Astronomy:List of directly imaged exoplanets

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Short description: Exoplanets confirmed or discovered from direct imaging
Motion interpolation of seven images of the HR 8799 system taken from the W. M. Keck Observatory over seven years, featuring four exoplanets

This is a list of extrasolar planets that have been directly observed, sorted by observed separations. This method works best for young planets that emit infrared light and are far from the glare of the star. Currently, this list includes both directly imaged planets and imaged planetary-mass companions (objects that orbit a star but formed through a binary-star-formation process, not a planet-formation process). This list does not include free-floating planetary-mass objects in star-forming regions or young associations, which are also referred to as rogue planets.

The data given for each planet is taken from the latest published paper on the planet to have that data. In many cases it is not possible to have an exact value, and an estimated range is instead provided. The lightest, coldest, and oldest planet directly imaged is Proxima Centauri c, which has a mass of 7 MEarth, an effective temperature of 39 K, and an age of about 4.8 Ga. This list includes the four members of the multi-planet system that orbit HR 8799.

Key

Exoplanets have been discovered using several different methods for collecting or combining direct images to isolate planets from the background light of their star. Non-Redundant Aperture Masking Interferometry is a method of combining the views of multiple telescopes into a single image, while the other methods are algorithms for combining multiple direct images taken from the same telescope.

  • ADI = Angular Differential Imaging
  • KLIP = Karhunen–Loève Image Processing
  • LOCI = Locally Optimized Combination of Images
  • NRM = Non-Redundant Aperture Masking Interferometry
  • RSDI = Reference Star Differential Imaging
  • SDI = Spectral Differential Imaging
  • TLOCI = Template Locally Optimized Combination of Images

Exoplanets

Although listed in the table below, the identity of Fomalhaut b is disputed. It may not actually be a true exoplanet.

  †   There is no consensus whether these companions of stars should be considered sub-brown dwarfs or planets

Check https://exoplanetarchive.ipac.caltech.edu/docs/imaging.html to see more directly imaged planets. It contains an updated table of all of them.

Star Exoplanet Mass (MJ) Radius (RJ) Period (yr) Observed separation (AU) Eccentricity Distance to Earth (ly) Year of discovery Imaging technique Ref(s).
AB Aurigae AB Aurigae b 9-12 2.75 ? 93 0.19-0.60 508 2022 ADI/RSDI, ALOCI [1]
Beta Pictoris Beta Pictoris b 12.7±0.3 1.5±0.2 22.47+3.77−2.26 9 0.08+0.09−0.05 0063 63.4±0.1 2008 RSDI [2][3][4][5]
51 Eridani 51 Eridani b 2.6 1.0 ? 13 ? 0096 96 2014 ADI, KLIP [6]
HR 8799 HR 8799 e 7.0 1.3 49 14.5 0.14 0128 128 2010 ADI, LOCI
HR 8799 d 7.0 1.3 100 24.5 0.09 0128 128 2008 ADI, LOCI
HR 8799 c 7.0 1.3 189 37.4 0.24 0128 128 2008 ADI, LOCI
HR 8799 b 5.0 1.2 474 69.2 0.17 0128 128 2008 ADI, LOCI
ROXs 42B ROXs 42Bb 9±3 2.5 Unknown 0157 157 style="background: #ececec; color: #2C2C2C; font-size: smaller; vertical-align: middle; text-align: center; " class="unknown table-unknown"|Unknown 0440 440±16 2013 Direct imaging [7]
2M1207 2M1207b 4.2 1.5 1620 40.6 0.37 0170 170 2004 Direct imaging
1RXS J1609 1RXS 1609 b† 8–14 1.7 6518 331.1 0.08 0470 470 2008 Direct imaging
2M J044144 2M J044144 b† 5–10 15 0456 456 2010 Direct imaging
Fomalhaut Fomalhaut b (?) < 2.0 872–2000 116.0 0025 25 2008/2012 RSDI
LkCa 15 LkCa 15 b 6.2 1.8 42,315 23.5 0.32 0477 477 2011 NRM
WD 0806-661 WD 0806-661 B† 7–9 ? ? 2500 ? 0062 62 2011 Direct imaging
DT Virginis Ross 458(AB) c† 8.5 1.8 33,081 1167.7 0.17 0038 38

[8] || 2011 || Direct imaging

HD 95086 HD 95086 b 5.0 ? ? 56 ? 0295 295 2013 ADI, LOCI
59 Virginis Gliese 504 b 4+4.5−1 ? ? 43.5 ? 0057 57.27 2013 ADI, LOCI
kappa Andromedae kappa Andromedae b 13+12−2 ? 242–900 55 0.69–0.85 0168 168.0 2013 ADI, LOCI
FW Tauri FW Tauri b† 10±4 ? ~12,000[9] 330 ? 0472 472.93

[10] || 2013 || Direct imaging

HD 106906 HD 106906 b 11±2 ? ? 650 ? 0300 300 2013 ADI
GU Piscium GU Piscium b 11±2 163,000 2000 0155 155 2014 Direct imaging
VHS 1256-1257 VHS 1256 b † 11.2 3900 102 0040 40 2015 Direct imaging
HIP 65426 HIP 65426 b 6-12 1.5 600 92 0363 363 2017 ADI, TLOCI [11][12]
PDS 70 PDS 70 b ? ? 21 370 2018 ADI, TLOCI
PDS 70 c ? ? 35 370 2019 SDI
HD 203030 HD 203030 B 11+4−3 487 128 2006 SDI [13]
TYC 9486-927-1 2MASS J2126–8140 13.3±1.7 ? ~900,000 6684 ? 80.72±13.86 2006/2016 Direct imaging [14]
Alpha Centauri Candidate 1 0.11±0.05 0.459±0.17 ~1 1.1 4.37 2021
L 34-26 COCONUTS-2b 6.3+1.5
−1.9
1.1±0.03 ~1,100,000 6471 35.51±0.01 2011/2021 Direct imaging [15]
BD+60 1417 BD+60 1417b 15±5 1.31±0.06 1662 144±13 2021 Direct imaging [16]

See also

References

  1. Currie, Thayne; Lawson, Kellen; Schneider, Glenn et al. (4 April 2022). "Images of embedded Jovian planet formation at a wide separation around AB Aurigae". Nature Astronomy (Springer Science and Business Media LLC). doi:10.1038/s41550-022-01634-x. ISSN 2397-3366. 
  2. Wang (2016). "The Orbit and Transit Prospects for β Pictoris b Constrained with One Milliarcsecond Astrometry". The Astronomical Journal 152 (4): 97. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/4/97. Bibcode2016AJ....152...97W. 
  3. Bonnefoy (2014). "Physical and orbital properties of β Pictoris b". Astronomy & Astrophysics 567: L9. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201424041. Bibcode2014A&A...567L...9B. 
  4. Currie, Thayne et al. (2013). "A Combined Very Large Telescope and Gemini Study of the Atmosphere of the Directly Imaged Planet, β Pictoris b". The Astrophysical Journal 776 (1): 15. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/776/1/15. ISSN 0004-637X. Bibcode2013ApJ...776...15C. 
  5. Morzinski (2015). "Magellan Adaptive Optics First-light Observations of the Exoplanet β Pic b. II. 3-5 μm Direct Imaging with MagAO+Clio, and the Empirical Bolometric Luminosity of a Self-luminous Giant Planet". The Astrophysical Journal 815 (2): 108. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/815/2/108. Bibcode2015ApJ...815..108M. 
  6. Macintoshi (2015). "Discovery and spectroscopy of the young Jovian planet 51 Eri b with the Gemini Planet Imager". Science 350 (6256): 64–7. doi:10.1126/science.aac5891. PMID 26272904. Bibcode2015Sci...350...64M. 
  7. Currie, Thayne; Daemgen, Sebastian; Debes, John; Lafreniere, David; Itoh, Yoichi; Jayawardhana, Ray; Ratzka, Thorsten; Correia, Serge (2014). "Direct Imaging and Spectroscopy of a Candidate Companion Below/Near the Deuterium-Burning Limit In The Young Binary Star System, ROXs 42B". The Astrophysical Journal Letters 780 (2): 30. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/780/2/L30. Bibcode2014ApJ...780L..30C. 
  8. "Ross 458(AB) c". The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia. http://exoplanet.eu/catalog/ross_458_(ab)_c/. Retrieved 2012-10-24. 
  9. "Planet FW Tau b.". The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia. http://exoplanet.eu/catalog/fw_tau_b/. Retrieved 21 Feb 2018. 
  10. "FW Tauri". Universe Guide. https://www.universeguide.com/star/fwtau. 
  11. "ESO's SPHERE Unveils its First Exoplanet". https://www.eso.org/public/announcements/ann17041/. 
  12. Chauvin (2017). "Discovery of a warm, dusty giant planet around HIP 65426". Astronomy & Astrophysics 605: L9. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201731152. Bibcode2017A&A...605L...9C. 
  13. Miles-Páez, Paulo A.; Metchev, Stanimir; Luhman, Kevin L.; Marengo, Massimo; Hulsebus, Alan (2017). "The Prototypical Young L/T-Transition Dwarf HD 203030B Likely Has Planetary Mass". The Astronomical Journal 154 (6): 262. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/aa9711. Bibcode2017AJ....154..262M. 
  14. Deacon, N. R.; Schlieder, J. E.; Murphy, S. J. (2016-02-23). "A nearby young M dwarf with a wide, possibly planetary-mass companion". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 457 (3): 3191–3199. doi:10.1093/mnras/stw172. ISSN 0035-8711. Bibcode2016MNRAS.457.3191D. 
  15. Zhang, Zhoujian; Liu, Michael C.; Claytor, Zachary R.; Best, William M. J.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Siverd, Robert J. (2021-08-01). "The Second Discovery from the COol Companions ON Ultrawide orbiTS (COCONUTS) Program: A Cold Wide-Orbit Exoplanet around a Young Field M Dwarf at 10.9 pc". The Astrophysical Journal Letters 916 (2): L11. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ac1123. ISSN 2041-8205. http://arxiv.org/abs/2107.02805. 
  16. Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Gagné, Jonathan; Popinchalk, Mark; Vos, Johanna M.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Schümann, Jörg; Schneider, Adam C.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy et al. (2021-12-01). "A Wide Planetary Mass Companion Discovered through the Citizen Science Project Backyard Worlds: Planet 9". The Astrophysical Journal 923: 48. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac2499. ISSN 0004-637X. https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2021ApJ...923...48F. 

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