From HandWiki
Skeletal formula of nonane
Skeletal formula of nonane with all implicit carbons shown, and all explicit hydrogens added
Ball-and-stick model of the nonane molecule
Preferred IUPAC name
3D model (JSmol)
EC Number
  • 203-913-4
MeSH nonane
RTECS number
  • RA6115000
UN number 1920
Molar mass 128.259 g·mol−1
Appearance Colorless liquid
Odor Gasoline-like
Density 0.718 g/mL
Melting point −54.1 to −53.1 °C; −65.5 to −63.7 °F; 219.0 to 220.0 K
Boiling point 150.4 to 151.0 °C; 302.6 to 303.7 °F; 423.5 to 424.1 K
log P 5.293
Vapor pressure 0.59 kPa (at 25.0 °C)
1.7 nmol Pa−1 kg−1
-108.13·10−6 cm3/mol
284.34 J K−1 mol−1
393.67 J K−1 mol−1
−275.7–−273.7 kJ mol−1
−6125.75–−6124.67 kJ mol−1
GHS pictograms GHS02: Flammable GHS07: Harmful GHS08: Health hazard
GHS Signal word DANGER
H226, H304, H315, H319, H332, H336
P261, P301+310, P305+351+338, P331
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
Flammability code 3: Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions. Flash point between 23 and 38 °C (73 and 100 °F). E.g. gasolineHealth code 0: Exposure under fire conditions would offer no hazard beyond that of ordinary combustible material. E.g. sodium chlorideReactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g. liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Flash point 31.0 °C (87.8 °F; 304.1 K)
205.0 °C (401.0 °F; 478.1 K)
Explosive limits 0.87–2.9%
NIOSH (US health exposure limits):
PEL (Permissible)
REL (Recommended)
TWA 200 ppm (1050 mg/m3)[2]
IDLH (Immediate danger)
Related compounds
Related alkanes
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references
Tracking categories (test):

Nonane is a linear alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula C9H20. It is a colorless, flammable liquid, occurring primarily in the component of the petroleum distillate fraction commonly called kerosene, which is used as a heating, tractor, and jet fuel.[4] Nonane is also used as a solvent, distillation chaser, fuel additive, and a component in biodegradable detergents.[5]

Nonane has 35 structural isomers.

Its substituent form is nonyl. Its cycloalkane counterpart is cyclononane, (C9H18).

Unlike most alkanes, the numeric prefix in its name is from Latin, not Greek. (A name using a Greek prefix would be enneane.)

Combustion reactions

Nonane undergoes combustion reactions that are similar to other alkanes. In the presence of sufficient oxygen, nonane burns to form water and carbon dioxide.

C9H20 + 14O2 → 9CO2 + 10H2O

When insufficient oxygen is available for complete combustion, the burning products include carbon monoxide.

2C9H20 + 19O2 → 18CO + 20H2O

See also


  1. "nonane - Compound Summary". PubChem Compound. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. 16 September 2004. Identification and Related Records. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0466". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 
  3. "NFPA Hazard Rating Information for Common Chemicals". 
  4. "Petroleum - Chemistry Encyclopedia - reaction, water, uses, elements, examples, gas, number, name". 
  5. Health Council of the Netherlands: Committee on Updating of Occupational Exposure Limits. Nonane; Health-based Reassessment of Administrative Occupational Exposure Limits. The Hague: Health Council of the Netherlands, 2005; 2000/15OSH/155.

External links