|Systematic IUPAC name
3D model (JSmol)
|Molar mass||130.143 g·mol−1|
|Density||1.055 g cm−3 (at 20 °C)|
|Melting point||8 to 10 °C (46 to 50 °F; 281 to 283 K)|
|Boiling point||85 °C (185 °F; 358 K) at 13 mmHg|
|S-phrases (outdated)||S26, S36/37/39, S45|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
α-Ketoisocaproic acid (α-KIC) and its conjugate base, α-ketoisocaproate, are metabolic intermediates in the metabolic pathway for L-leucine. Leucine is an essential amino acid, and its degradation is critical for many biological duties. α-KIC is produced in one of the first steps of the pathway by branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase by transferring the amine on L-leucine onto alpha ketoglutarate, and replacing that amine with a ketone. The degradation of L-leucine in the muscle to this compound allows for the production of the amino acids alanine and glutamate as well. In the liver, α-KIC can be converted to a vast number of compounds depending on the enzymes and cofactors present, including cholesterol, acetyl-CoA, isovaleryl-CoA, and other biological molecules. Isovaleryl-CoA is the main compound synthesized from ɑ-KIC. α-KIC is a key metabolite present in the urine of people with Maple syrup urine disease, along with other branched-chain amino acids. Derivatives of α-KIC have been studied in humans for their ability to improve physical performance during anaerobic exercise as a supplemental bridge between short-term and long-term exercise supplements. These studies show that α-KIC does not achieve this goal without other ergogenicsupplements present as well. α-KIC has also been observed to reduce skeletal muscle damage after eccentrically biased resistance exercises in people who do not usually perform those exercises.
α-KIC has been studied as a nutritional supplement to aid in the performance of strenuous physical activity. Studies have shown that taking ɑ-KIC and its derivatives before acute physical activity led to an increase in muscle work by 10%, as well as a decrease in muscle fatigue during the early phase of the physical activity. When taken with other supplements over a two-week period, such as beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), participants reported delayed onset of muscle soreness, as well as other positive effects such as increased muscle girth. It is important to note that studies have also suggested that ɑ-KIC taken alone did not have any significant positive impacts on physical performance, so it should be taken in conjunction with other ergogenic substances. ɑ-KIC is not available as a supplement on its own, but its aminated form HMB is available in calcium salt capsules or powder.
The biochemical implications of α-KIC are largely connected to other biochemical pathways. Protein Synthesis, skeletal muscle regeneration, and skeletal muscle proteolysis have all been noted to change when ɑ-KIC is taken. There is not much research into the specific mechanisms taking part in these processes, but there is a noticeable correlation between ɑ-KIC ingestion and increased skeletal muscle protein synthesis, regeneration, and proteolysis.
Branched-chain alpha-keto acids such as α-KIC are found in high concentrations in the urine of people who suffer from Maple Syrup Urine Disease. This is disease is caused by a partial branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase deficiency, which leads to a buildup of branched-chain alpha-keto acids, including α-KIC and HMB. These keto-acids build up in the liver, and since limited isovaleryl-CoA can be produced, these keto-acids must be excreted in the urine as α-KIC, HMB, and many other similar keto acids. Flare-ups in people who have this condition are caused due to poor diet. Symptoms of Maple Syrup Urine Disease include sweet smelling urine, irritability, lethargy, and in serious cases edema of the brain, apnea, coma, or respiratory failure. Treatment includes lowering leucine intake and a specialized diet to make up for the lack of leucine ingestion.
- CID 70 from PubChem
- "International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB)". Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 10 (1): 6. February 2013. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-10-6. PMID 23374455.
- "Leucine". https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Leucine.
- Wilson, Jacob M.; Fitschen, Peter J.; Campbell, Bill; Wilson, Gabriel J.; Zanchi, Nelo; Taylor, Lem; Wilborn, Colin; Kalman, Douglas S. et al. (2 February 2013). "International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB)". Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 10 (1): 6. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-10-6. PMID 23374455.
- Zanchi, Nelo Eidy; Gerlinger-Romero, Frederico; Guimarães-Ferreira, Lucas; de Siqueira Filho, Mário Alves; Felitti, Vitor; Lira, Fabio Santos; Seelaender, Marília; Lancha, Antonio Herbert (April 2011). "HMB supplementation: clinical and athletic performance-related effects and mechanisms of action". Amino Acids 40 (4): 1015–1025. doi:10.1007/s00726-010-0678-0. PMID 20607321.
- Kohlmeier, M (May 2015). "Leucine". Nutrient Metabolism: Structures, Functions, and Genes (2nd ed.). Academic Press. pp. 385–388. ISBN 978-0-12-387784-0.
- Strauss, Kevin A; Puffenberger, Erik G; Carson, Vincent J (1993). "Maple Syrup Urine Disease". GeneReviews. University of Washington, Seattle. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1319/.
- Stevens, Bruce R. (2013). "An Overview of Glycine-Arginine-Alpha-Ketoisocaproic Acid (GAKIC) in Sports Nutrition". Nutrition and Enhanced Sports Performance. pp. 433–438. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-396454-0.00044-8. ISBN 978-0-12-396454-0.
- Someren, Ken A. van; Edwards, Adam J.; Howatson, Glyn (1 August 2005). "Supplementation with β-Hydroxy- β-Methylbutyrate (HMB) and α-Ketoisocaproic Acid (KIC) Reduces Signs and Symptoms of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Man". International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 15 (4): 413–424. doi:10.1123/ijsnem.15.4.413. PMID 16286672.
- Yarrow, Joshua F; Parr, Jeffrey J; White, Lesley J; Borsa, Paul A; Stevens, Bruce R (December 2007). "The effects of short-term alpha-ketoisocaproic acid supplementation on exercise performance: a randomized controlled trial". Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 4 (1): 2. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-4-2. PMID 17908285.
- Nissen, S.; Sharp, R. L.; Panton, L.; Vukovich, M.; Trappe, S.; Fuller, J. C. (1 August 2000). "β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyrate (HMB) Supplementation in Humans Is Safe and May Decrease Cardiovascular Risk Factors". The Journal of Nutrition 130 (8): 1937–1945. doi:10.1093/jn/130.8.1937. PMID 10917905.
- Baxter, J.H.; Carlos, J.L.; Thurmond, J.; Rehani, R.N.; Bultman, J.; Frost, D. (December 2005). "Dietary toxicity of calcium β-hydroxy-β-methyl butyrate (CaHMB)". Food and Chemical Toxicology 43 (12): 1731–1741. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2005.05.016. PMID 16006030.
- Strauss, Kevin A.; Wardley, Bridget; Robinson, Donna; Hendrickson, Christine; Rider, Nicholas L.; Puffenberger, Erik G.; Shelmer, Diana; Moser, Ann B. et al. (April 2010). "Classical maple syrup urine disease and brain development: Principles of management and formula design". Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 99 (4): 333–345. doi:10.1016/j.ymgme.2009.12.007. PMID 20061171.
- Nutrient Metabolism: Structures, Functions, and Genes (2nd ed.). Academic Press. May 2015. pp. 385–388. ISBN 978-0-12-387784-0. https://books.google.com/books?id=aTQTAAAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage. Retrieved 6 June 2016. "Energy fuel: Eventually, most Leu is broken down, providing about 6.0kcal/g. About 60% of ingested Leu is oxidized within a few hours ... Ketogenesis: A significant proportion (40% of an ingested dose) is converted into acetyl-CoA and thereby contributes to the synthesis of ketones, steroids, fatty acids, and other compounds"
Figure 8.57: Metabolism of L-leucine
Original source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Alpha-Ketoisocaproic acid. Read more