle Pipistrellus murrayi Christmas Island, Australia 2017 (IUCN) Undetermined.[642]


Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
2010 Vietnamese rhinoceros Rhinoceros sondaicus annamiticus South China and Indochina 2011 Hunting.[643]
2011 Alagoas foliage-gleaner Philydor novaesi Alagoas and Pernambuco, Brazil 2019 (IUCN) Deforestation.[69]
2012[644] Pinta Island tortoise Chelonoidis abingdonii Pinta, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador 2012 (IUCN)[645] Hunting and overgrazing by introduced goats. Hybrid descendants exist in other Galapagos islands, as a result of human intervention.[646]
2014[647] Christmas Island forest skink Emoia nativitatis Christmas Island, Australia 2017 (IUCN) Habitat loss to mining and predation by introduced Indian wolf snake and yellow crazy ant.[648]
2016[649][650] Rabbs' fringe-limbed treefrog Ecnomiohyla rabborum El Valle de Antón, Panama 2016 Chytridiomycosis.[651]
2019[652] Oahu treesnail Achatinella apexfulva Oahu, Hawaii, United States 2019 Predation by introduced rosy wolfsnails.[653]

See also