Astronomy:Bamberg (crater)

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Short description: Crater on Mars
Bamberg crater 673B58.jpg
Viking Orbiter 2 image with Bamberg at right
Coord|inatesCoordinates: 39°43′N 356°54′E / 39.71°N 356.9°E / 39.71; 356.9
Diameter55.7 km (34.6 mi)

Bamberg is an impact crater in the Mare Acidalium quadrangle of Mars. It is named after the town Bamberg in Germany .[1] CTX images and HiRISE images from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter have shown that the crater contains gullies. Martian gullies are believed to have formed through rather recent flows of liquid water.

Gullies are visible in the pictures below. On the basis of their form, aspects, positions, and location amongst and apparent interaction with features thought to be rich in water ice, many researchers believed that the processes carving the gullies involve liquid water. However, this remains a topic of active research. As soon as gullies were discovered,[2] researchers began to image many gullies over and over, looking for possible changes. By 2006, some changes were found.[3] Later, with further analysis it was determined that the changes could have occurred by dry granular flows rather than being driven by flowing water.[4][5][6] With continued observations many more changes were found in Gasa Crater and others.[7] With more repeated observations, more and more changes have been found; since the changes occur in the winter and spring, experts are tending to believe that gullies were formed from dry ice. Before-and-after images demonstrated the timing of this activity coincided with seasonal carbon-dioxide frost and temperatures that would not have allowed for liquid water. When dry ice frost changes to a gas, it may lubricate dry material to flow especially on steep slopes.[8][9][10] In some years frost, perhaps as thick as 1 meter.

The crater Dein is south of Bamberg. Between the two are a number of small craters named Gwash, Lutsk, Gaan, Chom, and Cruz.

See also


  1. "Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature | Bamberg". International Astronomical Union. 
  2. Malin, M., Edgett, K. 2000. Evidence for recent groundwater seepage and surface runoff on Mars. Science 288, 2330–2335.
  3. Malin, M., K. Edgett, L. Posiolova, S. McColley, E. Dobrea. 2006. Present-day impact cratering rate and contemporary gully activity on Mars. Science 314, 1573_1577.
  4. Kolb, et al. 2010. Investigating gully flow emplacement mechanisms using apex slopes. Icarus 2008, 132-142.
  5. McEwen, A. et al. 2007. A closer look at water-related geological activity on Mars. Science 317, 1706-1708.
  6. Pelletier, J., et al. 2008. Recent bright gully deposits on Mars wet or dry flow? Geology 36, 211-214.
  7. NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory. "NASA orbiter finds new gully channel on Mars." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 22 March 2014.
  8. "NASA Spacecraft Observes Further Evidence of Dry Ice Gullies on Mars". 
  9. "HiRISE | Activity in Martian Gullies (ESP_032078_1420)". 
  10. "Gullies on Mars Carved by Dry Ice, Not Water". 16 July 2014. 

External links