Physics:Xi baryon

From HandWiki
Xi baryon
StatisticsFermionic
InteractionsStrong, weak, electromagnetic, and gravity
Types2
Spin12
Strangeness-2
Isospin12

The Xi baryons /ks bæriənz/ or cascade particles are a family of subatomic hadron particles which have the symbol Ξ and may have an electric charge (Q) of +2 e, +1 e, 0, or −1 e, where e is the elementary charge.

Like all conventional baryons, Ξ particles contain three quarks. Ξ baryons, in particular, contain either one up or one down quark and two other, more massive quarks. The two more massive quarks are any two of strange, charm, or bottom (doubles allowed). For notation, the assumption is that the two heavy quarks in the Ξ are both strange; subscripts "c" and "b" are added for each even heavier charm or bottom quark that replaces one of the two presumed strange quarks.

They are historically called the cascade particles because of their unstable state; they are typically observed to decay rapidly into lighter particles, through a chain of decays (cascading decays).[1] The first discovery of a charged Xi baryon was in cosmic ray experiments by the Manchester group in 1952.[2] The first discovery of the neutral Xi particle was at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in 1959.[3] It was also observed as a daughter product from the decay of the omega baryon (Ω) observed at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1964.[1] The Xi spectrum is important to nonperturbative quantum chromodynamics (QCD), such as lattice QCD.

History

The Ξb particle is also known as the cascade B particle and contains quarks from all three families. It was discovered by D0 and CDF experiments at Fermilab. The discovery was announced on 12 June 2007. It was the first known particle made of quarks from all three quark generations – namely, a down quark, a strange quark, and a bottom quark. The D0 and CDF collaborations reported the consistent masses of the new state. The Particle Data Group world average mass is 5.7924±0.0030 GeV/c2.

For notation, the assumption is that the two heavy quarks are both strange, denoted by a simple Ξ ; a subscript "c" is added for each constituent charm quark, and a "b" for each bottom quark. Hence Ξc, Ξb, Ξcc, Ξcb, etc. Unless specified, the non-up/down quark content of Xi baryons is strange (i.e. there is one up or down quark and two strange quarks). However a Ξ0b contains one up, one strange, and one bottom quark, while a Ξ0bb contains one up and two bottom quarks.

In 2012, the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider detected a Ξ∗0b baryon (reported mass 5945±2.8 MeV/c2).[4][5] (Here,"*" indicates a baryon decuplet.) The LHCb experiment at CERN discovered two new Xi baryons in 2014: Ξ′b and Ξ∗−b.[6]

In 2017, the LHCb researchers reported yet another Xi baryon: the double charmed Ξ++cc baryon, consisting of two heavy charm quarks and one up quark. The mass of Ξ++cc is about 3.8 times that of a proton.[7][8]

List of Xi baryons

Isospin and spin values in parentheses have not been firmly established by experiments, but are predicted by the quark model and are consistent with the measurements.

Xi baryons[9][10][11][12]
Particle Symbol Makeup Rest mass
(MeV/c2)
Isospin,
I
Spin, parity,
JP
Q S C B Mean lifetime
(s)
Decays to
Xi[13] Ξ0 Up quarkStrange quarkStrange quark 1314.86±0.20 1/2 1/2(+) 0 −2 0 0 (2.90±0.09)×10−10 Lambda0 + Pion0
Xi[14] Ξ Down quarkStrange quarkStrange quark 1321.71±0.07 1/2 1/2(+) −1 −2 0 0 (1.639±0.015)×10−10 Lambda0 + Pion-
Xi resonance[15] Ξ0(1530) Up quarkStrange quarkStrange quark 1531.80±0.32 1/2 3/2+ 0 −2 0 0 Xi + Pion
Xi resonance[15] Ξ(1530) Down quarkStrange quarkStrange quark 1535.0±0.6 1/2 3/2+ −1 −2 0 0 Xi + Pion
charmed Xi[16] Ξ+c Up quarkStrange quarkCharm quark 2467.9±0.4 1/2 (1/2+) +1 −1 +1 0 (4.42±0.26)×10−13 See Ξ+c decay modes
charmed Xi[16] Ξ0c Down quarkStrange quarkCharm quark 2471.0±0.4 1/2 (1/2+) 0 −1 +1 0 1.12+0.13
−0.10
×10−13
See Ξ0c decay modes
charmed Xi resonance[16] Ξ′+c Up quarkStrange quarkCharm quark 2575.7±3.1 1/2 (1/2+) +1 −1 +1 0 Ξ+c + γ (Seen)
charmed Xi resonance[16] Ξ′0c Down quarkStrange quarkCharm quark 2578.0±2.9 1/2 (1/2+) 0 −1 +1 0 1.1×10−13 Ξ0c + γ (Seen)
double charmed Xi[7] Ξ++cc Up quarkCharm quarkCharm quark 3621.40±0.72 ± 0.27 ± 0.14 (1/2) (1/2+) +2 0 +2 0 0.256+0.024
−0.022
 
±0.014×10−12[17]
Charmed lambda+ + Kaon- + Pion+ + Pion+
double charmed Xi[lower-alpha 1][18] Ξ+cc Down quarkCharm quarkCharm quark 3518.9±0.9[lower-alpha 1] (1/2) (1/2+) +1 0 +2 0 <3.3×10−14[lower-alpha 1] Charmed lambda+ + Kaon- + Pion+[e] or
Proton+ + D+ + Kaon-[e]
bottom Xi[19] Ξ0b Up quarkStrange quarkb 5792±3 (1/2) (1/2+) 0 −1 0 −1 1.42+0.28
−0.24
×10−12
[lower-alpha 2]
See Ξb decay modes
bottom Xi or
Cascade B[9][12][19]
Ξb Down quarkStrange quarkb 5792.9±3.0 (1/2) (1/2+) −1 −1 0 −1 1.42×10−12 See Ξb decay modes
( Ξ + J/Psi was also seen)
Ξ′b[20] Down quarkStrange quarkb 5935.02±0.02 ± 0.01 ± 0.50 1/2+ −1 −1 0 −1
Ξ∗−b[20] Down quarkStrange quarkb 5955.33±0.12 ± 0.06 ± 0.50 3/2+ −1 −1 0 −1
Ξb(6227)[21] Down quarkStrange quarkb 6226.9±2.0 ± 0.3 ± 0.2 −1 −1 0 −1 Λb + K
Ξ0b + π
double bottom Xi[lower-alpha 3] Ξ0bb Up quarkbb (1/2) (1/2+) 0 0 0 −2
double bottom Xi[lower-alpha 3] Ξbb Down quarkbb (1/2) (1/2+) −1 0 0 −2
charmed bottom Xi[lower-alpha 3] Ξ+cb Up quarkCharm quarkb (1/2) (1/2) + +1 0 +1 −1
charmed bottom Xi[lower-alpha 3] Ξ0cb Down quarkCharm quarkb (1/2) (1/2+) 0 0 +1 −1
Table notes
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Some controversy exists about this data. See references
  2. This is actually a measurement of the average lifetime of b-baryons that decay to a jet containing a same-sign Ξ± ± pair. Presumably the mix is mainly Ξb, with some Λb.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Particle (or quantity, i.e. spin) has neither been observed nor indicated

See also

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Nave, R.. "The Xi Baryon". http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/particles/xi.html. 
  2. Armenteros, R. (1952). "The properties of charged V-particles". Philosophical Magazine 43 (341): 597. doi:10.1080/14786440608520216. 
  3. Alvarez, L.W. (1959). "Neutral Cascade Hyperon Event". Physical Review Letters 2 (5): 215. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.2.215. Bibcode1959PhRvL...2..215A. http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/2gs1j865. 
  4. Simpson, C. (28 April 2013). "New particle discovered with 'Higgs boson' machine". http://www.theatlanticwire.com/technology/2012/04/new-particle-discovered-higgs-boson-machine/51688/. 
  5. Chatrchyan, S. (2012). "Observation of a new Ξb baryon". Physical Review Letters 108 (25): 252002. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.252002. PMID 23004588. Bibcode2012PhRvL.108y2002C. 
  6. "LHCb experiment observes two new baryon particles never seen before" (Press release). Bern, CH: CERN. 19 November 2014.
  7. 7.0 7.1 "The LHCb experiment is charmed to announce observation of a new particle with two heavy quarks" (Press release). CERN. 2017-07-06. Retrieved 2017-07-06.
  8. Chang, Kenneth (2017-07-06). "CERN physicists find a particle with a double dose of charm". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/07/06/science/cern-quarks-charm-baryon.html. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 Abazov, V. (2007). "Direct observation of the strange b baryon Ξb". Physical Review Letters 99 (5): 52001. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.052001. PMID 17930744. Bibcode2007PhRvL..99e2001A. 
  10. "Fermilab physicists discover "triple-scoop" baryon" (Press release). Fermilab. 13 June 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-14.
  11. "Back-to-back b baryons in Batavia" (Press release). Fermilab. 25 June 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-25.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Aaltonen, T. (2007). "Observation and mass measurement of the baryon Ξb". Physical Review Letters 99 (5): 52002. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.052002. PMID 17930745. Bibcode2007PhRvL..99e2002A. 
  13. Yao, W.-M. (2006). "Particle listings – Xi0". Journal of Physics G 33 (1): 1–1232]. doi:10.1088/0954-3899/33/1/001. Bibcode2006JPhG...33....1Y. http://pdg.lbl.gov/2007/listings/s023.pdf. 
  14. Yao, W.-M. (2006). "Particle listings – Xi". Journal of Physics G 33 (1): 1–1232. doi:10.1088/0954-3899/33/1/001. Bibcode2006JPhG...33....1Y. http://pdg.lbl.gov/2007/listings/s022.pdf. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 Yao, W.-M. (2006). "Particle Listings – Xi(1530)". Journal of Physics G 33 (1): 1–1232. doi:10.1088/0954-3899/33/1/001. Bibcode2006JPhG...33....1Y. http://pdg.lbl.gov/2007/listings/b049.pdf. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 Yao, W.-M. (2006). "Particle listings – Charmed baryons". Journal of Physics G 33 (1): 1–1232. doi:10.1088/0954-3899/33/1/001. Bibcode2006JPhG...33....1Y. http://pdg.lbl.gov/2007/tables/bxxxcharm.pdf. 
  17. "Long-lived doubly-charmed particle". CERN. May 2018. https://home.cern/about/updates/2018/05/long-live-doubly-charmed-particle. 
  18. Yao, W.-M. (2006). "Particle listings – Ξ+cc". Journal of Physics G 33 (1): 1. doi:10.1088/0954-3899/33/1/001. Bibcode2006JPhG...33....1Y. http://pdg.lbl.gov/2007/listings/s065.pdf. 
  19. 19.0 19.1 Yao, W.-M. (2006). "Particle listings – Xib". Journal of Physics G 33 (1): 1–1232. doi:10.1088/0954-3899/33/1/001. Bibcode2006JPhG...33....1Y. http://pdg.lbl.gov/2007/listings/s060.pdf. 
  20. 20.0 20.1 Aaij, R. (2015). "Observation of two new Ξb baryon resonances". Physical Review Letters 114 (6): 062004. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.062004. PMID 25723210. Bibcode2015PhRvL.114f2004A. 
  21. Aaij, R. (2018). "Observation of a new Ξb resonance". Physical Review Letters 121 (72002): 072002. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.072002. PMID 30169090. Bibcode2018PhRvL.121g2002A. 

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