Astronomy:List of white dwarfs

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This is a list of exceptional white dwarfs.

Firsts

These were the first white dwarfs discovered fitting these conditions

Title Star Date Data Comments Notes Refs
First discovered Sirius B 1852 Sirius system Sirius B is also the nearest white dwarf (as of 2005) [1][2]
First found in a binary star system
First double white dwarf system LDS 275 1944 L 462-56 system [3]
First solitary white dwarf
First white dwarf in a planetary system
First white dwarf with a planet WD B1620−26 2003 PSR B1620-26 b (planet) This planet is a circumbinary planet, which circles both stars in the PSR B1620-26 system [4][5]
First singular white dwarf with a planet WD 1145+017 2015 WD 1145+017 b Planet is extremely small and is disintegrating.
First white dwarf that is a pulsar AR Scorpii A 2016 The star is in a binary system with a red dwarf [6]

Extremes

These are the white dwarfs which are currently known to fit these conditions

Title Star Date Data Comments Notes Refs
Nearest Sirius 1852 8.6 ly (2.6 pc) Sirius B is also the first white dwarf discovered. [1][2]
Farthest SN UDS10Wil progenitor 2013 10,000,000,000Ly z=1.914 SN Wilson is a type-Ia supernova whose progenitor was a white dwarf [7][8][9]
Oldest WD 0346+246
SDSS J110217.48+411315.4
2012 12 Gy (tired)
Youngest SDSS J0003+0718 2011 < 13 My provisional estimate
Highest surface temperature RX J0439.8−6809 2015 250,000 K (250,000 °C; 450,000 °F) This star is located in the Milky Way's galactic halo, in the field of the Large Magellanic Cloud [10][11]
Lowest surface temperature PSR J2222-0137 B 2014 3,000 K (2,700 C°, 5,000 F°) [12]
Most luminous
Least luminous PSR J2222-0137 B 2014 too dim to observe
Brightest apparent Sirius 1852 8.44 (V)
Dimmest apparent PSR J2222-0137 B 2014 too dim to observe
Most massive? RE J0317-853 1998 1.35 M
Most massive ZTF J1901+1458 2020 1.35 M
Least massive SDSS J091709.55+463821.8 2007 0.17 M
Largest Z Andromedae B 0.265±0.095 R
Smallest RE J0317-853 2010 0.0035±0.000575 R

Nearest

10 nearest white dwarfs
Star Distance Comments Notes Refs
Sirius B 8.58 ly (2.63 pc) Sirius B is also the first white dwarf discovered. It is part of the Sirius system. [1][2][13][14]
Procyon B 11.43 ly (3.50 pc) Part of Procyon system [13][14]
van Maanen's Star 14.04 ly (4.30 pc) [13][14]
GJ 440 15.09 ly (4.63 pc) [13]
40 Eridani B 16.25 ly (4.98 pc) Part of 40 Eridani system [13][14]
Stein 2051 B 18.06 ly (5.54 pc) Part of Stein 2051 system [13][14]
LP 44-113 20.0 ly (6.1 pc) [14]
G 99-44 20.9 ly (6.4 pc) [14]
L 97-12 25.8 ly (7.9 pc) [14]
Wolf 489 26.7 ly (8.2 pc) [14]
Timeline of nearest white dwarf recordholders
Star Date Distance Comments Notes Refs
Sirius B 1852— 8.6 ly (2.6 pc) Sirius B is also the first white dwarf discovered [1][2]

Notes

  • SDSS J1228+1040, A white dwarf with disk of debris.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Atlas of the Universe, "The Universe within 12.5 Light Years: The Nearest Stars", Richard Powell, 30 July 2006 (accessed 2010-11-01)
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 BBC News, "Hubble finds mass of white dwarf", Christine McGourty, 14 December 2005 (accessed 2010-11-01)
  3. W. J. Luyten (September 1944). "Note on the Double White Dwarf L 462-56 = LDS 275". Astrophysical Journal 100: 202. doi:10.1086/144658. Bibcode1944ApJ...100..202L. 
  4. Steinn Sigurdsson; Harvey B. Richer; Brad M. Hansen; Ingrid H. Stairs; Stephen E. Thorsett (July 2003). "A Young White Dwarf Companion to Pulsar B1620-26: Evidence for Early Planet Formation". Science 301 (5630): 193–196. doi:10.1126/science.1086326. PMID 12855802. Bibcode2003Sci...301..193S. 
  5. "Looking for planets around white dwarfs". Professor Astronomy. 20 August 2010. http://blog.professorastronomy.com/2010/08/looking-for-planets-around-white-dwarfs.html. 
  6. Hambsch, Franz-Josef. "Amateurs Help Discover Pulsing White Dwarf". Sky and Telescope. http://www.skyandtelescope.com/observing/stargazers-corner/amateurs-aid-discovery-pulsing-white-dwarf-ar-scorpii/. 
  7. Jason Major (5 April 2013). "Hubble Spots the Most Distant Supernova Ever". Discovery Channel. http://news.discovery.com/space/galaxies/hubble-spots-the-most-distant-supernova-ever-130405.htm. 
  8. "CANDELS Finds the Most Distant Type Ia Supernova Yet Observed". Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). 23 April 2013. http://candels-collaboration.blogspot.ca/2013/04/candels-finds-most-distant-type-ia.html. 
  9. David O. Jones; Steven A. Rodney; Adam G. Riess; Bahram Mobasher; Tomas Dahlen; Curtis McCully; Teddy F. Frederiksen; Stefano Casertano et al. (2 April 2013). "The Discovery of the Most Distant Known Type Ia Supernova at Redshift 1.914". The Astrophysical Journal 768 (2): 166. May 2013. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/768/2/166. 166. Bibcode2013ApJ...768..166J. 
  10. Universitaet Tübingen (24 November 2015). "The hottest white dwarf in the Galaxy". Science Daily. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/11/151124122514.htm. 
  11. K. Werner; T. Rauch (29 September 2015). "Analysis of HST/COS spectra of the bare C–O stellar core H1504+65 and a high-velocity twin in the Galactic halo". Astronomy and Astrophysics 584: A19. December 2015. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201527261. A19. Bibcode2015A&A...584A..19W. 
  12. Kaplan, David L.; Boyles, Jason; Dunlap, Bart H.; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Deller, Adam T.; Ransom, Scott M.; McLaughlin, Maura A.; Lorimer, Duncan R. et al. (2014-07-01). "A 1.05 M ☉ Companion to PSR J2222-0137: The Coolest Known White Dwarf?". The Astrophysical Journal 789: 119. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/789/2/119. ISSN 0004-637X. Bibcode2014ApJ...789..119K. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 David Taylor (2012). "White Dwarf Stars Near The Earth". The Life and Death of Stars. Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences - Northwestern University. http://faculty.wcas.northwestern.edu/~infocom/The%20Website/plates/WD.pdf. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7 14.8 "White dwarfs within 10 parsecs". Sol Station. 2011. http://www.solstation.com/stars/pc10wd.htm. 

See also