Uniform honeycomb

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Short description: Isogonal honeycomb of uniform polytope facets

In geometry, a uniform honeycomb or uniform tessellation or infinite uniform polytope, is a vertex-transitive honeycomb made from uniform polytope facets. All of its vertices are identical and there is the same combination and arrangement of faces at each vertex. Its dimension can be clarified as n-honeycomb for an n-dimensional honeycomb.

An n-dimensional uniform honeycomb can be constructed on the surface of n-spheres, in n-dimensional Euclidean space, and n-dimensional hyperbolic space. A 2-dimensional uniform honeycomb is more often called a uniform tiling or uniform tessellation.

Nearly all uniform tessellations can be generated by a Wythoff construction, and represented by a Coxeter–Dynkin diagram. The terminology for the convex uniform polytopes used in uniform polyhedron, uniform 4-polytope, uniform 5-polytope, uniform 6-polytope, uniform tiling, and convex uniform honeycomb articles were coined by Norman Johnson.

Wythoffian tessellations can be defined by a vertex figure. For 2-dimensional tilings, they can be given by a vertex configuration listing the sequence of faces around every vertex. For example, represents a regular tessellation, a square tiling, with 4 squares around each vertex. In general an n-dimensional uniform tessellation vertex figures are define by an (n–1)-polytope with edges labeled with integers, representing the number of sides of the polygonal face at each edge radiating from the vertex.

Examples of uniform honeycombs

2-dimensional tessellations
  Spherical Euclidean Hyperbolic
Main page: Uniform tilings in hyperbolic plane
Coxeter diagram CDel node 1.pngCDel 5.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png CDel node 1.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png CDel node 1.pngCDel 7.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png CDel node 1.pngCDel infin.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png
Picture Uniform tiling 532-t012.png
Truncated icosidodecahedron
Uniform polyhedron-63-t012.png
Truncated trihexagonal tiling
Truncated triheptagonal tiling.svg
Truncated triheptagonal tiling
(Poincaré disk model)
H2 tiling 23i-7.png
Truncated triapeirogonal tiling
Vertex figure Great rhombicosidodecahedron vertfig.png Great rhombitrihexagonal tiling vertfig.png Great rhombitriheptagonal tiling vertfig.png
3-dimensional honeycombs
  3-spherical 3-Euclidean 3-hyperbolic
Main page: Uniform honeycombs in hyperbolic spaceand paracompact uniform honeycomb
Coxeter diagram CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.png CDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.png CDel node 1.pngCDel 5.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.png CDel node 1.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.png
Picture Stereographic polytope 16cell.png
(Stereographic projection)
Cubic honeycomb.png
cubic honeycomb
Hyperbolic orthogonal dodecahedral honeycomb.png
order-4 dodecahedral honeycomb
(Beltrami–Klein model)
Hyperbolic 3d order 4 hexagonal tiling.png
order-4 hexagonal tiling honeycomb
(Poincaré disk model)
Vertex figure 16-cell verf.svg
Cubic honeycomb verf.svg
Order-4 dodecahedral honeycomb verf.png
Order-4 hexagonal tiling honeycomb verf.png

See also


  • George Olshevsky, Uniform Panoploid Tetracombs, Manuscript (2006) (Complete list of 11 convex uniform tilings, 28 convex uniform honeycombs, and 143 convex uniform tetracombs)
  • Branko Grünbaum, Uniform tilings of 3-space. Geombinatorics 4(1994), 49–56.
  • Norman Johnson Uniform Polytopes, Manuscript (1991)
  • Williams, Robert (1979). The Geometrical Foundation of Natural Structure: A Source Book of Design. Dover Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-486-23729-X. 
  • Grünbaum, Branko; Shephard, G. C. (1987). Tilings and Patterns. W. H. Freeman and Company. ISBN 0-7167-1193-1. https://archive.org/details/isbn_0716711931. 
  • H. S. M. Coxeter, Regular Polytopes, 3rd Edition, Dover New York, 1973
  • Critchlow, Keith (1970). Order in Space: A design source book. Viking Press. ISBN 0-500-34033-1. 
  • N.W. Johnson: The Theory of Uniform Polytopes and Honeycombs, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Toronto, 1966
  • A. Andreini, Sulle reti di poliedri regolari e semiregolari e sulle corrispondenti reti correlative (On the regular and semiregular nets of polyhedra and on the corresponding correlative nets), Mem. Società Italiana della Scienze, Ser.3, 14 (1905) 75–129.

External links