Physics:List of quasiparticles

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This is a list of quasiparticles.

Quasiparticles
Quasiparticle Signification Underlying particles
Anyon A type of quasiparticle that occurs only in two-dimensional systems, with properties much less restricted than fermions and bosons.
Bion A bound state of solitons, named for Born-Infeld model soliton
Bipolaron A bound pair of two polarons polaron (electron, phonon)
Bogoliubon Broken Cooper pair electron, hole
Configuron[1] An elementary configurational excitation in an amorphous material which involves breaking of a chemical bond
Dislon A localized collective excitation associated with a dislocation in crystalline solids.[2] It emerges from the quantization of the lattice displacement field of a classical dislocation
Dropleton The first known quasiparticle that behaves like a liquid[3]
Electron quasiparticle An electron as affected by the other forces and interactions in the solid electron
Electron hole (hole) A lack of electron in a valence band electron, cation
Exciton A bound state of an electron and a hole electron, hole
Fracton A collective quantized vibration on a substrate with a fractal structure.
Fracton (subdimensional particle) An emergent quasiparticle excitation that is immobile when in isolation.
Holon (chargon) A quasi-particle resulting from electron spin-charge separation
Leviton A collective excitation of a single electron within a metal
Magnon A coherent excitation of electron spins in a material
Majorana fermion A quasiparticle equal to its own antiparticle, emerging as a midgap state in certain superconductors
Nematicon A soliton in nematic liquid crystal media
Orbiton[4] A quasiparticle resulting from electron spin-orbital separation
Oscillon A soliton-like single wave in vibrating media
Phason Vibrational modes in a quasicrystal associated with atomic rearrangements
Phoniton A theoretical quasiparticle which is a hybridization of a localized, long-living phonon and a matter excitation[5]
Phonon Vibrational modes in a crystal lattice associated with atomic shifts
Plasmaron A quasiparticle emerging from the coupling between a plasmon and a hole
Plasmon A coherent excitation of a plasma
Polaron A moving charged quasiparticle that is surrounded by ions in a material electron, phonon
Polariton A mixture of photon with other quasiparticles photon, optical phonon
Roton Elementary excitation in superfluid helium-4
Soliton A self-reinforcing solitary excitation wave
Spinon A quasiparticle produced as a result of electron spin-charge separation that can form both quantum spin liquid and strongly correlated quantum spin liquid
Trion A coherent excitation of three quasiparticles (two holes and one electron or two electrons and one hole)
Wrinklon A localized excitation corresponding to wrinkles in a constrained two dimensional system[6][7]

References

  1. Angell, C.A.; Rao, K.J. (1972). "Configurational excitations in condensed matter, and "bond lattice" model for the liquid-glass transition". J. Chem. Phys. 57 (1): 470–481. doi:10.1063/1.1677987. Bibcode1972JChPh..57..470A. 
  2. M. Li, Y. Tsurimaki, Q. Meng, N. Andrejevic, Y. Zhu, G. D. Mahan, and G. Chen, "Theory of electron-phonon-dislon interacting system – toward a quantized theory of dislocations", New J. Phys. (2017) http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1367-2630/aaa383/meta
  3. Clara Moskowitz (26 February 2014). "Meet the Dropleton—a "Quantum Droplet" That Acts Like a Liquid". Scientific American. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/dropleton-quantum-droplet-quasiparticle/. 
  4. J. Schlappa, K. Wohlfeld, K. J. Zhou, M. Mourigal, M. W. Haverkort, V. N. Strocov, L. Hozoi, C. Monney, S. Nishimoto, S. Singh, A. Revcolevschi, J.-S. Caux, L. Patthey, H. M. Rønnow, J. van den Brink, and T. Schmitt (2012-04-18). "Spin–orbital separation in the quasi-one-dimensional Mott insulator Sr2CuO3". Nature 485 (7396): 82–5. doi:10.1038/nature10974. PMID 22522933. Bibcode2012Natur.485...82S. 
  5. "Introducing the Phoniton: a tool for controlling sound at the quantum level". University of Maryland Department of Physics. http://www.umdphysics.umd.edu/component/content/article/77-modules/582-introducing-the-phoniton-a-tool-for-controlling-sound-at-the-quantum-level.html. 
  6. Johnson, Hamish. "Introducing the 'wrinklon'". Physics World. http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/2011/jun/20/introducing-the-wrinklon. 
  7. Meng, Lan; Su, Ying; Geng, Dechao; Yu, Gui; Liu, Yunqi; Dou, Rui-Fen; Nie, Jia-Cai; He, Lin (2013). "Hierarchy of graphene wrinkles induced by thermal strain engineering". Applied Physics Letters 103 (25): 251610. doi:10.1063/1.4857115. Bibcode2013ApPhL.103y1610M. 

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