Astronomy:List of most luminous stars

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Short description: stars sorted by absolute magnitude


This is a list of stars arranged by their absolute magnitude – their intrinsic stellar luminosity. This cannot be observed directly, so instead must be calculated from the apparent magnitude (the brightness as seen from Earth), the distance to each star, and corrected for interstellar extinction. The entries in the list below are further corrected to provide the bolometric magnitude i.e. integrated over all wavelengths; this relies upon measurements in multiple photometric filters and extrapolation of the stellar spectrum based on the stellar spectral type and/or effective temperature.

Entries give the bolometric luminosity in multiples of the luminosity of the Sun (L) and the bolometric absolute magnitude. As with all magnitude systems in astronomy, the latter scale is logarithmic and inverted i.e. more negative numbers are more luminous.

Most stars on this list are not bright enough to be visible to the naked eye from Earth, because of their high distances, high extinction, or because they emit most of their light outside the visible range. For a list of the brightest stars seen from Earth, see the list of brightest stars.

Measurement

Accurate measurement of stellar luminosities is difficult, even when the apparent magnitude is measured accurately, for four reasons:

  1. The distance d to the star must be known, to convert apparent to absolute magnitude. Absolute magnitude is the apparent magnitude a star would have if it were 10 parsecs away from the viewer. Because apparent brightness decreases as the square of the distance (i.e. as 1/d2), a small error (e.g. 10%) in determining d implies an error ~2× as large (thus 20%) in luminosity. Stellar distances are only directly measured accurately out to d ~1,000 lt-yrs.
  2. The observed magnitudes must be corrected for the absorption or extinction of intervening interstellar or circumstellar dust and gas. This correction can be enormous and difficult to determine precisely. For example, until accurate infrared observations became possible ~50 years ago, the Galactic Center of the Milky Way was totally obscured to visual observations.
  3. The magnitudes at the wavelengths measured must be corrected for those not observed. "Absolute bolometric magnitude" (which term is redundant, practically speaking, since bolometric magnitudes are nearly always "absolute", i.e. corrected for distance) is a measure of the star's luminosity, summing over its emission at all wavelengths, and thus the total amount of energy radiated by a star every second. Bolometric magnitudes can only be estimated by correcting for unobserved portions of the spectrum that have to be modelled, which is always an issue, and often a large correction. The list is dominated by hot blue stars which produce the majority of their energy output in the ultraviolet, but these may not necessarily be the brightest stars at visual wavelengths.
  4. A large proportion of stellar systems discovered with very high luminosity have later been found to be binary. Usually, this results in the total system luminosity being reduced and spread among several components. These binaries are common both because the conditions that produce high mass high luminosity stars also favour multiple star systems, but also because searches for highly luminous stars are inevitably biased towards detecting systems with multiple more normal stars combining to appear luminous.

Because of all these problems, other references may give very different values for the most luminous stars (different ordering or different stars altogether). Data on different stars can be of somewhat different reliability, depending on the attention one particular star has received as well as largely differing physical difficulties in analysis (see the Pistol Star for an example). The last stars in the list are familiar nearby stars put there for comparison, and not among the most luminous known. It may also interest the reader to know that the Sun is more luminous than approximately 95% of all known stars in the local neighbourhood (out to, say, a few hundred light years), due to enormous numbers of somewhat less massive stars that are cooler and often much less luminous. For perspective, the overall range of stellar luminosities runs from dwarfs less than 1/10,000th as luminous as the Sun to supergiants over 1,000,000 times more luminous.

Data

Legend
Wolf–Rayet star
Luminous blue variable
O-type star
B-type star
Light aquamarine: Easily visible to the naked eye
Aquamarine: Very easily visible to the naked eye

This list is currently limited mostly to objects in our galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds, but a few stars in other local group galaxies can now be examined in enough detail to determine the luminosities. Some suspected binaries in this magnitude range are excluded because there is insufficient information about the luminosity of the individual components. Selected fainter stars are also shown for comparison. Despite their extreme luminosity, many of these stars are nevertheless too distant to be observed with the naked eye. Stars that are at least sometimes visible to the unaided eye have their apparent magnitude (6.5 or brighter) highlighted in blue.

The first list show a few of the known stars with an estimated luminosity of 1 million L or greater, including the stars in open cluster, OB association and H II region. The majority of stars thought to be more than 1 million L are shown, but the list is incomplete.

The second list gives some notable stars for the purpose of comparison.

Stars with 1 million L or greater
Star name Bolometric luminosity
(in solar luminosities, L)
Absolute bolometric magnitude Approx. distance from Earth
(in light-years)
Apparent visible magnitude Effective temperature
(K)
Link Reference
R136a1 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 6,166,000 -12.235 163,000 12.28 46,000 SIMBAD [1][2]
R136a2 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 5,623,000 -12.135 163,000 12.34 50,000 SIMBAD [1][2]
BAT99-98 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 5,012,000 -12.01 165,000 13.38 45,000 SIMBAD [3][2]
G0.238-0.071 (in Galactic Center) 5,012,000 -12.01 26,000 14.37 (J band) 39,500-44,000 SIMBAD [4][5]
M33-013406.63 A (in Triangulum Galaxy) 4,677,000 -11.935 3,000,000 16.084 (combined) 30,000 SIMBAD [6][7][lower-alpha 1]
η Carinae A (in Trumpler 16 of Carina Nebula) 4,600,000 -11.917 7,500 4.3 (combined) 9,400-35,200 SIMBAD [8][9][lower-alpha 2]
WBB2016 2 (in Westerhout 49) 4,365,000 -11.86 36,200 11.07 (K band) 35,500 SIMBAD [10]
R136a3 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 4,266,000 -11.835 163,000 12.97 50,000 SIMBAD [1][2]
Sk -69° 249 A (in NGC 2074 of LMC) 4,130,000 -11.8 160,000 10.68 38,900 SIMBAD [11][12]
V4998 Sagittarii (near Quintuplet Cluster) 3,981,000 -11.76 25,000 12.534 (J band) 12,000 SIMBAD [13][14]
R136c (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 3,802,000 -11.71 163,000 13.43 51,000 SIMBAD [15][2]
Melnick 42 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 3,631,000 -11.66 163,000 12.78 47,300 SIMBAD [16][2]
Mercer 23-2 (WR 125-3 in Mercer 23 near Galactic plane) 3,631,000 -11.66 21,200 8.646 (J band) 38,000 SIMBAD [17][14][lower-alpha 3]
G0.070+0.025 (in Galactic Center) 3,311,000 -11.56 26,000 14.799 (J band) 45,000 SIMBAD [4]
Pistol Star (V4647 Sagittarii in Quintuplet cluster) 3,300,000 -11.556 25,000 11.79 (J band) 11,800 SIMBAD [18][19]
Mercer 30-1 A (WR 46-3 A in Mercer 30 of Dragonfish Nebula) 3,236,000 -11.535 40,000 10.33 (J band) 32,200 SIMBAD [20][lower-alpha 4]
VFTS 682 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 3,236,000 -11.535 164,000 16.08 52,200 SIMBAD [16][2]
WR 42e (in HD 97950 of NGC 3603) 3,200,000 -11.523 25,000 14.53 43,000 SIMBAD [21][lower-alpha 5]
Peony Star (WR 102ka in Peony Nebula near Galactic Center) 3,162,000 -11.51 26,000 12.978 (J band) 25,100 SIMBAD [22][14]
R99 (in N44 of LMC) 3,162,000 -11.51 163,000 11.52 28,000 SIMBAD [3][23]
Var A-1 (in Andromeda Galaxy) 3,133,000 -11.5 2,500,000 17.143 20,400-28,100 SIMBAD [24][7]
VFTS 1022 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 3,020,000 -11.46 164,000 13.47 42,200 SIMBAD [16][2]
WR 24 (in Collinder 228 of Carina Nebula) 2,951,000 -11.435 8,200 6.48 50,100 SIMBAD [25][26]
CXOGC J174528.6-285605 (WR 101-6 in Galactic Center) 2,884,000 -11.41 26,000 14.46 (J band) 30,000 SIMBAD [27]
G0.059-0.068 (in Galactic Center) 2,884,000 -11.41 26,000 13.337 (J band) 39,500-44,000 SIMBAD [4][5]
HD 97950 B (WR 43b in HD 97950 of NGC 3603) 2,884,000 -11.41 24,000 11.33 42,000 SIMBAD [28][29]
Melnick 34 A (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 2,692,000 -11.335 163,000 13.09 (combined) 53,000 SIMBAD [30][2]
WR 102hb (in Quintuplet Cluster) 2,630,000 -11.31 26,000 13.9 (J band) 25,100 SIMBAD [31][19]
BAT99-80 A (in NGC 2044 of LMC) 2,512,000 -11.26 165,000 13 (combined) 45,000 SIMBAD [3][32]
R146 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 2,512,000 -11.26 164,000 13.11 63,000 SIMBAD [3][2]
VFTS 482 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 2,512,000 -11.26 164,000 12.95 42,200 SIMBAD [16][2]
HD 97950 A1a (WR 43a A in HD 97950 of NGC 3603) 2,455,000 -11.235 24,000 11.18 (combined) 42,000 SIMBAD [28][29]
WR 102ea (in Quintuplet Cluster) 2,455,000 -11.235 26,000 13.18 (J band) 25,100 SIMBAD [31][19]
CXOGC J174516.1-284909 (WR 101-2 in Galactic Center) 2,399,000 -11.21 26,000 11.49 (J band) 20,000 SIMBAD [27]
CXOGC J174711.4-283006 (WR 102-9 in Galactic Center) 2,399,000 -11.21 26,000 16.56 (J band) 30,000 SIMBAD [27]
WR 25 A (in Trumpler 16 of Carina Nebula) 2,399,000 -11.21 6,800 8.8 (combined) 50,100 SIMBAD [25][23][lower-alpha 6]
LGGS J004444.52+412804.0 (in Andromeda Galaxy) 2,377,000 -11.2 2,500,000 18.1 7,000-18,000 SIMBAD [24][33]
Sk -69° 212 (in NGC 2044 of LMC) 2,377,000 -11.2 160,000 12.416 45,400 SIMBAD [11][34]
WR 93 (in Pismis 24 of NGC 6357) 2,377,000 -11.2 5,700 10.68 71,000 SIMBAD [35][23]
Melnick 34 B (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 2,344,000 -11.185 163,000 13.09 (combined) 53,000 SIMBAD [30][2]
VVV CL041-8 (WR 62-2 in VVV CL041) 2,344,000 -11.185 13,700 10.146 (J band) 34,000 SIMBAD [36][14][lower-alpha 7]
Cl 1813-178 #16 (in Cl 1813-178 of W33 Complex) 2,291,000 -11.16 15,300 9.428 (J band) 30,200 SIMBAD [37][14][lower-alpha 8]
VVV CL074-12 (in VVV CL074) 2,291,000 -11.16 20,000 12.34 (J band) 22,500 SIMBAD [38][lower-alpha 9]
Arches-F6 (WR 102ah in Arches Cluster) 2,239,000 -11.135 25,000 15.75 (J band) 33,900 SIMBAD [39][40]
Arches-F9 (WR 102ae in Arches Cluster) 2,239,000 -11.135 25,000 16.1 (J band) 36,600 SIMBAD [39][40]
HD 5980 A (in NGC 346 of SMC) 2,239,000 -11.135 200,000 11.31 (combined) 21,000-53,000 SIMBAD [41][42][lower-alpha 10]
HD 97950 C1 (WR 43c A in HD 97950 of NGC 3603) 2,239,000 -11.135 24,000 11.89 (combined) 44,000 SIMBAD [28][29][lower-alpha 6]
R136b (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 2,239,000 -11.135 165,000 13.24 37,000 SIMBAD [1][2]
R145 A (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 2,239,000 -11.135 163,000 12.04 (combined) 50,000 SIMBAD [43][2]
Var 83 (in Triangulum Galaxy) 2,239,000 -11.135 3,000,000 16.027 18,000-37,000 SIMBAD [44][45]
CXOGC J174712.2-283121 (WR 102-10 in Galactic Center) 2,188,000 -11.11 26,000 17.06 (J band) 35,000 SIMBAD [27]
HD 269810 (in NGC 2032 of LMC) 2,188,000 -11.11 170,000 12.22 52,500 SIMBAD [46][12]
VFTS 1021 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 2,188,000 -11.11 164,000 13.35 39,800 SIMBAD [16][2]
ST5-31 (in NGC 2074 of LMC) 2,168,000 -11.1 160,000 12.273 50,700 SIMBAD [11][47]
G0.058+0.014 (in Galactic Center) 2,138,000 -11.085 26,000 14.704 (J band) 45,000 SIMBAD [4]
HSH95-36 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 2,138,000 -11.085 163,000 14.41 52,000 SIMBAD [1][2]
R145 B (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 2,138,000 -11.085 163,000 12.04 (combined) 43,000 SIMBAD [43][2]
WR 89 (in HM 1) 2,138,000 -11.085 9,500 11.02 39,800 SIMBAD [25][12]
AFGL 2298 (near Galactic plane) 2,000,000 -11.013 33,000 12.164 (J band) 15,500-26,000 SIMBAD [48][14][lower-alpha 11]
Arches-F1 (WR 102ad in Arches Cluster) 1,995,000 -11.01 25,000 16.3 (J band) 33,200 SIMBAD [39][40]
Arches-F4 (WR 102al in Arches Cluster) 1,995,000 -11.01 25,000 15.63 (J band) 36,800 SIMBAD [39][40]
Arches-F7 (WR 102aj in Arches Cluster) 1,995,000 -11.01 25,000 15.74 (J band) 32,900 SIMBAD [39][40]
CXOGC J174656.3-283232 (WR 102-8 in Galactic Center) 1,995,000 -11.01 26,000 16.74 (J band) 30,000 SIMBAD [27]
LBV 1806-20 (in G10.0–0.3 of Galactic Center) 1,995,000 -11.01 28,000 13.66 (J band) 18,000-32,000 SIMBAD [49][14][lower-alpha 12]
Mercer 81-2 (WR 76-7 in Mercer 81 of G338.4+0.2) 1,995,000 -11.01 35,900 13.25 (J band) 36,000 SIMBAD [50][lower-alpha 13]
VFTS 545 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,995,000 -11.01 164,000 13.32 47,300 SIMBAD [16][2]
WR 147S (in Cygnus OB2) 1,995,000 -11.01 5,800 13.86 39,800 SIMBAD [25][51]
DBSB 179-15 (WR 84-6 in DBSB 179 of G347.6+0.2) 1,950,000 -10.985 25,800 12.5 (J band) 37,000 SIMBAD [52][53][lower-alpha 14]
G0.114+0.021 (WR 102-12 in Galactic Center) 1,950,000 -10.985 26,000 16.672 (J band) 40,000 SIMBAD [4]
R136a5 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,950,000 -10.985 165,000 13.71 47,000 SIMBAD [1][2]
AB6 A (in NGC 371 of SMC) 1,905,000 -10.96 197,000 12.3 (combined) 80,000 SIMBAD [41][54]
R136a8 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,905,000 -10.96 165,000 14.42 51,000 SIMBAD
WR 22 A (in Bochum 10 of Carina Nebula) 1,905,000 -10.96 8,200 6.42 (combined) 44,700 SIMBAD [25][23][lower-alpha 15]
R136a6 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,862,000 -10.935 165,000 13.35 53,000 SIMBAD [1][2]
Hen 3-519 (WR 31a in Blue Bubble Nebula) 1,820,000 -10.91 24,000 10.85 30,200 SIMBAD [55][42][lower-alpha 16]
LGGS J004051.59+403303.0 (in Andromeda Galaxy) 1,803,000 -10.9 2,500,000 16.989 18,000-24,000 SIMBAD [24][7]
MSX5C G358.5391+00.1305 (in Wray 17-96) 1,800,000 -10.898 15,000 15 13,000 SIMBAD [56][12][lower-alpha 17]
HD 5980 B (in NGC 346 of SMC) 1,778,000 -10.885 200,000 11.31 (combined) 45,000 SIMBAD [41][29]
R136a7 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,778,000 -10.885 165,000 13.97 49,000 SIMBAD [1][2]
WR 130 (in Cygnus OB3) 1,778,000 -10.885 21,700 12.13 44,700 SIMBAD [25][12]
WR 21a A (Runaway star from Westerlund 2) 1,778,000 -10.885 14,300 12.661 (combined) 45,000 SIMBAD [57][12]
V4650 Sagittarii (in Quintuplet cluster) 1,770,000 -10.88 25,000 12.31 (J band) 11,300 SIMBAD [58][19]
CXOGC J174536.1-285638 (WR 101-1 in Galactic Center) 1,738,000 -10.86 26,000 15.55 (J band) 30,000 SIMBAD [27]
Mercer 30-7 A (WR 46-5 A in Mercer 30 of Dragonfish Nebula) 1,738,000 -10.86 40,000 11.516 (J band) 41,400 SIMBAD [20][lower-alpha 4]
R136a4 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,738,000 -10.86 165,000 13.41 48,000 SIMBAD [1][2]
VFTS 506 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,738,000 -10.86 164,000 13.31 47,300 SIMBAD [16][2]
DBSB 179-20 (WR 84-1 in DBSB 179 of G347.6+0.2) 1,698,000 -10.835 25,800 12.37 (J band) 35,000 SIMBAD [52][53][lower-alpha 14]
R147 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,698,000 -10.835 164,000 13.02 50,000 SIMBAD [3][2]
VFTS 16 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,698,000 -10.835 164,000 13.55 53,100 SIMBAD [16][2]
Cygnus OB2 #12 A (in Cygnus OB2) 1,660,000 -10.81 5,000 11.702 (combined) 13,700 SIMBAD [59][60][lower-alpha 6]
Sher 18 (in HD 97950 of NGC 3603) 1,644,000 -10.8 25,000 12.51 39,500 SIMBAD [29][61]
Sher 47 (in HD 97950 of NGC 3603) 1,644,000 -10.8 25,000 12.67 44,000 SIMBAD [29][61]
Mercer 23-1 (in Mercer 23 near Galactic plane) 1,622,000 -10.785 21,200 10.615 (J band) 35,000 SIMBAD [17][14][lower-alpha 3]
VFTS 1017 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,622,000 -10.785 164,000 14.52 50,100 SIMBAD [16][2]
WR 87 (in HM 1) 1,622,000 -10.785 9,500 11.83 44,700 SIMBAD [25][12]
AF Andromedae (in Andromeda Galaxy) 1,585,000 -10.76 2,500,000 17.325 28,000 SIMBAD [44][7]
Arches-F12 (WR 102af in Arches Cluster) 1,585,000 -10.76 25,000 16.4 (J band) 36,900 SIMBAD [39][40]
HSH95-18 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,585,000 -10.76 163,000 13.87 47,000 SIMBAD [2]
LHO 110 (WR 102df in Quintuplet cluster) 1,585,000 -10.76 26,000 13.87 (J band) 25,100 SIMBAD [31][19]
R140a1 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,585,000 -10.76 163,000 12.12 (combined) 34,000 SIMBAD [2]
VFTS 457 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,585,000 -10.76 164,000 13.74 39,800 SIMBAD [16][2]
WR 107 (in Sagittarius OB1) 1,585,000 -10.76 9,400 13.51 50,100 SIMBAD [25][12]
WR 140 B (in Cygnus OB1) 1,585,000 -10.76 5,300 6.85 (combined) 35,000 SIMBAD [62][23]
WR 148 A (Runaway star from Galactic plane) 1,585,000 -10.76 27,100 10.3 (combined) 39,800 SIMBAD [25][23]
CXOGC J174617.0-285131 (in Galactic Center) 1,549,000 -10.735 26,000 14.98 (J band) 40,000 SIMBAD [27]
CXOGC J174725.3-282709 (in Galactic Center) 1,549,000 -10.735 26,000 16.37 (J band) 30,000 SIMBAD [27]
Sk -68° 137 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,549,000 -10.735 160,000 13.346 55,000 SIMBAD [46][34]
WR 102i (in Quintuplet cluster) 1,549,000 -10.735 26,000 14.31 (J band) 31,600 SIMBAD [31][19]
HD 97950 A1b (WR 43a B in HD 97950 of NGC 3603) 1,514,000 -10.71 24,000 11.18 (combined) 40,000 SIMBAD [28][29]
Brey 21 A (in NGC 1910 of LMC) 1,500,000 -10.7 165,000 11.29 (combined) 71,000 SIMBAD [11][12]
HD 97950 A2 (in HD 97950 of NGC 3603) 1,500,000 -10.7 24,000 12.53 46,500 SIMBAD [29][61]
HM 1-6 (in HM 1) 1,500,000 -10.7 11,000 11.64 44,700 SIMBAD [35][63]
LGGS J013245.41+303858.3 (in Triangulum Galaxy) 1,500,000 -10.7 3,000,000 17.612 34,000 SIMBAD [64][7]
NGC 346-W1 (in NGC 346 of SMC) 1,500,000 -10.7 200,000 12.57 43,400 SIMBAD [11][54]
Sk -65° 47 (in NGC 1923 of LMC) 1,500,000 -10.7 160,000 12.466 47,800 SIMBAD [11][34]
Sk 80 (in NGC 346 of SMC) 1,500,000 -10.7 200,000 12.31 38,900 SIMBAD [11][65]
HD 93129 Aa (in Trumpler 14 of Carina Nebula) 1,479,000 -10.685 7,500 6.9 (combined) 42,500 SIMBAD [66][23]
HSH95-46 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,445,000 -10.66 163,000 14.56 49,000 SIMBAD [1][2]
VFTS 542 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,445,000 -10.66 164,000 13.49 44,700 SIMBAD [16][2]
AB8 A (in NGC 602 of SMC) 1,413,000 -10.635 197,000 12.9 (combined) 141,000 SIMBAD [41][67]
Arches-F15 (in Arches Cluster) 1,413,000 -10.635 25,000 16.12 (J band) 35,600 SIMBAD [39][40]
CXOGC J174550.2-284911 (WR 102-4 in Galactic Center) 1,413,000 -10.635 26,000 15.24 (J band) 30,000 SIMBAD [27]
DBSB 179-4 (WR 84-7 in DBSB 179 of G347.6+0.2) 1,413,000 -10.635 25,800 12.25 (J band) 30,000 SIMBAD [52][53][lower-alpha 14]
LGGS J013235.25+303017.6 (in Triangulum Galaxy) 1,413,000 -10.635 3,000,000 18.007 33,000 SIMBAD [6][68]
R134 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,413,000 -10.635 164,000 12.58 47,000 SIMBAD [3][2]
S Doradus (in NGC 1910 of LMC) 1,413,000 -10.635 169,000 10.25 20,000 SIMBAD [69][12]
WR 66 (in Circinus OB1) 1,413,000 -10.635 16,900 11.34 44,700 SIMBAD [25][23]
HD 37974 (in N135 of LMC) 1,400,000 -10.625 163,000 10.99 22,500 SIMBAD [70][12][lower-alpha 18]
VFTS 621 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,380,000 -10.61 164,000 15.39 54,000 SIMBAD [16][2]
WR 131 (in Cygnus OB3) 1,380,000 -10.61 22,600 12.08 44,700 SIMBAD [25][63]
Sk -69° 104 (in NGC 1910 of LMC) 1,368,000 -10.6 160,000 12.1 39,900 SIMBAD [11][34]
Mercer 30-6a A (WR 46-4 A in Mercer 30 of Dragonfish Nebula) 1,349,000 -10.585 40,000 10.39 (J band) 29,900 SIMBAD [20][lower-alpha 4]
VFTS 427 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,349,000 -10.585 164,000 13.76 39,800 SIMBAD [16][2]
CXOGC J174502.8-290859 (in Galactic Center) 1,318,000 -10.56 26,000 13.93 (J band) 33,000 SIMBAD [27]
WR 18 (in Carina OB1 of Carina Nebula) 1,288,000 -10.535 12,450 10.83 112,200 SIMBAD [25][12]
AB7 A (in NGC 371 of SMC) 1,259,000 -10.51 197,000 13.016 (combined) 105,000 SIMBAD [41][54]
Arches-F3 (WR 102bb in Arches Cluster) 1,259,000 -10.51 25,000 16.06 (J band) 29,600 SIMBAD [39][40]
Arches-F8 (WR 102ag in Arches Cluster) 1,259,000 -10.51 25,000 16.31 (J band) 32,900 SIMBAD [39][40]
HD 50064 (in NGC 2301) 1,259,000 -10.51 9,500 8.21 13,500 SIMBAD [71]
HSH95-16 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,259,000 -10.51 163,000 13.65 42,000 SIMBAD [2]
HSH95-20 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,259,000 -10.51 164,000 13.71 46,000 SIMBAD [2]
R139 A (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,259,000 -10.51 163,000 11.94 (combined) 34,000 SIMBAD
VFTS 259 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,259,000 -10.51 164,000 13.65 37,700 SIMBAD [16][2]
VFTS 1031 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,259,000 -10.51 164,000 13.89 48,000 SIMBAD [2]
Sk -69° 194 (in NGC 2033 of LMC) 1,247,000 -10.5 160,000 12.131 (combined) 45,000 SIMBAD [11][72]
ST2-22 (in NGC 2044 of LMC) 1,247,000 -10.5 160,000 14.3 51,300 SIMBAD [11][32]
Trumpler 27-27 (in Trumpler 27) 1,247,000 -10.5 8,200 13.31 37,000 SIMBAD [35][12]
HSH95-47 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,230,000 -10.485 163,000 14.72 47,000 SIMBAD [1][2]
VFTS 1028 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,230,000 -10.485 164,000 13.84 47,300 SIMBAD [16][2]
LH 10-3601 (in NGC 1763 of LMC) 1,202,000 -10.46 160,000 13.491 55,000 SIMBAD [46][34]
AB1 (in DEM S10 of SMC) 1,175,000 -10.435 197,000 15.238 79,000 SIMBAD [73][54][lower-alpha 19]
BI 253 (Runaway star from Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,175,000 -10.435 164,000 13.76 54,000 SIMBAD [15][74]
LGGS J013248.26+303950.4 (in Triangulum Galaxy) 1,175,000 -10.435 3,000,000 17.25 23,000 SIMBAD [6][75]
Mercer 30-8 (WR 46-6 in Mercer 30 of Dragonfish Nebula) 1,175,000 -10.435 40,000 11.658 (J band) 38,100 SIMBAD [20][lower-alpha 4]
NGC 346-W3 (in NGC 346 of SMC) 1,175,000 -10.435 200,000 12.8 52,500 SIMBAD [46][54]
WR 102d (in Quintuplet cluster) 1,175,000 -10.435 26,000 15.18 (J band) 35,100 SIMBAD [31][19]
WR 126 (in Vulpecula OB2) 1,175,000 -10.435 24,680 13.29 63,000 SIMBAD [76][12]
WR 20a A (in Westerlund 2) 1,150,000 -10.412 20,000 13.28 (combined) 43,000 SIMBAD [77]
WR 20a B (in Westerlund 2) 1,150,000 -10.412 20,000 13.28 (combined) 43,000 SIMBAD [77]
GCIRS 16SW A (WR 101k A in Galactic Center) 1,149,000 -10.411 26,000 15.5 (J band) 24,400 SIMBAD [78]
GCIRS 16SW B (WR 101k B in Galactic Center) 1,149,000 -10.411 26,000 15.5 (J band) 23,500 SIMBAD [78]
BAT99-104 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,148,000 -10.41 165,000 14.52 63,000 SIMBAD [3][2]
CXOGC J174516.7-285824 (WR 101-3 in Galactic Center) 1,148,000 -10.41 26,000 16.67 (J band) 35,000 SIMBAD [27]
G0.121-0.099 (WR 102-16 in Galactic Center) 1,148,000 -10.41 26,000 14.972 (J band) 40,000 SIMBAD [4]
G359.797+0.037 (in Galactic Center) 1,148,000 -10.41 26,000 16.1 (J band) 30,000 SIMBAD [4]
HD 93205 A (in Trumpler 16 of Carina Nebula) 1,148,000 -10.41 7,500 7.75 (combined) 51,300 SIMBAD
WR 158 (in Cassiopeia OB1) 1,148,000 -10.41 16,300 11.282 44,700 SIMBAD [25][60]
WR 28 (in FSR 1555) 1,148,000 -10.41 18,700 12.98 50,100 SIMBAD [25][12][lower-alpha 20]
HD 303308 (in Trumpler 16 of Carina Nebula) 1,138,000 -10.4 7,500 8.17 51,300 SIMBAD [35][23]
M33C-15235 (in Triangulum Galaxy) 1,138,000 -10.4 3,000,000 17.73 29,200 SIMBAD [64][79]
AB9 (in DEM S80 of SMC) 1,122,000 -10.385 197,000 15.431 100,000 SIMBAD [73][54][lower-alpha 21]
Arches-F18 (in Arches Cluster) 1,122,000 -10.385 25,000 16.7 (J band) 36,900 SIMBAD [39][40]
BAT99-64 A (in NGC 2033 of LMC) 1,122,000 -10.385 165,000 14.073 (combined) 71,000 SIMBAD [3][34]
HSH95-48 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,122,000 -10.385 163,000 14.75 49,000 SIMBAD [1][2]
Var B (in Triangulum Galaxy) 1,122,000 -10.385 3,000,000 16.208 9,000 SIMBAD [44][7]
VFTS 562 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,122,000 -10.385 164,000 13.66 42,200 SIMBAD [16][2]
WR 37 (in SFC 27 of G291.27-0.71) 1,122,000 -10.385 21,900 16 100,000 SIMBAD [25][12][lower-alpha 22]
VFTS 512 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,096,000 -10.36 164,000 14.28 47,700 SIMBAD [16][2]
Mercer 30-6b (in Mercer 30 of Dragonfish Nebula) 1,072,000 -10.335 40,000 14.25 (J band) 30,500 SIMBAD [20][lower-alpha 4]
VFTS 3 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,072,000 -10.335 164,000 11.56 21,000 SIMBAD [15][2]
VFTS 151 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,072,000 -10.335 164,000 14.13 42,200 SIMBAD [16][2]
VFTS 603 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,060,000 -10.323 164,000 13.99 43,400 SIMBAD [80][2]
CXOGC J174532.7-285126 (in Galactic Center) 1,047,000 -10.31 26,000 10.72 (J band) 40,000 SIMBAD [27]
HD 93403 A (in Trumpler 16 of Carina Nebula) 1,047,000 -10.31 10,000 8.27 (combined) 39,300 SIMBAD [81][12]
Mercer 30-2 (in Mercer 30 of Dragonfish Nebula) 1,047,000 -10.31 40,000 12.63 (J band) 21,200 SIMBAD [20][lower-alpha 4]
R133 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,047,000 -10.31 163,000 12.49 37,600 SIMBAD [16][2]
HD 97950 E (in HD 97950 of NGC 3603) 1,038,000 -10.3 24,000 13.081 46,500 SIMBAD [29][61]
HD 229059 (in Berkeley 87) 1,038,000 -10.3 3,200 8.7 26,300 SIMBAD [35][23]
M33C-10788 (in Triangulum Galaxy) 1,038,000 -10.3 3,000,000 17.95 32,000 SIMBAD [64][79]
Sk -69° 200 (in NGC 2033 of LMC) 1,038,000 -10.3 160,000 11.18 26,300 SIMBAD [11][12]
Sk -69° 259 (in NGC 2081 of LMC) 1,038,000 -10.3 160,000 11.93 30,000 SIMBAD [11][12]
WR 77k (in Westerlund 1) 1,038,000 -10.3 11,000 18.86 35,000 SIMBAD [82][83]
HD 93250 A (in Trumpler 16 of Carina Nebula) 1,023,000 -10.285 7,500 7.5 (combined) 46,000 SIMBAD [84][23][lower-alpha 6]
HSH95-31 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,023,000 -10.285 163,000 14.12 48,000 SIMBAD [1][2]
VFTS 267 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,023,000 -10.285 164,000 13.49 44,700 SIMBAD [16][2]
VFTS 599 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,023,000 -10.285 164,000 13.8 47,300 SIMBAD [15][2]
VVV CL074-9 (WR 75-29 in VVV CL074) 1,023,000 -10.285 20,000 15.22 (J band) 37,000 SIMBAD [38][lower-alpha 9]
WR 156 (in Cepheus OB1) 1,023,000 -10.285 13,400 11.01 39,800 SIMBAD [25][42]
Arches-F2 (WR 102aa in Arches Cluster) 1,000,000 -10.26 25,000 17.84 (J band) 33,500 SIMBAD [39][40]
Arches-F14 (WR 102ba in Arches Cluster) 1,000,000 -10.26 25,000 16.38 (J band) 34,500 SIMBAD [39][40]
BAT99-68 (in BSDL 2505 of LMC) 1,000,000 -10.26 163,000 14.13 45,000 SIMBAD [3][85][lower-alpha 23]
CXOGC J174628.2-283920 (in Galactic Center) 1,000,000 -10.26 26,000 16.99 (J band) 40,000 SIMBAD [27]
CXOGC J174703.1-283119 (in Galactic Center) 1,000,000 -10.26 26,000 16.23 (J band) 40,000 SIMBAD [27]
HSH95-28 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,000,000 -10.26 163,000 14.09 48,000 SIMBAD [2]
HSH95-57 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,000,000 -10.26 163,000 14.8 47,000 SIMBAD [2]
R135 A (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,000,000 -10.26 163,000 13.48 (combined) 50,000 SIMBAD [3][2]
R140a2 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,000,000 -10.26 163,000 12.12 (combined) 34,000 SIMBAD [2]
R142 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,000,000 -10.26 163,000 11.82 (combined) 21,000 SIMBAD [2]
VFTS 64 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,000,000 -10.26 164,000 14.62 39,800 SIMBAD [16][2]
VFTS 591 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,000,000 -10.26 164,000 12.55 27,000 SIMBAD [2]
VFTS 1034 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 1,000,000 -10.26 164,000 13.36 34,000 SIMBAD [2]
VVV CL074-3 (WR 75-28 in VVV CL074) 1,000,000 -10.26 20,000 14.72 (J band) 31,500 SIMBAD [38][lower-alpha 9]

A few notable stars of luminosity less than 1 million L are kept here for the purpose of comparison.

Star name Bolometric
luminosity
(L, Sun = 1)
Absolute
bolometric
magnitude
Approx. distance
from earth
(in light-years)
Apparent
visible magnitude
Effective
temperature (K)
Link Reference
ζ1 Scorpii (in NGC 6231 of Scorpius OB1) 851,000 -10.085 8,210 4.705 17,200 SIMBAD [86][87]
ζ Puppis (Naos in Vela R2 of Vela Molecular Ridge) 813,000 -10.035 1,080 2.25 40,000 SIMBAD [88][23][lower-alpha 24]
α Camelopardalis (Runaway star from NGC 1502) 676,000 -9.835 6,000 4.29 29,000 SIMBAD [84][23]
WR 78 (in NGC 6231 of Scorpius OB1) 631,000 -9.76 4,100 6.48 50,100 SIMBAD [25][26]
λ Cephei (Runaway star from Cepheus OB3) 631,000 -9.76 3,100 5.05 36,000 SIMBAD [88][23]
P Cygni (in IC 4996 of Cygnus OB1) 610,000 -9.723 5,100 4.82 18,700 SIMBAD [89][23][lower-alpha 25]
WR 79a (in NGC 6231 of Scorpius OB1) 603,000 -9.71 5,600 5.77 35,000 SIMBAD [90][23]
ε Orionis (Alnilam in Orion OB1 of Orion Complex) 537,000 -9.585 2,000 1.69 27,500 SIMBAD [91][23]
η Carinae B (in Trumpler 16 of Carina Nebula) 400,000 -9.265 7,500 4.3 (combined) 37,200 SIMBAD [92][9]
μ Normae (in NGC 6169) 339,000 -9.085 3,260 4.91 28,000 SIMBAD [93][23]
κ Cassiopeiae (in Cassiopeia OB14) 302,000 -8.96 4,000 4.16 23,500 SIMBAD [91][23]
τ Canis Majoris Aa (in NGC 2362) 299,000 -8.95 5,120 4.89 32,000 SIMBAD [94][23]
θ Muscae Ab (in Centaurus OB1) 295,000 -8.935 7,400 5.53 (combined) 33,000 SIMBAD [95][23]
γ2 Velorum B (in Vela OB2) 280,000 -8.878 1,230 1.83 (combined) 35,000 SIMBAD [96][23]
ξ Persei (Menkib in California Nebula of Perseus OB2) 263,000 -8.81 1,200 4.04 35,000 SIMBAD [84][23]
ζ Orionis Aa (Alnitak in Orion OB1 of Orion Complex) 250,000 -8.755 1,260 2.08 29,500 SIMBAD [97]
θ Muscae Aa (WR 48 in Centaurus OB1) 234,000 -8.685 7,400 5.53 (combined) 83,000 SIMBAD [98][23]
ο2 Canis Majoris (in Collinder 121) 219,000 -8.61 2,800 3.043 15,500 SIMBAD [99][23]
θ1 Orionis C1 (in Trapezium Cluster of Orion Complex) 204,000 -8.535 1,340 5.13 (combined) 39,000 SIMBAD [100][23]
δ Orionis Aa1 (Mintaka in Orion OB1 of Orion Complex) 191,000 -8.46 1,200 2.5 (combined) 29,500 SIMBAD [101][102]
γ2 Velorum A (WR 11 in Vela OB2) 170,000 -8.336 1,230 1.83 (combined) 57,000 SIMBAD [96][23]
η Canis Majoris (Aludra in Collinder 121) 151,000 -8.21 2,000 2.45 15,000 SIMBAD [91][23]
κ Crucis (in Jewel Box Cluster of Centaurus OB1) 151,000 -8.21 7,500 5.98 16,300 SIMBAD [103][42]
λ Orionis A (Meissa in Collinder 69 of Orion Complex) 150,000 -8.2 1,100 3.54 37,700 SIMBAD [104][105]
β Orionis A (Rigel in Orion OB1 of Orion Complex) 120,000 -7.96 860 0.13 12,100 SIMBAD [106][23]
θ2 Orionis A (in Orion OB1 of Orion Complex) 107,000 -7.833 1,500 5.02 34,900 SIMBAD [107][108]
ζ Ophiuchi (in Upper Scorpius subgroup of Scorpius OB2) 74,100 -7.435 370 2.569 34,000 SIMBAD [84][23]
ι Orionis Aa1 (Hatysa in NGC 1980 of Orion Complex) 68,000 -7.341 1,340 2.77 (combined) 32,500 SIMBAD
υ Orionis (in Orion OB1 of Orion Complex) 60,000 -7.205 2,900 4.618 33,400 SIMBAD [109][110]
κ Orionis (Saiph in Orion OB1 of Orion Complex) 57,000 -7.147 650 2.09 26,500 SIMBAD [94][23]
σ Cygni (in Cygnus OB4) 52,000 -7.06 3,260 4.233 10,800 SIMBAD [111][112]
ζ Persei (in Perseus OB2) 47,000 -6.941 750 2.86 20,800 SIMBAD [94][23]
μ Columbae (Runaway star from Trapezium Cluster) 46,000 -6.91 1,300 5.18 33,000 SIMBAD [113][23]
σ Orionis Aa (in Orion OB1 of Orion Complex) 41,700 -6.81 1,260 4.07 (combined) 35,000 SIMBAD [114][115]
δ Scorpii A (Dschubba in Upper Scorpius subgroup of Scorpius OB2) 38,000 -6.71 440 2.307 (combined) 27,400 SIMBAD [116][117]
ε Persei A (in α Persei Cluster) 28,300 -6.391 640 2.88 (combined) 26,500 SIMBAD
θ Carinae A (in IC 2602 of Scorpius OB2) 25,700 -6.284 460 2.76 (combined) 31,000 SIMBAD [94][118]
β Canis Majoris (Mirzam in Local Bubble of Scorpius OB2) 25,000 -6.26 490 1.985 23,200 SIMBAD [119][120]
σ Orionis Ab (in Orion OB1 of Orion Complex) 18,600 -5.934 1,260 4.07 (combined) 29,000 SIMBAD [114][115]
σ Orionis B (in Orion OB1 of Orion Complex) 15,800 -5.757 1,260 4.07 (combined) 31,000 SIMBAD [114][115]
θ2 Orionis B (in Orion OB1 of Orion Complex) 12,300 -5.485 1,500 6.38 29,300 SIMBAD [121]
γ Orionis (Bellatrix in Bellatrix Cluster of Orion Complex) 9,210 -5.17 250 1.64 21,800 SIMBAD [122][123]
ι Orionis Aa2 (in NGC 1980 of Orion Complex) 8,630 -5.1 1,340 2.77 (combined) 27,000 SIMBAD [124][125]
λ Tauri A (in Pisces-Eridanus stellar stream) 5,800 -4.669 480 3.47 (combined) 18,700 SIMBAD [94][126]
ρ Ophiuchi A (in ρ Ophiuchi cloud complex of Scorpius OB2) 4,000 -4.285 360 4.63 (combined) 22,000 SIMBAD [127][23]
δ Persei (in α Persei Cluster) 2,860 -3.901 520 3.01 14,900 SIMBAD [128][118]
α Scorpii B (in Loop I Bubble of Scorpius OB2) 2,820 -3.885 550 5.5 18,500 SIMBAD [129][105]
α Pavonis Aa (Peacock in Tucana-Horologium association) 2,150 -3.593 180 1.94 17,700 SIMBAD [130][125]
η Tauri A (Alcyone in Pleiades) 1,820 -3.409 440 2.87 (combined) 12,300 SIMBAD [131][23]
ο Velorum (in IC 2391 of Scorpius OB2) 1,000 -2.76 490 3.6 16,200 SIMBAD [132][118]
ψ Persei (in α Persei Cluster) 775 -2.483 580 4.31 16,000 SIMBAD [128][23]
γ Canis Majoris (Muliphein in Collinder 121) 715 -2.397 440 4.1 13,600 SIMBAD [128][133]
ο Aquarii (in Pisces-Eridanus stellar stream) 340 -1.589 440 4.71 13,500 SIMBAD [128][134]
φ Eridani (in Tucana-Horologium association) 255 -1.276 150 3.55 13,700 SIMBAD [135][136]
ν Fornacis (in Pisces-Eridanus stellar stream) 245 -1.233 370 4.69 13,400 SIMBAD [137][23]
ε Chamaeleontis (in ε Chamaeleontis moving group of Scorpius OB2) 100 -0.26 360 4.91 10,900 SIMBAD [138][118]
η Chamaeleontis (in η Chamaeleontis moving group of Scorpius OB2) 95 -0.204 310 5.453 12,500 SIMBAD [128][42]
ε Hydri (in Tucana-Horologium association) 60 0.295 150 4.12 11,000 SIMBAD [139][128]
τ1 Aquarii (in Pisces-Eridanus stellar stream) 50 0.429 320 5.66 10,600 SIMBAD [128][140]
β1 Tucanae (in Tucana-Horologium association) 40 0.735 140 4.37 10,600 SIMBAD [141][105]
Sun (in Solar System) 1 4.739996 0.0000158 -26.744 5,772 IAU [142][143][144]
  1. M33-013406.63, also called LGGS J013406.63+304147.8, was thought of as a star with over 8 million luminosity in the past, but a new reference indicated that M33-013406.63 may be a binary, the primary will be reduced to about 4.5 million luminosity.
  2. Identified as a binary system, or possibly three stars. But the secondary is almost completely swamped by the primary.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Mercer 23 is an open cluster near Galactic plane.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Mercer 30 is an open cluster in Dragonfish Nebula.
  5. The paper mistakenly lists the bolometric magnitude as -10.5 instead of -11.5.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 This is a binary system but the secondary is much less luminous than the primary.
  7. VVV CL041 is an open cluster.
  8. Cl 1813-178 is an open cluster in the molecular cloud complex W33 Complex.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 VVV CL074 is an open cluster.
  10. Variable, luminosity was five times higher at outburst in 1994.
  11. Luminous blue variable, peak luminosity shown.
  12. G10.0-0.3 is a radio nebula in Galactic Center.
  13. Mercer 81 is an open cluster in the molecular cloud G338.4+0.2.
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 DBSB 179 is an open cluster in the molecular cloud G347.6+0.2.
  15. Bochum 10 is an open cluster in Carina Nebula.
  16. Blue Bubble Nebula is a Wolf–Rayet nebula around Hen 3-519.
  17. Strictly speaking, MSX5C G358.5391+00.1305 is the name of the star, Wray 17-96 is the name of the nebula.
  18. N135 is an emission nebula in Large Magellanic Cloud.
  19. DEM S10 is a H II region in Small Magellanic Cloud.
  20. FSR 1555 is a star cluster.
  21. DEM S80 is a H II region in Small Magellanic Cloud.
  22. SFC 27 is a part of the molecular cloud G291.27-0.71.
  23. BSDL 2505 is a star cluster in Large Magellanic Cloud.
  24. Vela R2 is a OB association in Vela Molecular Ridge.
  25. IC 4996 is an open cluster in Cygnus OB1.

Note that even the most luminous stars are much less luminous than the more luminous persistent extragalactic objects, such as quasars. For example, 3C 273 has an average apparent magnitude of 12.8 (when observing with a telescope), but an absolute magnitude of −26.7. If this object were 10 parsecs away from Earth it would appear nearly as bright in the sky as the Sun (apparent magnitude −26.744). This quasar's luminosity is, therefore, about 2 trillion (1012) times that of the Sun, or about 100 times that of the total light of average large galaxies like our Milky Way. (Note that quasars often vary somewhat in luminosity.)

In terms of gamma rays, a magnetar (type of neutron star) called SGR 1806−20, had an extreme burst reach Earth on 27 December 2004. It was the brightest event known to have impacted this planet from an origin outside the Solar System; if these gamma rays were visible, with an absolute magnitude of approximately −29, it would have been brighter than the Sun (as measured by the Swift spacecraft).

The gamma-ray burst GRB 971214 measured in 1998 was at the time thought to be the most energetic event in the observable universe, with the equivalent energy of several hundred supernovae. Later studies pointed out that the energy was probably the energy of one supernova which had been "beamed" towards Earth by the geometry of a relativistic jet.

See also

References

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 Bestenlehner, Joachim M.; Crowther, Paul A.; Caballero-Nieves, Saida M.; Schneider, Fabian R. N.; Simón-Díaz, Sergio; Brands, Sarah A.; De Koter, Alex; Gräfener, Götz et al. (2020). "The R136 star cluster dissected with Hubble Space Telescope/STIS. II. Physical properties of the most massive stars in R136". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 499 (2): 1918. doi:10.1093/mnras/staa2801. Bibcode2020MNRAS.499.1918B. 
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 2.21 2.22 2.23 2.24 2.25 2.26 2.27 2.28 2.29 2.30 2.31 2.32 2.33 2.34 2.35 2.36 2.37 2.38 2.39 2.40 2.41 2.42 2.43 2.44 2.45 2.46 2.47 2.48 2.49 2.50 2.51 2.52 2.53 2.54 2.55 2.56 2.57 2.58 Doran, E. I.; Crowther, P. A.; de Koter, A.; Evans, C. J.; McEvoy, C.; Walborn, N. R.; Bastian, N.; Bestenlehner, J. M. et al. (2013). "The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XI. A census of the hot luminous stars and their feedback in 30 Doradus". Astronomy & Astrophysics 558 (134): 30. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201321824. Bibcode2013A&A...558A.134D. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 Hainich, R.; Rühling, U.; Todt, H.; Oskinova, L. M.; Liermann, A.; Gräfener, G.; Foellmi, C.; Schnurr, O. et al. (2014). "The Wolf-Rayet stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud". Astronomy & Astrophysics 565: A27. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201322696. Bibcode2014A&A...565A..27H. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 Mauerhan, J. C.; Cotera, A.; Dong, H.; Morris, M. R.; Wang, Q. D.; Stolovy, S. R.; Lang, C. (2010). "Isolated Wolf-Rayet Stars and O Supergiants in the Galactic Center Region Identified Via Paschen-α Excess". The Astrophysical Journal 725 (1): 188–199. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/725/1/188. Bibcode2010ApJ...725..188M. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 Dong, H.; Wang, Q. D.; Cotera, A.; Stolovy, S.; Morris, M. R.; Mauerhan, J.; Mills, E. A.; Schneider, G. et al. (2011-10-11). "Hubble Space Telescope Paschen α survey of the Galactic Centre: data reduction and products: HST/NICMOS Paschen α survey of the GC". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 417 (1): 114–135. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.19013.x. Bibcode2011MNRAS.417..114D. https://academic.oup.com/mnras/article-lookup/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.19013.x. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Kourniotis, M; Kraus, M; Arias, M L; Cidale, L; Torres, A F (2018-11-01). "On the evolutionary state of massive stars in transition phases in M33". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 480 (3): 3706–3717. doi:10.1093/mnras/sty2087. ISSN 0035-8711. Bibcode2018MNRAS.480.3706K. https://academic.oup.com/mnras/article/480/3/3706/5063594. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 Massey, Philip; Olsen, K. A. G.; Hodge, Paul W.; Strong, Shay B.; Jacoby, George H.; Schlingman, Wayne; Smith, R. C. (2006). "A Survey of Local Group Galaxies Currently Forming Stars. I. UBVRI Photometry of Stars in M31 and M33". The Astronomical Journal 131 (5): 2478–2496. doi:10.1086/503256. ISSN 0004-6256. Bibcode2006AJ....131.2478M. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1086/503256. 
  8. Mehner, A.; De Wit, W.-J.; Asmus, D.; Morris, P. W.; Agliozzo, C.; Barlow, M. J.; Gull, T. R.; Hillier, D. J. et al. (2019). "Mid-infrared evolution of η Carinae from 1968 to 2018". Astronomy & Astrophysics 630: L6. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201936277. Bibcode2019A&A...630L...6M. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 Hamaguchi, Kenji; Corcoran, Michael F; Pittard, Julian M; Sharma, Neetika; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Russell, Christopher M. P; Grefenstette, Brian W; Wik, Daniel R et al. (2018). "Non-thermal X-rays from colliding wind shock acceleration in the massive binary Eta Carinae". Nature Astronomy 2 (9): 731–736. doi:10.1038/s41550-018-0505-1. Bibcode2018NatAs.tmp...87H. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41550-018-0505-1. 
  10. Wu, Shi-Wei; Bik, Arjan; Bestenlehner, Joachim M.; Henning, Thomas; Pasquali, Anna; Brandner, Wolfgang; Stolte, Andrea (2016-05-01). "The massive stellar population of W49: A spectroscopic survey". Astronomy and Astrophysics 589: A16. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201527823. ISSN 0004-6361. https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016A&A...589A..16W. 
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