Astronomy:Astronomical symbols

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Short description: Symbols in astronomy
This excerpt from the 1833 Nautical Almanac demonstrates the use of astronomical symbols, including symbols for the phases of the moon, the planets, and zodiacal constellations.
"Designation of celestial bodies" in a German almanac printed in 1850[1]

Astronomical symbols are abstract pictorial symbols used to represent astronomical objects, theoretical constructs and observational events in European astronomy. The earliest forms of these symbols appear in Greek papyrus texts of late antiquity. The Byzantine codices in which many Greek papyrus texts were preserved continued and extended the inventory of astronomical symbols.[2][3] New symbols have been invented to represent many planets and minor planets discovered in the 18th to the 21st centuries.

These symbols were once commonly used by professional astronomers, amateur astronomers, alchemists, and astrologers. While they are still commonly used in almanacs and astrological publications, their occurrence in published research and texts on astronomy is relatively infrequent,[4] with some exceptions such as the Sun and Earth symbols appearing in astronomical constants, and certain zodiacal signs used to represent the solstices and equinoxes.

Unicode has formally assigned code points to most symbols, mainly in the Miscellaneous Symbols Block[5] and the Miscellaneous Symbols and Pictographs Block.[6]

Symbols for the Sun and Moon

The symbol for the Sun in late Classical (4th c.) and medieval Byzantine (11th c.) mss[7]
The symbol for the Moon in a medieval Byzantine (11th c.) ms. The appearance in late Classical was similar.[7]

The use of astronomical symbols for the Sun and Moon dates to antiquity. The forms of the symbols that appear in the original papyrus texts of Greek horoscopes are a circle with one ray (old sun symbol) for the Sun and a crescent for the Moon.[3] The modern Sun symbol, a circle with a dot (☉), first appeared in Europe in the Renaissance.[3]

In modern academic writing, the Sun symbol is used for astronomical constants relating to the Sun.[8] Teff☉ represents the solar effective temperature, and the luminosity, mass, and radius of stars are often represented using the corresponding solar constants (L, M, and R, respectively) as units of measurement.[9][10][11][12]

Name Symbol Unicode
code point
Sun Sol
(dec 9737)
the Sun (the center of our planetary system)
(dec 128794)
🜚 the Sun with one ray
Sun with face
(dec 127774)
🌞︎ the face of the Sun or "Sun in splendor"
Name Symbol Unicode
code point
Moon, or first-quarter moon First quarter moon
(dec 9789)
☽︎ an increscent (waxing) moon
(as viewed from the northern hemisphere)
First quarter moon with face
(dec 127771)
full moon Full Moon
(dec 127765)
🌕︎ a white circle as it appears in the night sky
Full Moon with face
(dec 127773)
Moon, or last-quarter moon Last quarter Moon
(dec 9790)
a decrescent (waning) moon
(as viewed from the northern hemisphere)
Last quarter Moon with face
(dec 127772)
new moon New Moon
(dec 127761)
🌑︎ a new moon
New Moon with face
(dec 127770)

Symbols for the planets

Main page: Unsolved:Planet symbols
Medieval depiction of the zodiac and the classical planets. The planets are represented by seven faces.

Symbols for the classical planets appear in many medieval Byzantine codices in which many ancient horoscopes were preserved.[2] The written symbols for Mercury, Venus, Jupiter, and Saturn have been traced to forms found in late Greek papyrus texts.[7] The symbols for Jupiter and Saturn are identified as monograms of the corresponding Greek names, and the symbol for Mercury is a stylized caduceus.[7] According to A.S.D. Maunder, antecedents of the planetary symbols were used in art to represent the gods associated with the classical planets; Bianchini's planisphere, discovered by Francesco Bianchini in the 18th century, produced in the 2nd century,[23] shows Greek personifications of planetary gods charged with early versions of the planetary symbols: Mercury has a caduceus; Venus has, attached to her necklace, a cord connected to another necklace; Mars, a spear; Jupiter, a staff; Saturn, a scythe; the Sun, a circlet with rays radiating from it; and the Moon, a headdress with a crescent attached.[24]

Planisphere of Francesco Bianchini
The symbol for Mercury in late Classical (4th c.) and medieval Byzantine (11th c.) mss[7]
The symbol for Venus in late Classical (4th c.) and medieval Byzantine (11th c.) mss[7]
The symbol for Mars in late Classical (6th c.) and medieval Byzantine (11th c.) mss..[7]
The symbol for Jupiter in late Classical (4th c.) and medieval Byzantine (11th c.) mss[7]
The symbol for Saturn in late Classical (4th & 5th c.) and medieval Byzantine (11th c.) mss. Cf. kappa-rho, ⟨κρ⟩.[7]

A diagram in Byzantine astronomer Johannes Kamateros's 12th century Compendium of Astrology shows the Sun represented by the circle with a ray, Jupiter by the letter Zeta (the initial of Zeus, Jupiter's counterpart in Greek mythology), Mars by a shield crossed by a spear, and the remaining classical planets by symbols resembling the modern ones, without the cross-mark at the bottom of the modern versions of the symbols for Mercury and Venus. These cross-marks first appear around the 16th century. According to Maunder, the addition of crosses appears to be "an attempt to give a savour of Christianity to the symbols of the old pagan gods."[24]

The symbols for Uranus were created shortly after its discovery. One symbol, Uranus, invented by J. G. Köhler and refined by Bode, was intended to represent the newly discovered metal platinum; since platinum, commonly called white gold, was found by chemists mixed with iron, the symbol for platinum combines the alchemical symbols for the planetary elements iron, ♂, and gold, ☉.[25][26] Another symbol, Uranus, was suggested by Joseph Jérôme Lefrançois de Lalande in 1784. In a letter to William Herschel, Lalande described it as "un globe surmonté par la première lettre de votre nom" ("a globe surmounted by the first letter of your name").[27] Today, Köhler's symbol is more common among astronomers, and Lalande's among astrologers, although it is not uncommon to see each symbol in the other context.[28]

Several symbols were proposed for Neptune to accompany the suggested names for the planet. Claiming the right to name his discovery, Urbain Le Verrier originally proposed the name Neptune[29] and the symbol of a trident,[30] while falsely stating that this had been officially approved by the French Bureau des Longitudes.[29] In October, he sought to name the planet Leverrier, after himself, and he had loyal support in this from the observatory director, François Arago,[31] who in turn proposed a new symbol for the planet (proposed symbol for planet Leverrier).[32] However, this suggestion met with stiff resistance outside France .[31] French almanacs quickly reintroduced the name Herschel for Uranus, after that planet's discoverer Sir William Herschel, and Leverrier for the new planet.[33] Professor James Pillans of the University of Edinburgh defended the name Janus for the new planet, and proposed a key for its symbol.[30] Meanwhile, German-Russian astronomer Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve presented the name Neptune on December 29, 1846, to the Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences.[34] In August 1847, the Bureau des Longitudes announced its decision to follow prevailing astronomical practice and adopt the choice of Neptune, with Arago refraining from participating in this decision.[35]

The International Astronomical Union discourages the use of these symbols in journal articles, though they do occur.[36] In certain cases where planetary symbols might be used, such as in the headings of tables, the IAU Style Manual permits certain one- and (to disambiguate Mercury and Mars) two-letter abbreviations for the names of the planets.[37]

Name IAU
Symbol Unicode
code point
Mercury H, Me Mercury
(dec 9791)
Mercury's caduceus, with a cross[7]
Venus V Venus
(dec 9792)
Perhaps Venus's necklace or a (copper) hand mirror, with a cross[18][38]
Earth E Earth
(dec 128808)
🜨 the four quadrants of the world, divided by the four rivers descending from Eden[39]
U+2297, U+2A02
, the four corners of the world, later identified as the four continents (N: Europe, E: Asia, S: Africa, W: America). No dedicated Unicode symbol; the ones at left may or may not be appropriate, depending on the font.
(dec 9793)
a globus cruciger[41]
Mars M, Ma Mars
(dec 9794)
Mars's shield and spear[13][18][38]
Jupiter J Jupiter
(dec 9795)
the letter Zeta with an abbreviation stroke (for Zeus, the Greek equivalent to the Roman god Jupiter)[7]
Saturn S Saturn
(dec 9796)
the letters kappa-rho with an abbreviation stroke (for Kronos, the Greek equivalent to the Roman god Saturn), with a cross[7]
Uranus U Uranus
(dec 9954)
symbol of the recently described element platinum, which was invented to provide a symbol for Uranus[25][26]
(dec 9797)
a globe surmounted by the letter H (for Herschel, who discovered Uranus)[27]
(more common in older or British literature)
Neptune N Neptune
(dec 9798)
Neptune's trident[13]
Neptune (alternate symbol)
(dec 11209)
a globe surmounted by the letters "L" and "V", (for Le Verrier, who discovered Neptune)[32][38]
(more common in older, especially French, literature)

Symbols for asteroids

List of symbols for the celestial bodies of the main asteroid belt.

Following the discovery of Ceres in 1801 by the astronomer and Catholic priest Giuseppe Piazzi, a group of astronomers ratified the name, which Piazzi had proposed. At that time, the sickle was chosen as a symbol of the planet.[42] thumb|Symbols for Ceres and Pallas, as rendered in 1802 thumb|Symbol for Juno, as rendered in 1804 with the convenient typographic symbols of an asterisk * and a rotated dagger †

Symbol for Vesta, as rendered in 1807

The symbol for 2 Pallas, the spear of Pallas Athena, was invented by Baron Franz Xaver von Zach, who organized a group of twenty-four astronomers to search for a planet between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. The symbol was introduced by von Zach in 1802.[43] In a letter to von Zach, discoverer Heinrich Wilhelm Matthäus Olbers (who had named the newly discovered asteroid) expressed his approval of the proposed symbol, but wished that the handle of the sickle of Ceres had been adorned with a pommel instead of a crossbar, to better differentiate it from the sign of Venus.[43]

German astronomer Karl Ludwig Harding created the symbol for 3 Juno. Harding, who discovered this asteroid in 1804, proposed the name Juno and the use of a scepter topped with a star as its astronomical symbol.[44]

The symbol for 4 Vesta was invented by German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss. Dr. Olbers, having previously discovered and named 2 Pallas, gave Gauss the honor of naming his newest discovery. Gauss decided to name the new asteroid for the goddess Vesta, and also designed the symbol (Vesta): the altar of the goddess, with the sacred fire burning on it.[45][46][47] Other contemporaneous writers use a more elaborate symbol (Vesta) instead.[48][49]

Karl Ludwig Hencke, a German amateur astronomer, discovered the next two asteroids, 5 Astraea (in 1845) and 6 Hebe (in 1847). Hencke requested that the symbol for 5 Astraea be an upside-down anchor;[50] however, a weighing scale was sometimes used instead.[15][51] Gauss named 6 Hebe at Hencke's request, and chose a wineglass as the symbol.[52][53]

As more new asteroids were discovered, astronomers continued to assign symbols to them. Thus, 7 Iris had for its symbol a rainbow with a star;[54] 8 Flora, a flower;[54] 9 Metis, an eye with a star;[55] 10 Hygiea, an upright snake with a star on its head;[56] 11 Parthenope, a standing fish with a star;[56] 12 Victoria, a star topped with a branch of laurel;[57] 13 Egeria, a buckler;[58] 14 Irene, a dove carrying an olive branch with a star on its head;[59] 15 Eunomia, a heart topped with a star;[60] 16 Psyche, a butterfly wing with a star;[61] 17 Thetis, a dolphin with a star;[62] 18 Melpomene, a dagger over a star;[63] and 19 Fortuna, a star over Fortuna's wheel.[63]

Johann Franz Encke made a major change in the Berliner Astronomisches Jahrbuch (BAJ, Berlin Astronomical Yearbook) for the year 1854, published in 1851. He introduced encircled numbers instead of symbols, although his numbering began with Astraea, the first four asteroids continuing to be denoted by their traditional symbols. This symbolic innovation was adopted very quickly by the astronomical community. The following year (1852), Astraea's number was bumped up to 5, but Ceres through Vesta were not listed by their numbers until the 1867 edition. The circle later became a pair of parentheses, and the parentheses were sometimes omitted altogether over the next few decades.[15]

A few asteroids were given symbols by their discoverers after the encircled-number notation became widespread. 26 Proserpina, 28 Bellona, 35 Leukothea, and 37 Fides, all discovered by German astronomer Robert Luther between 1853 and 1855, were assigned, respectively, a pomegranate with a star inside;[64] a whip and spear;[65] an antique lighthouse;[66] and a cross.[67] 29 Amphitrite was named and assigned a shell for its symbol by George Bishop, the owner of the observatory where astronomer Albert Marth discovered it in 1854.[68]

All these symbols are rare or obsolete in modern astronomy. The major use of symbols for minor planets today is by astrologers, who have invented symbols for many more objects, though they sometimes use symbols that differ from the historical symbols for the same bodies. The astrological symbols for 4 Vesta, 5 Astraea, and 10 Hygiea, that are relatively standard among astrologers but differ from the historical astronomical symbols, are included below for reference.

Name Symbol Unicode
code point
1 Ceres 1 Ceres
(dec 9907)
A scythe.[38]
In some fonts, the symbol for Saturn is the inverse.
2 Pallas 2 Pallas
(dec 9908)
A spear.[43][51] In modern renditions, the spearhead has a broader or narrower diamond shape. In 1802, it was given a cordate leaf shape. A variation has a triangular head, due to a conflation with the alchemical symbol for sulfur.
3 Juno 3 Juno
(dec 9909)
a scepter topped with a star[44]
3 Juno
N/A N/A Venus' symbol topped with a star
4 Vesta 4 Vesta
N/A N/A The temple hearth with the sacred fire of Vesta. The original form was a box with what looks like the horns of Aries on top.[45][47]
4 Vesta
4 Vesta
(dec 9910)
The modern V-shaped form was invented in the 1970s by astrologers.[45][47]
5 Astraea 5 Astraea
N/A N/A an inverted anchor[50]
5 Astraea (alternate symbol)
N/A N/A a weighing scale[38][51] approx. U+2696 ⚖
5 Astraea (astrological symbol)
(dec 11225)
Modern symbol used by astrologers[72]
6 Hebe 6 Hebe
N/A N/A A wineglass. Originally typeset as a triangle ∇ set on a base ⊥.[52]
6 Hebe
7 Iris 7 Iris
N/A N/A a rainbow with a star inside it[54]
7 Iris
8 Flora 8 Flora
N/A N/A a flower[54]
9 Metis 9 Metis
N/A N/A an eye with a star above it[55]
10 Hygiea 10 Hygiea
N/A N/A a serpent with a star[56]
10 Hygiea
(dec 9877)
a Rod of Asclepius
10 Hygiea (astrological symbol)
(dec 11226)
The modern astrological symbol is a caduceus (often confused with the Rod of Ascelpius).[72]
11 Parthenope 11 Parthenope
N/A N/A a fish with a star[56]
11 Parthenope
N/A N/A a harp[51]
12 Victoria 12 Victoria
N/A N/A a star with a branch of laurel[57]
13 Egeria 13 Egeria
N/A N/A a buckler[58]
14 Irene 14 Irene
N/A N/A a dove carrying an olive-branch in its mouth and a star on its head[59]
15 Eunomia 15 Eunomia
N/A N/A a heart with a star on top[60]
16 Psyche 16 Psyche
N/A N/A a butterfly's wing and a star[61]
16 Psyche N/A N/A
17 Thetis 17 Thetis
N/A N/A a dolphin and a star[62]
18 Melpomene 18 Melpomene
N/A N/A a dagger over a star[63]
19 Fortuna 19 Fortuna
N/A N/A a star over a wheel[63]
26 Proserpina 26 Proserpina
N/A N/A a pomegranate with a star inside it[64]
28 Bellona 28 Bellona
N/A N/A Bellona's whip and spear[65]
29 Amphitrite 29 Amphitrite
N/A N/A a "shell" (no mention of a star)[68]
35 Leukothea 35 Leukothea
N/A N/A an ancient lighthouse[66]
37 Fides 37 Fides
N/A N/A a Latin cross, in fact showing broadened and rounded endings[67][75]

Symbols for centaurs and trans-Neptunian objects

Pluto's name and symbol were announced by the discoverers on May 1, 1930.[76] The symbol, a monogram of the letters PL, could be interpreted to stand for Pluto or for Percival Lowell, the astronomer who initiated Lowell Observatory's search for a planet beyond the orbit of Neptune.[13][77] This is the only symbol for a minor planet that is not rare in modern astronomy. Pluto also has a second symbol consisting of a planetary orb over Pluto's bident: it is more common in astrology than astronomy, and was popularised by the astrologer Paul Clancy,[78] but has been used by NASA to refer to Pluto as a dwarf planet.[79] There are several other symbols used for Pluto in astrology, but this is the most common one.[78] Pluto also had the IAU abbreviation P when it was considered the ninth planet.[37]

The other large trans-Neptunian objects were only discovered around the dawn of the 21st century. They were not generally thought to be planets on their discovery, and planetary symbols had in any case mostly fallen out of use among astronomers by then. Denis Moskowitz proposed symbols for the likely dwarf planets Quaoar, Sedna, Orcus, Haumea, Eris, Makemake, and Gonggong.[80] His symbols are somewhat standard among astrologers (e.g. in the program Astrolog),[81] which is where planetary symbols are general are mostly used today. Symbols have also been proposed by Moskowitz and others for some other bodies, but those are less standard. Moskowitz's symbols for Haumea, Makemake, and Eris have also been used by NASA, blurring the lines between astronomical and astrological symbols.[79] His Eris symbol, the Hand of Eris, is a traditional one from Discordianism, a religion worshipping the goddess Eris.[82]

Similarly, the symbol for the first-recognised centaur, 2060 Chiron, was devised by Al H. Morrison soon after it had been discovered by Charles Kowal, and is mostly used and standard amongst astrologers.[47] In the late 1990s, German astrologer Robert von Heeren created symbols for other centaurs as well, though only those for 5145 Pholus and 7066 Nessus are included in Unicode, and only that for Pholus in Astrolog.[72]

Centaurs and trans-Neptunian objects
Name Symbol Unicode
code point
2060 Chiron Chiron
(dec 9911)
a key, and also an O-K monogram for Object Kowal (Kowal being the discoverer of Chiron)[83]
5145 Pholus Pholus symbol.svg
(dec 11227)
Chiron's symbol, with the K replaced by a P for Pholus
7066 Nessus Nessus symbol.svg
(dec 11228)
Chiron's symbol, with the K replaced by an N for Nessus
50000 Quaoar Quaoar
[84] N/A a Q for Quaoar combined with a canoe, stylised to resemble the sharp rock art of the Tongva[80]
90377 Sedna Sedna
(dec 11250)
a monogram of the Inuktitut syllabics for 'sa' and 'n', as Sedna's Inuit name is 'Sanna' (ᓴᓐᓇ); resembles a leaping seal or fish[80]
90482 Orcus Orcus
[84] N/A an O-R monogram for Orcus, stylised to resemble a skull and an orca's grin[80]
134340 Pluto Pluto
(dec 9799)
a P-L monogram for Pluto and Percival Lowell[13]
Pluto (alternate)
(dec 11219)
a planetary orb over Pluto's bident
136108 Haumea Haumea
[84] N/A conflation of Hawaiian petroglyphs for woman and birth, as Haumea was the goddess of both[80]
136199 Eris Eris
(dec 11248)
the Hand of Eris[80]
136472 Makemake Makemake
[84] N/A engraved face of the Rapa Nui god Makemake, also resembling an M[80]
225088 Gonggong Gonggong
[84] N/A Chinese character 共 gòng (the first character in Gonggong's name), combined with a snake's tail[80]

Symbols for zodiac and other constellations

A late-15th-century manuscript with the zodiac symbols
A mid-18th-century manuscript with symbols for the signs and planets. Note the distinctive shapes of Virgo (6), Scorpius (8), Capricornus (10) and Aquarius (11).

The zodiac symbols have several astronomical interpretations. Depending on context, a zodiac symbol may denote either a constellation, or a point or interval on the ecliptic plane.

Lists of astronomical phenomena published by almanacs sometimes included conjunctions of stars and planets or the Moon; rather than print the full name of the star, a Greek letter and the symbol for the constellation of the star was sometimes used instead.[85][86] The ecliptic was sometimes divided into 12 signs, each subdivided into 30 degrees,[87][88] and the sign component of ecliptic longitude was expressed either with a number from 0 to 11[89] or with the corresponding zodiacal symbol.[88]

In modern astronomical writing, all the constellations, including the twelve of the zodiac, have dedicated three-letter abbreviations, which specifically refer to constellations rather than signs.[90] The zodiac symbols are also sometimes used to represent points on the ecliptic, particularly the solstices and equinoxes. Each symbol is taken to represent the "first point" of each sign, rather than the place in the visible constellation where the alignment is observed.[91][92] Thus, ♈︎ the symbol for Aries, represents the March equinox;[lower-alpha 1] ♋︎, for Cancer, the June solstice;[lower-alpha 2] ♎︎, for Libra, the September equinox;[lower-alpha 3] and ♑︎, for Capricorn, the December solstice.[lower-alpha 4] The symbol ♈︎ for Aries, in particular, is commonly used in modern astronomy to represent the location of the (slowly) moving reference point for the ecliptic and equatorial celestial coordinate systems.

Name IAU
Signs Degrees Symbol Translation Unicode
code point
Aries Ari[37] 0 Aries
ram[93] U+2648
(dec 9800)
Taurus Tau[37] 1 30° Taurus
bull[93] U+2649
(dec 9801)
Gemini Gem[37] 2 60° Gemini
twinned[93] U+264A
(dec 9802)
Cancer Cnc[37]
3 90° Cancer
crab[93] U+264B
(dec 9803)
Leo Leo[37] 4 120° Leo
lion[93] U+264C
(dec 9804)
Virgo Vir[37] 5 150° Virgo
maiden[93] U+264D
(dec 9805)
Libra Lib[37] 6 180° Libra
scales[93] U+264E
(dec 9806)
Scorpio Sco[37] 7 210° Scorpius
scorpion[93] U+264F
(dec 9807)
Sagittarius Sgr[37] 8 240° Sagittarius
archer[93] U+2650
(dec 9808)
Capricorn Cap[37] 9 270° Capricornus
having a goat's horns[93] U+2651
(dec 9809)
Aquarius Aqr[37] 10 300° Aquarius
water-carrier[93] U+2652
(dec 9810)
Pisces Psc[37] 11 330° Pisces
fishes[93] U+2653
(dec 9811)

None of the constellations have official symbols. However, occasional symbols for the modern constellations, as well as older ones that occur in modern nomenclature, have appeared in publication:[94]

Other symbols

Symbols for aspects and nodes appear in medieval texts, although medieval and modern usage of the node symbols differ; the modern ascending node symbol (☊) formerly stood for the descending node, and the modern descending node symbol (☋) was used for the ascending node.[3] In describing the Keplerian elements of an orbit, ☊ is sometimes used to denote the ecliptic longitude of the ascending node, although it is more common to use Ω (capital omega), which was originally a typographical substitute for the astronomical symbol.[95]

The symbols for aspects first appear in Byzantine codices.[3] Of the symbols for the five Ptolemaic aspects, only the three displayed here — for conjunction, opposition, and quadrature — are used in astronomy.[96]

Symbols for a comet (☄) and a star (Astronomical symbol for star.svg) have been used in published astronomical observations of comets. In tables of these observations, ☄ stood for the comet being discussed and Astronomical symbol for star.svg for the star of comparison relative to which measurements of the comet's position were made.[97]

Other symbols
Name Symbol Unicode
code point
ascending node ascending node
(dec 9738)
descending node descending node
(dec 9739)
conjunction conjunction
(dec 9740)
opposition opposition
(dec 9741)
quadrature quadrature
(dec 9633)
comet comet
(dec 9732)
star star
(dec 9733)
planetary rings
planetary rings

See also


  1. The March equinox defines the sign of Aries, and the origin of two modern celestial coordinate systems, but occurs in western Pisces, near its southern border.
  2. The June solstice is aligned with the sign of Cancer, but occurs very nearly on the modern border between Gemini and Taurus.
  3. The September equinox is aligned with the sign of Libra, but occurs in western Virgo.
  4. The December solstice is aligned with the sign Capricorn, but occurs very nearly on top of the modern border between Sagittarius and Ophiuchus.


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  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 The Penny cyclopædia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 22. C. Knight. 1842. p. 197. 
  19. 19.00 19.01 19.02 19.03 19.04 19.05 19.06 19.07 19.08 19.09 19.10 19.11 19.12 19.13 The Encyclopedia Americana: A library of universal knowledge. 26. Encyclopedia Americana Corp.. 1920. pp. 162–163. Retrieved March 24, 2011. 
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 20.5 20.6 20.7 20.8 Putnam, Edmund Whitman (1914). The essence of astronomy: things every one should know about the sun, moon, and stars. G.P. Putnam's sons. p. 197. 
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 Almanach de Gotha. 158. 1852. p. ii. 
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 Almanach Hachette. Hachette. 1908. p. 8. 
  23. "Bianchini's planisphere". Florence, Italy: Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza [Institute and Museum of the History of Science]. 
  24. 24.0 24.1 Maunder, A.S.D. (1934). "The origin of the symbols of the planets". The Observatory 57: 238–247. Bibcode1934Obs....57..238M. 
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 Bode, J.E. (1784). Von dem neu entdeckten Planeten. Beim Verfaszer. pp. 95–96. 
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 Gould, B. A. (1850). Report on the history of the discovery of Neptune. Smithsonian Institution. p. 5. 
  27. 27.0 27.1 Herschel, Francisca (1917). "The meaning of the symbol H+o for the planet Uranus". The Observatory 40: 306. Bibcode1917Obs....40..306H. 
  29. 29.0 29.1 Littmann, Mark; E.M., Standish (2004). Planets Beyond: Discovering the Outer Solar System. Courier Dover Publications. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-486-43602-9. 
  30. 30.0 30.1 Pillans, James (1847). "Ueber den Namen des neuen Planeten". Astronomische Nachrichten 25 (26): 389–392. doi:10.1002/asna.18470252602. Bibcode1847AN.....25..389.. 
  31. 31.0 31.1 Baum, Richard; Sheehan, William (2003). In Search of Planet Vulcan: The Ghost in Newton's Clockwork Universe. Basic Books. pp. 109–110. ISBN 978-0-7382-0889-3. 
  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 Schumacher, H.C. (1846). "Name des Neuen Planeten" (in de). Astronomische Nachrichten 25 (6): 81–82. doi:10.1002/asna.18470250603. Bibcode1846AN.....25...81L. 
  33. Gingerich, Owen (1958). The Naming of Uranus and Neptune. Leaflets. 8. Astronomical Society of the Pacific. pp. 9–15. Bibcode1958ASPL....8....9G. 
  34. Hind, J.R. (1847). "Second report of proceedings in the Cambridge Observatory relating to the new Planet (Neptune)". Astronomische Nachrichten 25 (21): 309–314. doi:10.1002/asna.18470252102. Bibcode1847AN.....25..309.. 
  35. (in fr) Connaissance des temps: ou des mouvementes célestes, à l'usage des astronomes. France: Bureau des Longitudes. 1847. p. unnumbered front matter. 
  36. E.g. p. 10, fig. 3 in Chen & Kipping (2017) Probabilistic Forecasting of the Masses and Radii of Other Worlds, The Astrophysical Journal, 834: 1.
  37. 37.00 37.01 37.02 37.03 37.04 37.05 37.06 37.07 37.08 37.09 37.10 37.11 37.12 37.13 The IAU Style Manual. The International Astrophysical Union. 1989. p. 27. Retrieved August 20, 2018. 
  38. 38.00 38.01 38.02 38.03 38.04 38.05 38.06 38.07 38.08 38.09 38.10 38.11 38.12 38.13 38.14 38.15 38.16 38.17 Mattison, Hiram (1872). High-School Astronomy. Sheldon & Co.. pp. 32–36. 
  39. Unicode characters with a similar shape:
    :U+2295 ⊕ CIRCLED PLUS;
  40. For example, on the Kirkhill Astronomical Pillar
  41. "Signs of the Planets". August 6, 2009. 
  42. Bode, J.E., ed (1801). Berliner astronomisches Jahrbuch führ das Jahr 1804. pp. 97–98. 
  43. 43.0 43.1 43.2 43.3 von Zach, Franz Xaver (1802). Monatliche correspondenz zur beförderung der erd- und himmels-kunde. 6. pp. 95–96. 
  44. 44.0 44.1 44.2 von Zach, Franz Xaver (1804) (in de). Monatliche correspondenz zur beförderung der erd- und himmels-kunde. 10. p. 471. 
  45. 45.0 45.1 45.2 45.3 von Zach, Franz Xaver (1807) (in de). Monatliche correspondenz zur beförderung der erd- und himmels-kunde. 15. p. 507. 
  46. Carlini, Francesco (1808) (in it). Effemeridi astronomiche di Milano per l'anno 1809. 
  47. 47.0 47.1 47.2 47.3 47.4 47.5 Faulks, David (May 9, 2006). "Proposal to add some Western Astrology Symbols to the UCS". p. 4. "In general, only the signs for Vesta have enough variance to be regarded as different designs. However, all of these Vesta symbols ... are differing designs for 'the hearth and flame of the temple of the Goddess Vesta' in Rome, and can thus be regarded as extreme variants of a single symbol." 
  48. (in fr) Annuaire pour l'an 1808. France: Bureau des longitudes. 1807. p. 5. 
  49. Canovai, Stanislao; del-Ricco, Gaetano (1810) (in it). Elementi di fisica matematica. p. 149. 
  50. 50.0 50.1 50.2 Bericht über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königl. Preuss. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. Deutsche Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin; Königlich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. 1845. p. 406. "Der Planet hat mit Einwilligung des Entdeckers den Namen Astraea erhalten, und sein Zeichen wird nach dem Wunsche des Hr. Hencke ein umgekehrter Anker sein." 
  51. 51.00 51.01 51.02 51.03 51.04 51.05 51.06 51.07 51.08 51.09 51.10 51.11 Schmadel, Lutz D. (2003). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names. Springer. pp. 15–18. ISBN 978-0-354-06174-2. 
  52. 52.0 52.1 52.2 Wöchentliche Unterhaltungen für Dilettanten und Freunde der Astronomie, Geographie und Witterungskunde. 1847. p. 315. 
  53. Steger, Franz (1847) (in de). Ergänzungs-conversationslexikon. 3. p. 442. "Hofrath Gauß gab auf Hencke's Ansuchen diesem neuen Planetoiden den Namen Hebe mit dem Zeichen (ein Weinglas)." 
  54. 54.0 54.1 54.2 54.3 54.4 "Report of the Council to the Twenty-eighth Annual General Meeting". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 8 (4): 82. 1848. doi:10.1093/mnras/8.4.57. Bibcode1848MNRAS...8...82.. "The symbol adopted for [Iris] is a semicircle to represent the rainbow, with an interior star and a base line for the horizon. ... The symbol adopted for [Flora's] designation is the figure of a flower.". 
  55. 55.0 55.1 "Extract of a letter from Mr. Graham". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 8: 147. 1848. "I trust, therefore, that astronomers will adopt this name [viz. Metis], with an eye and star for symbol.". 
  56. 56.0 56.1 56.2 56.3 56.4 56.5 de Gasparis, Annibale (1850). "Letter to Mr. Hind, from Professor Annibale de Gasparis". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 11: 1. doi:10.1093/mnras/11.1.1a. Bibcode1850MNRAS..11....1D. "The symbol of Hygeia is a serpent (like a Greek ζ) crowned with a star. That of Parthenope is a fish crowned with a star.". 
  57. 57.0 57.1 Hind, J.R. (1850). "Letter from Mr. Hind". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 11: 2. doi:10.1093/mnras/11.1.2. Bibcode1850MNRAS..11....2H. "I have called the new planet Victoria, for which I have devised, as a symbol, a star and laurel branch, emblematic of the goddess of Victory.". 
  58. 58.0 58.1 "Correspondance". Comptes Rendus des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences (France: Académie des Sciences) 32: 224. 1851. "M. de Gasparis adresse ses remerciments à l'Académie, qui lui a décerné, dans la séance solennelle du 16 décembre 1850, deux des médailles de la fondation Lalande, pour la découverte des planètes Hygie, Parthénope et Egérie. M. d Gasparis annonce qu'il a choisi, pour symbole de cette dernière planète, la figure d'un bouclier.". 
  59. 59.0 59.1 Hind, J.R. (1851). "On the discovery of a fourth new planet, at Mr. Bishop's observatory, Regent's Park". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 11 (8): 171. doi:10.1093/mnras/11.8.170a. "Sir John Herschel, who kindly undertook the selection of a name for this, the fourteenth member of the ultra-zodiacal group, has suggested Irene as one suitable to the present time, the symbol to be a dove carrying an olive-branch with a star on the head; and since the announcement of this name, I have been gratified in receiving from all quarters the most unqualified expressions of approbation.". 
  60. 60.0 60.1 de Gasparis, Annibale (1851). "Beobachtungen und Elemente der Eunomia" (in fr). Astronomische Nachrichten 33 (11): 174. doi:10.1002/asna.18520331107. Bibcode1851AN.....33..173D. "J'ai proposé le nom Eunomia pour la nouvelle planète. Le symbole serait un coeur surmonté d'une étoile.". 
  61. 61.0 61.1 Sonntag, A. (1852). "Elemente und Ephemeride der Psyche" (in de). Astronomische Nachrichten 34 (20): 283–286. doi:10.1002/asna.18520342010. Bibcode1852AN.....34..283.. "(in a footnote) Herr Professor de Gasparis schreibt mir, in Bezug auf den von ihm März 17 entdeckten neuen Planeten: "J'ai proposé, avec l'approbation de Mr. Hind, le nom de Psyché pour la nouvelle planète, ayant pour symbole une aile de papillon surmontée d'une étoile."". 
  62. 62.0 62.1 62.2 Luther, R. (1852). "Beobachtungen der Thetis auf der Bilker Sternwarte" (in de). Astronomische Nachrichten 34 (16): 243–244. doi:10.1002/asna.18520341606. "Herr Director Argelander in Bonn, welcher der hiesigen Sternwarte schon seit längerer Zeit seinen Schutz und Beistand zu Theil werden lässt, hat die Entdeckung des April-Planeten zuerst constatirt und mir bei dieser Gelegenheit dafür den Namen Thetis und das Zeichen [symbol pictured] vorgeschlagen, wodurch der der silberfüssigen Göttinn geheiligte Delphin angedeutet wird. Indem ich mich hiermit einverstanden erkläre, ersuche ich die sämmtlichen Herren Astronomen, diesen Namen und dieses Zeichen annehmen und beibehalten zu wollen.". 
  63. 63.0 63.1 63.2 63.3 63.4 63.5 63.6 63.7 63.8 63.9 Hind, J.R. (1852). An Astronomical Vocabulary. p. v. 
  64. 64.0 64.1 64.2 Luther, R. (1853). "Beobachtungen des neuesten Planeten auf der Bilker Sternwarte". Astronomische Nachrichten 36 (24): 349–350. doi:10.1002/asna.18530362403. Bibcode1853AN.....36Q.349.. 
  65. 65.0 65.1 65.2 Encke, J.F. (1854). "Beobachtung der Bellona, nebst Nachrichten über die Bilker Sternwarte". Astronomische Nachrichten 38 (9): 143–144. doi:10.1002/asna.18540380907. Bibcode1854AN.....38..143.. 
  66. 66.0 66.1 66.2 Rümker, G. (1855). "Name und Zeichen des von Herrn R. Luther zu Bilk am 19. April entdeckten Planeten". Astronomische Nachrichten 40 (24): 373–374. doi:10.1002/asna.18550402405. Bibcode1855AN.....40Q.373L. 
  67. 67.0 67.1 67.2 Luther, R. (1856). "Schreiben des Herrn Dr. R. Luther, Directors der Sternwarte zu Bilk, an den Herausgeber". Astronomische Nachrichten 42 (7): 107–108. doi:10.1002/asna.18550420705. Bibcode1855AN.....42..107L. 
  68. 68.0 68.1 Marth, A. (1854). "Elemente und Ephemeride des März 1 in London entdeckten Planeten Amphitrite". Astronomische Nachrichten 38 (11): 167–168. doi:10.1002/asna.18540381103. Bibcode1854AN.....38..167.. 
  69. Chambers, George Frederick (1877). A Handbook of Descriptive Astronomy. Clarendon Press. pp. 920–921. ISBN 978-1-108-01475-5. 
  70. 70.0 70.1 Olmsted, Dennis (1855). Letters on Astronomy. Harper. p. 288. 
  71. 71.0 71.1 71.2 Wilson, John (1899). A Treatise on English Punctuation. American Book Company. p. 302. ISBN 978-1-4255-3642-8. 
  72. 72.0 72.1 72.2 72.3 72.4 72.5 72.6 Faulks, David (2016-05-28). "L2/16-080: Additional Symbols for Astrology". 
  73. Hencke, Karl Ludwig (1847). "Schreiben des Herrn Hencke an den Herausgeber". Astronomische Nachrichten 26 (610): 155–156. doi:10.1002/asna.18480261007. Bibcode1847AN.....26..155H. 
  74. Oesterreichischer Universal-Kalender für das gemeine Jahr 1849. Austria. 1849. p. xxxix. 
  75. 75.0 75.1 75.2 75.3 Webster, Noah; Goodrich, Chauncey Allen (1884). Webster's Complete Dictionary of the English Language. p. 1,780. 
  76. "Solar System Symbols". NASA. January 30, 2018. 
  77. 78.0 78.1
  78. 79.0 79.1 79.2 79.3 79.4 79.5 JPL/NASA (April 22, 2015). "What is a Dwarf Planet?". Retrieved 2021-09-24. 
  79. 80.00 80.01 80.02 80.03 80.04 80.05 80.06 80.07 80.08 80.09 80.10 80.11 "Symbols for large trans-Neptunian objects". 2013-07-03. 
  80. Pullen, Walter D. (18 September 2021). "Dwarf Planets". 
  81. Faulks, David (June 12, 2016). "Eris and Sedna Symbols". 
  82. Morrison, Al H. (1977). "Chiron". CAO Times 3: 57. 
  83. 84.0 84.1 84.2 84.3 84.4 Haumea, Makemake, Gonggong, Quaoar and Orcus have been preliminarily accepted for Unicode 16 at code points U+1F77B to 1F77F (dec 128891 to 128895). L2/21-224: Unicode request for dwarf-planet symbols
  84. The Nautical Almanac and Astronomical Ephemeris for the Year 1833. The Board of Admiralty. 1831. p. 1. 
  85. The American Almanac and Repository of Useful Knowledge, for the Year 1835. 1834. p. 47. 
  86. Encyclopædia Britannica. 3 (6 ed.). 1823. p. 155. "... observe, that 60 seconds make a minute, 60 minutes make a degree, 30 degrees make a sign, and 12 signs make a circle." 
  87. 88.00 88.01 88.02 88.03 88.04 88.05 88.06 88.07 88.08 88.09 88.10 88.11 88.12 88.13 88.14 Joyce, Jeremiah (1866). Scientific Dialogues for the Instruction and Entertainment of Young People. Bell and Daldy. p. 109. ISBN 978-1-145-49244-8. 
  88. The Nautical Almanac and the Astronomical Ephemeris for the year 1834. 1833. p. xiii.  The 1834 edition of the Nautical Almanac and Astronomical Ephemeris abandoned the use of numerical signs (among other innovations); compare the representation of (ecliptic) longitude in the editions for the years 1834 and 1833.
  89. The IAU Style Manual. The International Astronnomical Union (IAU). 1989. p. 34. Retrieved August 20, 2018. 
  90. Roy, Archie E.; David, Clarke (2003). Astronomy: Principles and practice. p. 73. ISBN 978-0-7503-0917-2. 
  91. King-Hele, Desmond (1992). A Tapestry of Orbits. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-521-39323-2. 
  92. 93.00 93.01 93.02 93.03 93.04 93.05 93.06 93.07 93.08 93.09 93.10 93.11 Lewis & Short, A Latin Dictionary.
  93. Peter Grego (2012) The Star Book: Stargazing Throughout the Seasons in the Northern Hemisphere. F+W Media.
  94. Covington, Michael A. (2002). Celestial Objects for Modern Telescopes. 2. pp. 77–78. 
  95. Ridpath, John Clark, ed (1897). The Standard American Encyclopedia. 1. p. 198. 
  96. 97.0 97.1 97.2 Tupman, G. L. (1877). "Observations of Comet I 1877". Astronomische Nachrichten 89 (11): 169–170. doi:10.1002/asna.18770891103. Bibcode1877AN.....89..169T. Retrieved March 24, 2011. 
  97. Kirkhill Astronomical Pillar

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