Founders of statistics
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Statistics is the theory and application of mathematics to the scientific method including hypothesis generation, experimental design, sampling, data collection, data summarization, estimation, prediction and inference from those results to the population from which the experimental sample was drawn. This article lists statisticians who have been instrumental in the development of theoretical and applied statistics.
Name  Nationality  Birth  Death  Contribution  References 

Graunt, John  English  1620  1674  Pioneer of demography who produced the first life table  ^{[1]} 
Bayes, Thomas  English  1702  1761  Developed the interpretation of probability now known as Bayesian probability  ^{[2]} 
Laplace, PierreSimon  French  1749  1827  Coinvented Bayesian statistics. Invented exponential families (Laplace transform), conjugate prior distributions, asymptotic analysis of estimators (including negligibility of regular priors). Used maximumlikelihood and posteriormode estimation and considered (robust) loss functions  
Playfair, William  Scottish  1759  1823  Pioneer of statistical graphics  
Carl Friedrich Gauss  German  1777  1855  Invented least squares estimation methods (with Legendre). Used loss functions and maximumlikelihood estimation  
Quetelet, Adolphe  Belgian  1796  1874  Pioneered the use of probability and statistics in the social sciences  
Nightingale, Florence  English  1820  1910  Applied statistical analysis to health problems, contributing to the establishment of epidemiology and public health practice. Developed statistical graphics especially for mobilizing public opinion. First female member of the Royal Statistical Society.  
Galton, Francis  English  1822  1911  Invented the concepts of standard deviation, correlation, regression  ^{[3]}^{[4]} 
Thiele, Thorvald N.  Danish  1838  1910  Introduced cumulants and the term "likelihood". Introduced a Kalman filter in timeseries  
Peirce, Charles Sanders  American  1839  1914  Formulated modern statistics in "Illustrations of the Logic of Science" (1877–1878) and "A Theory of Probable Inference" (1883). With a repeated measures design, introduced blinded, controlled randomized experiments (before Fisher). Invented optimal design for experiments on gravity, in which he "corrected the means". He used correlation, smoothing, and improved the treatment of outliers. Introduced terms "confidence" and "likelihood" (before Neyman and Fisher). While largely a frequentist, Peirce's possible world semantics introduced the "propensity" theory of probability. See the historical books of Stephen Stigler  
Edgeworth, Francis Ysidro  Irish  1845  1926  Revived exponential families (Laplace transforms) in statistics. Extended Laplace's (asymptotic) theory of maximumlikelihood estimation. Introduced basic results on information, which were extended and popularized by R. A. Fisher  
Pearson, Karl  English  1857  1936  Numerous innovations, including the development of the Pearson chisquared test and the Pearson correlation. Founded the Biometrical Society and Biometrika, the first journal of mathematical statistics and biometry  ^{[5]}^{[6]}^{[7]}^{[8]} 
Spearman, Charles  English  1863  1945  Extended the Pearson correlation coefficient to the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient  ^{[9]} 
Gosset, William Sealy (known as "Student")  English  1876  1937  Discovered the Student t distribution and invented the Student's ttest  ^{[10]} 
Anderson, Oskar Johann Viktor (also known as Anderson, Oskar Nikolaevich)  Russian, Bulgarian, German  1887  1960  A leading representative of the socalled Continental School of statistics. Invented the variate difference method for analyzing time series at the same time but independently from Gosset. A pioneer of random sampling in demographics and of quantitative methods applied to socioeconomic sciences.  ^{[11]}^{[12]}^{[13]}^{[14]} 
Fisher, Ronald  English  1890  1962  Wrote the textbooks and articles that defined the academic discipline of statistics, inspiring the creation of statistics departments at universities throughout the world. Systematized previous results with informative terminology, substantially improving previous results with mathematical analysis (and claims). Developed the analysis of variance, clarified the method of maximum likelihood (without the uniform priors appearing in some previous versions), invented the concept of sufficient statistics, developed Edgeworth's use of exponential families and information, introducing observed Fisher information, and many theoretical concepts and practical methods, particularly for the design of experiments  ^{[15]}^{[16]}^{[17]} 
Bonferroni, Carlo Emilio  Italian  1892  1960  Invented the Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons  
Wilcoxon, Frank  IrishAmerican  1892  1965  Invented two statistical tests: Wilcoxon ranksum test and the Wilcoxon signedrank test  
Neyman, Jerzy  PolishAmerican  1894  1981  Discovered the confidence interval and codeveloped the Neyman–Pearson lemma  ^{[18]} 
Deming, W. Edwards  American  1900  1993  Developed methods for statistical quality control  ^{[19]} 
Pearson, Egon  English  1895  1980  Codeveloped the Neyman–Pearson lemma of statistical hypothesis testing  ^{[20]} 
de Finetti, Bruno  Italian  1906  1985  Pioneer of the "operational subjective" conception of probability. Used this as the basis for exposition of the Bayesian method of statistical analysis. Developed the representation theorem for exchangeable random variables showing that they are the basis of the IID model in statistics.  
Kendall, Maurice  English  1907  1983  Codeveloped methods for assessing statistical randomness; invented Kendall tau rank correlation coefficient  
Blackwell, David  American  1919  2010  Codeveloped RaoBlackwell theorem and wrote one of the first Bayesian textbooks, Basic Statistics.  ^{[21]} 
Rao, Calyampudi Radhakrishna  Indian  1920  Codeveloped Cramér–Rao bound and Rao–Blackwell theorem, invented MINQUE method of variance component estimation.  ^{[22]}^{[23]}  
Cox, David  English  1924  2022  Developed the proportional hazards model for the analysis of survival data  ^{[24]} 
Efron, Bradley  American  1938  Invented the bootstrap resampling technique for deriving an empirical distribution of an estimate of a model parameter  ^{[25]} 
Founders of departments of statistics
The role of a department of statistics is discussed in a 1949 article by Harold Hotelling, which helped to spur the creation of many departments of statistics.^{[26]}
Year  Country  University  Founder  References 

1911  England  University College London  Pearson, Karl  ^{[6]} 
1929  Sweden  Lund University  Sven Dag Wicksell  ^{[27]} 
~1931  India  Indian Statistical Institute  Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis  ^{[28]} 
~1931  USA  Columbia University  Hotelling, Harold  ^{[29]} 
1935  USA  George Washington University  Weida, Frank  ^{[30]}^{[31]} 
1941  USA  North Carolina State University  Cox, Gertrude  ^{[32]} 
1942  Sweden  Uppsala University  Wold, Herman  ^{[33]} 
1947  USA  Department of Biometry and Statistics, Cornell University  Federer, Walter T.  ^{[34]}^{[35]}^{[36]} 
1948  USA  Stanford University  —  ^{[37]} 
1948  India  University of Mumbai  M. C. Chakrabarti  ^{[38]} 
1949  USA  University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill  —  ^{[39]} 
1949  USA  Virginia Tech  Harshbarger, Boyd  ^{[40]} 
~1950  Sweden  Stockholm University  —  ^{[41]} 
1950  Israel  Hebrew University of Jerusalem  —  ^{[42]} 
1953  India  University of Pune  Huzurbazar, V. S.  ^{[43]} 
1955  USA  University of California, Berkeley  Neyman, Jerzy  ^{[44]} 
1957  USA  Harvard University  Cochran, William G. Mosteller, Frederick 
^{[45]}^{[46]} 
1957  Australia  University of Sydney  Lancaster, Henry Oliver  ^{[47]} 
1958  USA  University of Minnesota  —  ^{[48]} 
1959  USA  Florida State University  Ralph A. Bradley  ^{[49]}^{[50]} 
1960  USA  University of Wisconsin–Madison  George E. P. Box  ^{[51]} 
1962  USA  Texas A&M University  Hartley, Herman Otto  ^{[52]} 
1963  USA  Yale University  Anscombe, Francis  ^{[53]}^{[54]} 
1963  USA  Purdue University  —  ^{[55]} 
1964  Bangladesh  Institute of Statistical Research and Training  Hussain, Q.M.  ^{[56]} 
1965  USA  University of Iowa  Hogg, Robert V.  ^{[57]} 
1966  Scotland  University of Glasgow  Aitchison, John Silvey, David 
^{[58]} 
1967  Canada  University of Waterloo  Sprott, David A.  ^{[59]} 
1968  USA  Pennsylvania State University  Bartoo, James  ^{[60]} 
1969  India  Madras Christian College  Gift Siromoney  ^{[61]} 
1969  Hong Kong  University of Hong Kong  Saw Swee Hock  ^{[62]}^{[63]} 
1970  USA  Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington School of Public Health  —  ^{[64]} 
1973  USA  Ohio State University  Whitney, D. Ransom  ^{[65]} 
1973  Germany  Universität Dortmund  Eicker, Friedhelm  ^{[66]} 
1975  India  Aligarh Muslim University  S.M. Ali  ^{[1]} 
1979  Canada  University of Toronto  Donald A. S. Fraser  ^{[67]} 
1981  India  Vidyasagar University  Gain, Anil Kumar  ^{[68]} 
1982  Hong Kong  Chinese University of Hong Kong  Tong, Howell  ^{[69]} 
1984  India  Banaras Hindu University  Singh, S.N.  
1985  USA  University of Illinois UrbanaChampaign  Sacks, Jerome  ^{[70]} 
1986  USA  Northwestern University  Meyer Dwass  ^{[71]} 
1987  USA  Rice University  James R. Thompson  ^{[72]} 
1988  England  University of Oxford  Hinkley, D. V.  ^{[73]} 
1994  New Zealand  The University of Auckland  Scott, Alastair Seber, George 

1996  USA  University of Virginia School of Medicine  Harrell, Frank E.  ^{[74]} 
1997  USA  University of Pittsburgh  Sampson, Allan R.  ^{[75]} 
1998  USA  University of California, Los Angeles  Jan de Leeuw  ^{[76]} 
See also
 List of statisticians
 History of statistics
 Timeline of probability and statistics
 List of people considered father or mother of a scientific field
References
 ↑ Willcox, Walter (1938) The Founder of Statistics. Review of the International Statistical Institute 5(4):321–328.
 ↑ "Thomas Bayes". Figures from the History of Probability and Statistics. University of Southampton. http://www.economics.soton.ac.uk/staff/aldrich/Figures.htm#ba.
 ↑ "Francis Galton". Figures from the History of Probability and Statistics. University of Southampton. http://www.economics.soton.ac.uk/staff/aldrich/Figures.htm#gal.
 ↑ "Sir Francis Galton F.R.S: 1822–1911". http://galton.org/.
 ↑ "Pearson, Karl". Statisticians in History. American Statistical Association. 30 November 2016. http://www.amstat.org/about/statisticiansinhistory/index.cfm?fuseaction=biosinfo&BioID=18.
 ↑ ^{6.0} ^{6.1} "Karl Pearson (1857  1936)". Department of Statistical Science – University College London. http://www.ucl.ac.uk/stats/department/pearson.html.
 ↑ "Karl Pearson". School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews. 2003. http://wwwgroups.dcs.stand.ac.uk/%7Ehistory/Biographies/Pearson.html.
 ↑ John Aldrich (2008). "Karl Pearson: A Reader's Guide". University of Southampton. http://www.economics.soton.ac.uk/staff/aldrich/kpreader.htm.
 ↑ Williams, RH, Zimmerman, DW, Zumbo, BD & Ross, D (2003). "Charles Spearman: British Behavioral Scientist". Human Nature Review 3: 114–118. http://humannature.com/nibbs/03/spearman.html.
 ↑ "William Sealy Gosset". Figures from the History of Probability and Statistics. University of Southampton. http://www.economics.soton.ac.uk/staff/aldrich/Figures.htm#stu.
 ↑ Strecker, Heinrich; Strecker, Rosemarie (2016). "Oskar Anderson". Encyclopedia of Mathematics. SpringerVerlag GmbH, Heidelberg. http://www.encyclopediaofmath.org/index.php?title=Anderson,_Oskar&oldid=39172.
 ↑ O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F. (May 2000), "Oskar Johann Viktor Anderson", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews, http://wwwhistory.mcs.standrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Anderson.html.
 ↑ Sheynin, O.B. (1970). "Anderson, Oskar Johann Viktor". Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 1. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 154–155. ISBN 9780684101149. https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionariesthesaurusespicturesandpressreleases/andersonoskarjohannviktor.
 ↑ "Oskar Anderson". ChristianAlbrechtsUniversität zu Kiel, Famous scholars from Kiel. http://www.unikiel.de/grosseforscher/index.php?nid=anderson&lang=e.
 ↑ "Fisher, R.A.". Statisticians in History. American Statistical Association. 30 November 2016. http://www.amstat.org/about/statisticiansinhistory/index.cfm?fuseaction=biosinfo&BioID=16.
 ↑ "R.A. Fisher". Figures from the History of Probability and Statistics. University of Southampton. http://www.economics.soton.ac.uk/staff/aldrich/Figures.htm#fis.
 ↑ "A Guide to R. A. Fisher". http://www.economics.soton.ac.uk/staff/aldrich/fisherguide/rafreader.htm.
 ↑ "Neyman, Jerzy". Statisticians in History. American Statistical Association. http://www.amstat.org/about/statisticiansinhistory/index.cfm?fuseaction=biosinfo&BioID=11.
 ↑ "Deming, W. Edwards". Statisticians in History. American Statistical Association. 30 November 2016. http://www.amstat.org/about/statisticiansinhistory/index.cfm?fuseaction=biosinfo&BioID=4.
 ↑ "Pearson, Egon S.". Statisticians in History. American Statistical Association. http://www.amstat.org/about/statisticiansinhistory/index.cfm?fuseaction=biosinfo&BioID=24.
 ↑ William Grimes (17 July 2010). "David Blackwell, Scholar of Probability, Dies at 91". The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/17/education/17blackwell.html. "His “Basic Statistics” (1969) was one of the first textbooks on Bayesian statistics, which assess the uncertainty of future outcomes by incorporating new evidence as it arises, rather than relying on historical data. He also wrote numerous papers on multistage decisionmaking."
 ↑ Degroot, Morris H. (1987). "A Conversation with C. R. Rao". Statistical Science 2: 53–67. doi:10.1214/ss/1177013438.
 ↑ Kruse, Megan. "C.R. Rao Receives National Medal of Science". http://www.amstat.org/about/statisticiansinhistory/index.cfm?fuseaction=biosinfo&BioID=13.
 ↑ Wermuth, Nanny; Anthony C. Davison; Dodge, Yadolah (2005). Celebrating Statistics: Papers in honour of Sir David Cox on his 80th birthday (Oxford Statistical Science Series). Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198566540. OCLC 185035518.
 ↑ Casella, George (2003). "Introduction to the Silver Anniversary of the Bootstrap". Statistical Science 18 (2): 133–134. doi:10.1214/ss/1063994967.
 ↑ Harold Hotelling (1988). "Golden Oldies: Classic Articles from the World of Statistics and Probability: 'The Place of Statistics in the University'". Statistical Science 3 (1): 72–83. doi:10.1214/ss/1177013002.
 ↑ "About the department" (in en). 20230814. https://www.stat.lu.se/en/about.
 ↑ Ghosh, JK (1994). "Mahalanobis and the Art and Science of Statistics: The Early Days". Indian Journal of History of Science 29 (1): 90.
 ↑ Hotelling, Harold. American Statistical Association Statisticians in History. http://www.amstat.org/about/statisticiansinhistory/index.cfm?fuseaction=biosinfo&BioID=7. Retrieved 22 May 2009.
 ↑ "Collection: Statistics Department records  George Washington University". https://searcharchives.library.gwu.edu/repositories/2/resources/634.
 ↑ "George Washington University, Department of Statistics" (in en). 20221210. https://www.niss.org/affiliates/georgewashingtonuniversitydepartmentstatistics.
 ↑ "Cox, Gertrude M.". Statisticians in History. American Statistical Association. http://www.amstat.org/about/statisticiansinhistory/index.cfm?fuseaction=biosinfo&BioID=2.
 ↑ Herman Wold was appointed Professor of Statistics at Uppsala University in 1942. Already, in 1928, a Swedish Doctor of Philosophy ("Filosofisk Doktorsgrad") was awarded (to P. George Winsler); in 1910, a Professor's Chair in "Statistics" was created^{[yespermanent dead linkdead link}}]}.
 ↑ "Department of Biological Statistics and Computational Biology: History". Cornell University. http://www.bscb.cornell.edu/history.php.
 ↑ A. S. Hedayat (2005). "A Conversation with Walter T. Federer". Statistical Science 20 (3): 302–315. doi:10.1214/088342305000000142. http://projecteuclid.org/DPubS/Repository/1.0/Disseminate?view=body&id=pdfview_1&handle=euclid.ss/1124891294.
 ↑ Susan S. Lang (18 April 2008), Walter T. Federer, father of Cornell's statistics department, dies at 92, Cornell Chronicle, http://www.news.cornell.edu/stories/2008/04/waltertfedererfatherstatisticsdepartmentdies92
 ↑ Stephen M. Stigler (1999). "The Foundations of Statistics at Stanford". The American Statistician 53 (3): 263–266. doi:10.1080/00031305.1999.10474470.
 ↑ Dixit, Ulhas J.; Satam, Meena R. (1999). Dedicated to MC Chakrabarti, Book (Papers)  Statistical Inference and Design of Experiments. Narosa Publishing House. ISBN 9788173192814. https://books.google.com/books?id=xkoMtO8d6zIC&pg=PP9.
 ↑ "UNC School of Public Health – School history". 2008. http://www.sph.unc.edu/school/school_history.html.
 ↑ Arnold, Jesse C (2000). "Virginia tech department of statistics: the first fifty years". Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation 66 (1): 1–17. doi:10.1080/00949650008812008.
 ↑ "About us  Department of Statistics" (in en). https://www.su.se/departmentofstatistics/aboutthedepartment/aboutus.
 ↑ "Historic background" (in en). https://en.stat.huji.ac.il/history.
 ↑ "19531960". University of Pune. http://stats.unipune.ernet.in/hist3.html.
 ↑ E. L. Lehmann (1996). "The creation and early history of the Berkeley Statistics Department". Statistics, probability and game theory. Institute of Mathematical Statistics Lecture Notes – Monograph Series. 30. pp. 139–146. doi:10.1214/lnms/1215453570. ISBN 9780940600423. http://projecteuclid.org/DPubS/Repository/1.0/Disseminate?view=body&id=pdf_1&handle=euclid.lnms/1215453570.
 ↑ "Cochran, William G.". American Statistical Association Statisticians in History. http://www.amstat.org/about/statisticiansinhistory/index.cfm?fuseaction=biosinfo&BioID=21.
 ↑ Mosteller, Frederick. American Statistical Association Statisticians in History. 30 November 2016. http://www.amstat.org/about/statisticiansinhistory/index.cfm?fuseaction=biosinfo&BioID=10.
 ↑ "Obituary: Emeritus Professor Henry Oliver Lancaster, AO FAA". The University of Sydney News. 2002. http://www.maths.usyd.edu.au/u/About/lancaster.htm.
 ↑ "History" (in en). https://cla.umn.edu/statistics/about/history.
 ↑ "The Department  Department of Statistics". https://stat.fsu.edu/department.
 ↑ Hollander, Myles (20010201). "A conversation with Ralph A. Bradley". Statistical Science 16 (1). doi:10.1214/ss/998929483. ISSN 08834237.
 ↑ "History of the Department of Statistics" (in enUS). https://stat.wisc.edu/departmenthistory/.
 ↑ History, Department of Statistics. Texas A&M University. http://www.stat.tamu.edu/history.php. Retrieved 2 May 2009.
 ↑ Wolfgang Saxon (25 October 2001). "Francis John Anscombe, 83, Mathematician and Professor". New York Times. https://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D01E6DD1231F936A15753C1A9679C8B63.
 ↑ Barbara (Amato) Kuslan (2002). "The History of the Yale University Department of Statistics 1963–2000". http://www.stat.yale.edu/history/HistoryAmato.html.
 ↑ "Purdue University  Department of Statistics  History". https://www.stat.purdue.edu/about/history/index.html.
 ↑ "ISRT, University of Dhaka: Homepage". http://www.isrt.ac.bd/.
 ↑ Randles, Ronald Herman (2007). "A Conversation with Robert V. Hogg". Statistical Science 22 (1): 137–152. doi:10.1214/088342306000000637. Bibcode: 2007arXiv0708.3974R.
 ↑ Department of Statistics Celebrates its 40th Birthday. University of Glasgow. 2006. http://www.gla.ac.uk/departments/statistics/aboutus/news/40thbirthday/.
 ↑ "History, Mission, & Vision  Statistics and Actuarial Science" (in en). https://uwaterloo.ca/statisticsandactuarialscience/about/historymissionvision.
 ↑ "Fifty years of statistics at Penn State  Penn State University" (in en). https://www.psu.edu/news/academics/story/fiftyyearsstatisticspennstate/.
 ↑ Statistics  Welcome to MCC. https://mcc.edu.in/statistics/.
 ↑ "Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, HKU  History". https://saasweb.hku.hk/history.php.
 ↑ "Error: no
title=
specified when using {{Cite web}}". https://www.stat.nus.edu.sg/people/sawsweehockprofessorshipofstatistics/.  ↑ "History  Biostatistics". https://www.biostat.washington.edu/about/history.
 ↑ "OSU Oral History Interview with D. Ransom Whitney – University Archives". http://library.osu.edu/sites/archives/manuscripts/oralhistory/whitney.php.^{[yespermanent dead linkdead link}}]}
 ↑ Eine Chronik des Fachbereichs Statistik, 1994, http://www.statistik.unidortmund.de/fileadmin/user_upload/Studium/Fachschaftsrat/Omega/1994_Chronik.pdf
 ↑ "University of Toronto Department of Statistics: About Us". http://www.utstat.utoronto.ca/pagecontent/index.php?pageid=47.
 ↑ Gain, Anil Kumar. "Founder of the University". http://vidyasagar.ac.in/About/AKGayen.aspx.
 ↑ "ViceChancellor's Report August 1982July 1985, p.5". http://www.iso.cuhk.edu.hk/ebook/index.html#ui=en&lang=en&issue_id=729&page=12.
 ↑ "History of the Department  Statistics at Illinois". https://stat.illinois.edu/footer/historydepartment.
 ↑ "Department History: Department of Statistics and Data Science  Northwestern University" (in en). https://statistics.northwestern.edu/about/departmenthistory.html.
 ↑ "History of Rice University Statistics Department". https://statistics.rice.edu/about/history.
 ↑ "Brief History of the Establishment of Statistics at Oxford". http://www.stats.ox.ac.uk/about_us/statistics_in_oxford.
 ↑ "Frank E. Harrell Jr., Ph.D. – Vanderbilt Kennedy Center People". http://kc.vanderbilt.edu/site/people/10515/harrellfrank.aspx.
 ↑ "Allan R. Sampson, founding chair of Pitt's Statistics Department". https://www.pittwire.pitt.edu/passings/allanrsampsonfoundingchairpittsstatisticsdepartment.
 ↑ Ylvisaker, Donald (2016). "Jan de Leeuw and Statistics at UCLA" (in en). Journal of Statistical Software 73 (9). doi:10.18637/jss.v073.i09. ISSN 15487660. http://www.jstatsoft.org/v73/i09/.
External links
 "Statisticians in History". American Statistical Association. 30 November 2016. https://magazine.amstat.org/statisticiansinhistory/.
 "Life and Work of Statisticians". Department of Mathematics, University of York. http://www.york.ac.uk/depts/maths/histstat/lifework.htm.
 "Portraits of Statisticians". Department of Mathematics, University of York. http://www.york.ac.uk/depts/maths/histstat/people/welcome.htm.
 John Aldrich. "Figures from the History of Probability and Statistics". University of Southampton. http://www.economics.soton.ac.uk/staff/aldrich/Figures.htm.
 Lawrence H. Riddle. "Biographies of Women Mathematicians". Agnes Scott College. http://www.AgnesScott.edu/lriddle/women/women.htm.
 StatProb – peerreviewed encyclopedia sponsored by statistics and probability societies
Original source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Founders of statistics.
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