3D model (JSmol)
|Molar mass||197.132 g/mol|
|Appearance||green crystals (darkening with time)|
|Density||2.78 g/cm3, solid|
|Melting point||190 °C (374 °F; 463 K) (decomposition)|
|isomorphous with K|
|GHS Signal word||Warning|
|H272, H315, H319, H335|
|P210, P220, P221, P261, P264, P271, P280, P302+352, P304+340, P305+351+338, P312, P321, P332+313, P337+313, P362, P370+378, P403+233, P405, P501|
|NFPA 704 (fire diamond)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Potassium manganate is the inorganic compound with the formula K
4. This green-colored salt is an intermediate in the industrial synthesis of potassium permanganate (KMnO
4), a common chemical. Occasionally, potassium manganate and potassium permanganate are confused, but these compounds's properties are distinct.
Structure and bonding
4 is a salt, consisting of K+
cations and MnO2−
4 anions. X-ray crystallography shows that the anion is tetrahedral, with Mn-O distances of 1.66 Å, ca. 0.03 Å longer than the Mn-O distances in KMnO
4. It is isostructural with potassium sulfate. The compound is paramagnetic, owing to the presence of one unpaired electron on the Mn(VI) center.
The industrial route entails treatment of MnO
2 with air:
- 2 MnO2 + 4 KOH + O2 → 2 K2MnO4 + 2 H2O
The transformation gives a green-colored melt. Alternatively, instead of using air, potassium nitrate can be used as the oxidizer:
- 2 KOH + KNO
3 + MnO
2 → K
4 + H
2O + KNO
One can test an unknown substance for the presence of manganese by heating the sample in strong KOH in air. The production of a green coloration indicates the presence of Mn. This green color results from an intense absorption at 610 nm.
- 4 KMnO
4 + 4 KOH → 4 K
4 + O
2 + 2 H
This reaction illustrates the relatively rare role of hydroxide as a reducing agent. The concentration of K
4 in such solutions can be checked by measuring their absorbance at 610 nm.
The one-electron reduction of permanganate to manganate can also be effected using iodide as the reducing agent:
- 2 KMnO
4 + 2 KI → 2 K
4 + I
The conversion is signaled by the color change from purple, characteristic of permanganate, to the green color of manganate. This reaction also shows that manganate(VII) can serve as an electron acceptor in addition to its usual role as an oxygen-transfer reagent. Barium manganate, BaMnO
4, is generated by the reduction of KMnO
4 with iodide in the presence of barium chloride. Just like BaSO
4 exhibits low solubility in virtually all solvents.
An easy method for preparing potassium manganate in the laboratory involves heating crystals or powder of pure potassium permanganate. Potassium permanganate will decompose into potassium manganate, manganese dioxide and oxygen gas:
- 2 KMnO
4 → K
4 + MnO
2 + O
This reaction is a laboratory method to prepare oxygen, but produces samples of potassium manganate contaminated together MnO
2. The former is soluble and the latter is not.
- 3 K
4 + 2 H
2O → 2 KMnO
4 + MnO
2 + 4 KOH
The colorful nature of the disproportionation has led the manganate/manganate(VII) pair to be referred to as a chemical chameleon. This disproportionation reaction, which becomes rapid when [OH−
] < 1M, follows bimolecular kinetics.
- Category:Manganates for a list.
- Reidies, Arno H. (2002). "Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a16_123.
- Palenik, G. J. (1967). "Crystal Structure of Potassium Manganate". Inorg. Chem. 6 (3): 507–511. doi:10.1021/ic50049a015.
- Nyholm, R. S.; Woolliams, P. R. (1968). Manganates(VI). Inorganic Syntheses. 11. 56–61. doi:10.1002/9780470132425.ch11. ISBN 978-0-470-13242-5.
- Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. "Inorganic Chemistry" Academic Press: San Diego, 2001. ISBN:0-12-352651-5.
Original source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potassium manganate. Read more