Astronomy:Outline of astronomy

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Mauna Kea in Hawaii is one of the world's premier observatory sites. Pictured is the W. M. Keck Observatory, an optical interferometer.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to astronomy:

Astronomy – studies the universe beyond Earth, including its formation and development, and the evolution, physics, chemistry, meteorology, and motion of celestial objects (such as galaxies, planets, etc.) and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth (such as the cosmic background radiation). Astronomy also intersect with biology, as astrobiology, studying potential life throughout the universe.

Nature of astronomy

Astronomy can be described as all the following:

Branches of astronomy

History of astronomy

History of astronomy

Basic astronomical phenomena

Astronomical objects

Astronomical object

Solar System

The SunMercuryVenusThe MoonEarthMarsPhobos and DeimosCeresThe main asteroid beltJupiterMoons of JupiterRings of JupiterSaturnMoons of SaturnRings of SaturnUranusMoons of UranusRings of UranusNeptuneMoons of NeptuneRings of NeptunePlutoMoons of PlutoHaumeaMoons of HaumeaMakemakeS/2015 (136472) 1The Kuiper BeltErisDysnomiaThe Scattered DiscThe Hills CloudThe Oort CloudThe Sun, the planets, their moons, and several trans-Neptunian objects




Small Solar System bodies

Small Solar System body


  • Exoplanet (also known as extrasolar planets) – planet outside the Solar System. A total of 4,341 such planets have been identified as of 28 Jan 2021.
    • Super-Earth – exoplanet with a mass higher than Earth's, but substantially below those of the Solar System's ice giants.
    • Mini-Neptune – also known as a gas dwarf or transitional planet. A planet up to 10 Earth masses, but less massive than Uranus and Neptune.
    • Super-Jupiter – an exoplanet more massive than Jupiter.
    • Sub-Earth – an exoplanet "substantially less massive" than Earth and Venus.
    • Circumbinary planet – an exoplanet that orbits two stars.
    • Hot Jupiter – an exoplanet whose characteristics are similar to Jupiter, but that have high surface temperatures because they orbit very close to their parent stars, whereas Jupiter orbits its parent star (the Sun) at 5.2 AU (780×106 km), causing low surface temperatures.
    • Hot Neptune – an exoplanet in an orbit close to its star (normally less than one astronomical unit away), with a mass similar to that of Uranus or Neptune.
    • Pulsar planet – a planet that orbits a pulsar or a rapidly rotating neutron star.
    • Rogue planet (also known as an interstellar planet) – a planetary-mass object that orbits the galaxy directly.

Stars and stellar objects


Variable stars

Variable star



Black holes

Artist's representation of a black hole.

Black hole


The 88 modern constellations

Constellation history

The 48 constellations listed by Ptolemy after 150 AD

The 41 additional constellations added in the 16th and 17th centuries

Obsolete constellations including Ptolemy's Argo Navis

Obsolete constellations including Ptolemy's Argo Navis Anser

Clusters and nebulae



Space exploration

See: Outline of space exploration


Public sector space agencies

Space agencies

North Africa
  • Algeria Algerian Space Agency
  • Egypt National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences
  • Egypt Remote Sensing Center
  • Morocco Royal Centre for Remote Sensing
  • Tunisia National Remote Sensing Center
North America
South America
East Asia
Southeast Asia
South Asia
Southwest Asia
Central Asia
  • Australia Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation

1 Preceded by the Soviet space program

Books and publications


See also


External links